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Political science honors thesis umich

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Art history: Compare and Contrast essay. There are a few suggested words when it comes to political science honors umich art analysis that is used. These depend on themes such as texture, color, mood and dbq 19 essays, message, space, style as well as composition. Most untrained analysts focus on the aspects of individual objects in science umich paintings rather than the relationships between the pictorial elements that abide in vs movie paintings and this suggests that they hold representational accuracy to be far more important than the political science thesis umich, design used in judging the aesthetics of a visual composition (Nodine Locher 226). The art work on display for analysis in the assignment will be judged according to a 1 essay the relationships between the pictorial themes that were stated previously. Each pictorial theme or element has several aspects which are used to describe the painting. For example, in the painting shown below: This piece is science honors called Nude Descending a Staircase created by Marcel Duchamp.

The monochromic work was mostly in yellow and the shades displayed a quiet ‘Cubist’ style that the painter Marcel had come to adopt. As for the rest of the composition, the painting does little background expect the illusion of the dark staircase. Rather than use the causes, embodiment of sensuality common with expressionism, the artist uses 20 or so pictorials of a mechanical structure that are placed in array over the stair-case. Going along with the political thesis, ‘cubist style, it is also hard to distinguish whether the figure silhouetted against the dark background is physically a man or a woman. Racism! The artist seems to portray a struggle within a person, which could be anything from conflicting anger to guilt or confusion. The painting ultimately lets one attain their perspective of the conflict source. Political Honors! On the other hand, the composition can be described as elegant and symmetrical following the strokes at the bottom of the page (Compare and Contrast 3).

They give an edge of chaos but upon careful examination seem quite calculated. As it pertains directly to the wild an emotional or philosophical subject, the science thesis, painting would thus be categorized as abstract, allowing different perspectives on the same subject. The painting is referred to as the into the wild book vs movie, Les Demoiselles d’Avignon done by Pablo Picasso and is said to have been the piece that got him the ultimate title of Picasso in the first place. The piece was done in 1907 during the peak of the expressionist movement. What is political honors thesis umich immediately recognizable is the unabashed presence of five females. The title itself may present a sense of youth though; this is not presented in the composition. For example, the faces are angular and sharp and two of the women are wearing masks. This gives them an intense, if not severely wild aura. Uk! Many people believe the inspiration from the thesis umich, piece came from a 1 essay, a visit to honors thesis umich Africa, where the artist got in-touch with the nature. Liberal, though it may be, the painting does not necessarily exude crassness by critical final exam quizlet, depicting nude beings as the artist’s sways from detailing their private organs. Some paintings like Michelangelo in the middle ages were not as shy.

The liberal nature of the political science honors, art piece represents a playful nature as concerns the mood. The expression is found through the nudity of the characters exuding a mood of openness because they literally have nothing to hide, without the bluest eye essay, sexual focus to their genitals involved. As concerns distortion though, the art definition of the honors umich, term ascribes to a change made by the artist to a 1 essay size proportion or the general manner of a form based on the visual perception when the forms are assembled to make an image. In both cases, one could say that the level of distortion is quite high in both art works. For example, the forms in the first painting are clashed against each other with a lot of rough edges and sharp corners involved. This creates the mood of chaos, but organized chaos nonetheless. The second painting does not have as much distortion involved though, as most of the characters are separate by themselves. However, if one looks closely, the figures of the honors thesis umich, characters have been altered. The body parts are dismembered in some cases. For example, a hand is not in the right position or a leg is facing at an incorrect angle.

These are minute cases but distortion in both paintings refers to emotional subscriptions. This is also known as expressionism which is a term used to describe the use of distortion and exaggeration for the purposes of emotional effect. When one applies this in a stylistic sense it refers to the use of intense color or agitated brush strokes; case in a 1 essay point here would be the first painting. Expressionism refers to an artistic style where the artist attempts to depict not only the objective reality but the subjective emotions and the reality that objects and situations invoke within him. In the case of the second painting, he probably felt the desire to show freedom of expression in the true sense. The first painting refers to a conflicting time within a person’s personality, hence the release of stress through agitated strokes. Thus, the artist accomplishes what he wants through distortion as well as exaggeration and honors thesis, primitivism and fantasy that were depicted in the latter painting.

In the broader sense of a 1 essay terms, expressionism is one of the main currents of the art movement during the later nineteenth and early twentieth century (Rouault 2). The qualities of the style are highly subjective and self expressive as detailed through the science honors thesis umich, two art works. The two paintings substitute visual mage reality as the a 1 essay, accurate representation of the real meaning to emotions brought forth.

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Research on Hemophilia Essay Sample. The word Hemophilia is derived from two Greek words haima, blood, and umich philein, to the wild book essay, love – and, despite being senseless in the description of science, excess bleeding, it remains in general use. In the older literature various names have been used, e.g. hemorraphilia, hematophilia, hemorrhea, hemorrhagophilia, idiosyncrasia haemarrhagica and morbus haematicus. This first use of the world ‘hemophilia’ is of world essays attributed to honors, Schonlein, who gave a dissertation entitled Die Hamophiliet at Wurzburg in writing programs 1828. The disease is now called haemophilia A or classic haemophilia and is due to political, deficient activity of antihemophilic factor (AHF, antihemophilic globulin (AHG) or factor VIII. A variety has been described which is called Christmas disease in the UK but in Europe and the USA is often called haemophilia B or plasma thromboplastin component (PTC) deficiency. This is due to deficient activity of Christmas factor (CF, PTC or factor IX). The clinical manifestations of these two diseases are essentially similar and no differentiation is made between them with regard to bleeding tendency. It is probable that genetically determined bleeding disorders are as old as time but they seem to have been neglected by the Egyptian, Romans and Greek physicians. The earliest documented case of a familial bleeding disorder occurs in the fourth-century Talmud and in Rabbinic writings thereafter.

Perhaps the most famous hemophilic family internationally is into that of Queen Victoria, who in 1853 gave birth to her eighth child, Leopold, Duke of Albany, and he was a haemophiliac. In addition to this, two of her daughters proved to be carriers. It can truly be said that the result of the transmission of haemophilia into the royal families of Europe had a profound effect on the course of European history. Nowhere is this more poignant than in the case of Alexandra, who became the consort of Tsar Nicholas the Second of Russia, who produced Alexis, a severely affected haemophiliac, in 1904. In Victoria’s family there was no evidence of any ancestor with hemophilia and it must be presumed that the disease was due to mutant gene. The proponent aims to: 1. compare and contrast the differences of hemophilia A and hemophilia B. 2. Honors Thesis? explain how hemophilia is diagnosed. 3. explain the complications that may arise if hemophilia is not diagnosed early. The proponent endeavors to provide answers to the following:

1. What are differences between hemophilia A and hemophilia B? 2. How is hemophilia diagnosed? 3. What are the complications that may arise if hemophilia is not diagnosed early? A comparison and contrast pattern arranges information according to how two or more things are similar to or different from into the wild book, one another (or both). This is an effective pattern to political science thesis umich, use when the reader can better understand one subject when it is described in relation to another. Into Book? If the reader is familiar with one topic, the writer can compare or contrast it with another topic to shed insight on it. The proponent will be using compare and contrast for the topic “Hemophilia” by comparing “Hemophilia A” and “Hemophilia B”.

This principle of organization will present the similarities and differences between these two types of hemophilia which are clinically almost identical. The proponent thinks that Comparison and Contrast would be an effective way for honors thesis developing this paper about the topic “Hemophilia”. Factor VIII only affect men Factor IX. Deficiency Deficiency have a genetic mutation on the X chromosome 1 in 5,000 1 in 30,000. Males affects all people of all Males races and ethnics. Both types of hemophilia is into the wild book caused by thesis umich, the lack of clotting factor in the blood which makes them bleed internally, mainly into muscles and joints Both types of bomb introduction, hemophilia is caused by the lack of clotting factor in the blood which makes them bleed internally, mainly into muscles and joints globally. Hemophilia is a rare disease wherein it slows down the political science, process of blood clotting. If you have hemophilia, you may bleed for a longer time than others after an injury. It has its two major forms – Hemophilia A and Hemophilia B. Both have several similarities and differences as well as its various characteristics as of some of which seen in the framework above.

Both are diagnosed in the same way except only that they have different factors which they lack in the blood in order for a 1 essay it to political thesis, have a normal blood clotting process. This disease is causes of world essays already known and does have remedies and thesis diagnoses. Critical Thinking Final? But one thing I can say, we do not yet what effects does this kind of disease bring about if a person with hemophilia is not diagnosed at an early time as this disease is political honors thesis very critical for it does not have any permanent or stable treatment at this moment in time with the given present level of technology. We will be able to know it as this paper is creative enriched with further researches and studies with the help of the political thesis, principle of organization – comparison and contrast. The word Hemophilia is derived from two Greek words haima, blood, and philein, to love – and, despite being senseless in the description of excess bleeding, it remains in general use. Hemophilia is the critical thinking final quizlet, term given to honors thesis, a bleeding disorder wherein the creative, person experiences bleeding spontaneously or following after an injury (Forbes, 1997, 3).

Nature of Hemophilia. Hemophilia is the political umich, oldest known hereditary bleeding disorder. There are two types of hemophilia, A and B. Low levels or complete absence of a blood protein essential for clotting causes this disorder. Patients with hemophilia A lack the blood clotting protein, factor VIII, and those with hemophilia B lack factor IX. War 1 Essays? Approximately 85% have hemophilia A and the remainder has hemophilia B. The severity of honors thesis, hemophilia is related to the amount of the clotting factor in the blood.

About 70% of hemophilia patients have less than one percent of the normal amount and, thus, have severe hemophilia. A small increase in book vs movie the blood level of the clotting factor, up to five percent of normal, results in mild hemophilia with rare bleeding except after injuries or surgery (Kemball-Cook, 1997,21). How Hemophilia is science honors thesis umich inherited. Hemophilia types A and B are inherited diseases passed on from a gene located on the X chromosome; therefore it is dbq 19 causes essays a sex-linked disease. About 70% of all individuals with hemophilia A or B inherited the disease. The other 30% have hemophilia because of political honors thesis, a spontaneous genetic mutation. Females have two X chromosomes, while males have one X and one Y chromosome. A female carrier of hemophilia has the hemophilia gene on one of her X chromosomes, and there is a 50 percent chance that she may pass the defective gene to a 1 essay, her male offspring. Males who inherit the defective gene will develop hemophilia. Males with hemophilia do not pass the gene to their sons; however, they do pass the gene to science thesis umich, their daughters. Females who inherit the defective gene will become carriers who may, in a 1 essay turn, have a 50 percent chance of political thesis umich, passing it on to their children.

Although females who inherit the gene generally have no active problems related to hemophilia, some may have other problems associated with bleeding, such as excessive menstrual bleeding, frequent or severe nosebleeds, or bleeding after dental procedures or surgery. In about bomb introduction one-third of hemophilia cases, there is no family history of the disease. These cases are due to a new or spontaneous development of the defective gene in the female. In the political thesis, rare event of a hemophiliac father and a carrier mother, the right combination of parental chromosomes will result in a hemophiliac female child. This situation, however, is extraordinarily rare. The vast majority of individuals with either hemophilia A or B, then, are male. As mentioned earlier, about 30% of dbq 19 causes war 1 essays, all individuals with hemophilia A or B are the first members of their families to ever present with the disease. These individuals had the unfortunate occurrence of a spontaneous genetic mutation, meaning that early in development, some random genetic accident befell their X chromosome, resulting in the defect causing hemophilia A or B (Yhe, 1997, 229).

Why Hemophiliacs Bleed. The ability to stem blood loss after vascular injury is vital for all vertebrate species. Essentially simultaneously, escape of blood through the gap created by minimal vascular damage is normally staunched by platelets, a nuclear cells that arise from the break-up of the of the cytoplasm of megakaryocytes, a process stimulated by a trace plasma polypeptide, thrombopoeitin, that promotes both the proliferation and differentiation of megakaryocyte progenitor cells. The platelets form a mechanical plug that can seal minor breaches in the vascular wall. Platelets do this by sticking to honors thesis, the edges of severed vessels, to exposed sub endothelial structures such as collagen, and to each other. Adhesion of platelets to these structures is enhanced by plasma von Willebrand factor, a protein deficient in von Willebrand’s disease that reacts with a specific receptor on platelet membranes, glycoprotein. Contact of platelets with the creative, collagen induces activation of these cells which release biologically active agents from their cytoplasmic granules that enhance the formation of platelet aggregates. The bridges between the aggregated platelets are composed of fibrinogen molecules that bind to specific glycoprotein receptors, GPIIb/IIIa, on the platelet surfaces. Thesis Umich? The adherent and aggregated platelets clump rapidly, forming a hemostatic plug that can close small gaps in the walls of vs movie, blood vessels. Platelet aggregation is brought about by a cyclic endoperoxide, thromboxane A2, a derivative of arachidonic acid that is released from the platelet membrane phospholipids when these cells have been stimulated by collagen, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or other agonists.

Essentially simultaneously, gaps in the vascular wall are closed by generation of a blood clot, that is, by transformation of science honors, liquid blood to a gel-like coagulum, which consolidates the platelet aggregates. Contributing to the generation of a clot when platelets become activated are changes in the platelet surface that make procoagulant phospholipoproteins available. Coagulation of blood at the site of injury can diminish or halt blood loss from a 1 essay, vascular defects larger than those that can be controlled by platelets alone. When bleeding occurs into a closed space such as the tip of a finger or toe, blood loss is minimized by the back-pressure of extravastated blood; the important of this device can be appreciated by political, the extensive loss of blood that may occur in bluest eye essay otherwise normal individuals after injury to periorbital tissues or to an intraperitoneal vessel. In these situations, the accumulated shed blood usually does not provide sufficient back-pressure to stop blood flow. Science Honors Thesis Umich? Extravascular pressure may also be important in limiting bleeding within joint spaces.

In the special case of the uterus, bleeding after delivery is further controlled by atomic bomb essay introduction, contraction of the myometrium, applying external pressure on blood vessels at the site of the avulsed placenta. A similar mechanism may participate in the control of science thesis umich, menstrual bleeding. The importance of blood coagulation for racism in the the control of bleeding is political science thesis readily understood from the hemorrhagic tendency of individuals with hereditary clotting defects. Clotting is the end-result of a series of thinking quizlet, chemical events that are initiated upon science umich, contact of blood with either injured tissue or with negatively charged surfaces such as glass. Perturbation of blood in these ways starts sequential reaction that result, in bluest eye essay the end, in science honors umich the release of a plasma protease, thrombin that brings about coagulation. At each step, a plasma protein clotting factor undergoes limited proteolysis that results in its conversion to a form with enzymatic activity until, in the end; prothrombin is racism bluest cleaved proteolytically, releasing enzymatically active thrombin. A characteristic of science honors umich, these clotting factors is that they may have multiple functions, suggesting that their role has been determined by dbq 19 of world, the forces of evolution (Ratnoff, 1997, 7).

Factor VIII. The hemostatic system, consisting of the blood vessels and their content, blood, plays a crucial role in human survival. Political Honors Thesis? The importance of the plasma coagulation system in protecting life by preventing further blood loss following transection of a blood vessel is well recognized. Blood is usually maintained in a fluid state, without evidence of bleeding or clotting. The presence of an X-linked pattern of inheritance of writing programs uk, a bleeding diathesis in families, referred to as hemophilia, has been recognized for political science thesis umich hundreds of years. That hemophilia is due to a deficiency of a factor (F) in the blood was proven in 1840 by correction of the bleeding defect with transfusion of whole blood; this was followed in 1911 by the demonstration that normal plasma could shorten the whole blood clotting time of hemophilic blood. Then, in 1937, a factor from normal plasma was shown to be effective in accelerating the coagulation of hemophilic blood, and the term antihemophilic globulin was coined; this protein is bomb introduction now referred to science thesis, as factor VIII-C (FVIII-C). Further progress was achieved in the 1950s with the development of critical thinking quizlet, cryoprecipitate and plasma concentrates to treat hemophilia A (FVIII deficiency).

The clinical and therapeutic observation that clotting time was corrected after transfusion of blood from one hemophilic patient to another was followed by the description of “plasma thromboplastin component” or factor IX deficiency. Political Umich? This second type of deficiency was referred to final exam, as hemophilia B to differentiate it from hemophilia A. Clarification of the science honors thesis, structure and function of the into, factor VIII molecule (FVIII-C, an X-linked gene product, also known as antihemophilic globulin) noncovalently bound to von Willebrand factor (vWF, an autosomal 12p gene product) in plasma clarified the separate roles of factor VIII-C (antihemophilic globulin) and von Willebrand factor proteins. This led to an understanding of the role of the different components of the political science honors, factor VIII molecule in the physiology of normal hemostasis and to a recognition that hemophilia A and von Willebrand disease were caused by a deficiency of different proteins in a 1 essay the factor VIII complex. An understanding of the reasons for the development of factor VIII inhibitors in persons with hemophilia or in persons with previously normal hemostasis (referred to as acquired hemophilia) expanded understanding of the antigenic structure of the factor VIII molecule. Cloning of the thesis, factor VIII gene was followed by the preparation of recombinantly derived factor VIII (rFVIII) as replacement therapy for the missing factor. Creative Writing? Several different vectors have now been used to thesis, correct factor VIII deficiency in atomic essay introduction humans, with many questions still to be resolved. The potential role of increased levels of factor VIII in thrombophilic states continues to be explored.

Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) are associated with various autoimmune complications and several manifestations of autoimmunity. Acquired hemophilia is rare in childhood even though autoantibodies may develop in various forms of primary immunodeficiency diseases. However, acquired hemophilia may rarely form factor VIII inhibitors in patients with undefined primary immunodeficiency disease features that are suggestive of political science umich, autosomal recessive hyper-immunoglobulin (Ig) E syndrome (Berntorp, 1997, 181). The most significant breakthroughs in comprehending the mechanisms associated with coagulation first came from an understanding of the critical thinking final exam, individual causes of the political umich, bleeding disorders. The recognition in 1952 that hemophilia B was due to atomic introduction, a deficiency of a coagulation factor followed the discovery that hemophilia A was caused by the deficiency of another clotting factor. Also termed Christmas disease, hemophilia B is an X-linked inherited bleeding disorder, usually manifested in science honors thesis males and transmitted by a 1 essay, females when they carry the abnormality on the X chromosome.

Hemophilia B is caused by a deficiency or dysfunction of factor IX (FIX) resulting from political science honors umich, a variety of defects in a 1 essay the FIX gene. FIX deficiency is 4-6 times less prevalent than factor VIII (FVIII) deficiency. The newspaper item below demonstrates what appears to be a late 19th-century record of hemophilia passed from science honors thesis, mother to sons. Mutations in human coagulation factor IX that cause hemophilia B may be classified as severe, moderately severe and mild based on the plasma levels of factor IX among affected individuals ( 1%, 2-5%, 6-30%, respectively). Recently, hemophilia B was shown to be a disease with mutations showing clinical variation (Lusher, 1997, 203). Diagnosis of essay, Hemophilia A and B Carriers.

Hemophilia A and political honors thesis umich B are X-linked diseases where precise carrier detection and bomb essay prenatal diagnosis are increasingly an integral part of care of the political science honors thesis umich, patient and family. Carrier assessment can be made in dbq 19 causes essays several ways: 1. Political Science Honors Thesis? Clinical diagnosis based on an individual’s bleeding history in a family where haemophilia has been diagnosed. 2. Diagnosis within a family with haemophilia based upon writing, a detailed family tree where no uncertainties (e.g. questions of paternity) are present. 3. Diagnosis based on reduced levels of political science honors thesis umich, plasma factor VIII (FVIII) or factor IX (FIX). 4. Genetic diagnosis by vs movie essay, analysis of the FVIII or FIX genes within families either by political science honors thesis umich, polymorphism-based gene tracking (linkage analysis) or mutation detection (Goodeve, 1997, 63). Clinical and phenotypic diagnosis of carrier status. Female carriers of dbq 19 causes of world war 1, haemophilia A or B have generally inherited their abnormal FVIII or FIX gene from one of their parents, together with a normal gene. Thus, on average, carriers of severe disease, where affected males have very low or undetectable levels of FVIII or FIX, will have a plasma levels around 50% of normal. Carriers of science thesis umich, milder conditions will tend to have levels greater than 50%, since the defective gene will be able to produce some clotting factor. Bleeding symptoms may be present in carriers if their plasma factor level is below 40%.

This generally occurs as a result of extreme lyonization, although other rare possibilities, including homozygosity, Turner’s syndrome and co-inheritance of von Willebrand’s disease should be considered. The starting point for any family study in haemophilia must be an accurate family tree, showing the precise relationship between affected and non-affected family members. The nature of the inherited condition (haemophilia A or B) must be certain and final exam the ethnic background of the family may also be important. With good family data it may be immediately possible to exclude or include carrier status in certain females. Thus, carriership can be excluded for a female if haemophilia only occurs in her paternal family and her father has haemophilia or she has more than one hemophilic son or she has one affected son and her family includes a well-documented haemophiliac on her maternal side. The remaining females within a hemophilic family should be considered to be possible carriers, particularly on political science honors thesis, families where the individual concerned has one hemophilic son and no family history of the disease (isolated cases). Dbq 19 War 1 Essays? The assignment to a possible carrier of thesis, a probability of carriership is the essence of carrier detection and is only book, absolute when the precise genetic defect within the FVIII or FIX gene has been identifies within her family and herself.

Conversely, the absence of the mutation confers to the status of non-carrier. Political Science Umich? However, the procedures necessary for such diagnoses are unavailable to the majority of the world’s hemophilic families at present and dbq 19 causes of world essays phenotypic methods are still widely used in carrier analysis. The assessment of carrier status based on a family tree is calculated using anterior and descendent pedigree information to political thesis, calculate an overall probability or odds of critical thinking final, carriership of 1.0 (obligate carrier), and her daughters a probability of 0.5. Honors? Her granddaughters will have a probability of 0.25 (0.5?0.5) (Goodeve, 1997, 64). Complications that may arise from the treatment. • Deep internal bleeding – Hemophilia may cause deep muscle bleeding that leads to swelling of a limb. The swelling may press on nerves and lead to numbness or pain. Creative? This may result in a reluctance to use that limb. • Damage to joints – Internal bleeding may also put pressure on and damage joints. Pain sometimes may be severe, and political thesis umich you may be reluctant to dbq 19 causes of world essays, use a limb or move a joint. If bleeding occurs frequently and you don’t receive adequate treatment, the irritation may lead to thesis umich, destruction of the joint or the development of arthritis.

• Infection – People with hemophilia are more likely to receive blood transfusions and are at greater risk of receiving contaminated blood products. Until the quizlet, mid-1980s, it was more likely for people with hemophilia to become infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or with hepatitis through contaminated blood products. Since then, blood products are much safer because of steps taken to political honors umich, screen the supply of causes of world war 1 essays, donated blood. Science Honors Umich? The risk of infection through blood products also has decreased substantially since the a 1 essay, introduction of genetically engineered clotting products called recombinant factors, which are free of infection. However, it’s still possible for people who rely on blood products to contract diseases. Political Honors Umich? If you have hemophilia, consider receiving immunization against hepatitis A and B. • Adverse reaction to clotting factor treatment – In some people with hemophilia, the immune system sees these clotting factor treatments as foreign. When this happens, the immune system develops proteins that inactivate the clotting factors used to treat bleeding. Researchers are investigating treatments to dampen the immune system’s response and allow continuing treatment with clotting factors (Rickard, 1997, 53). Proposition 1: Hemophilia is the oldest known hereditary bleeding disorder. The earliest documented case if hemophilia occurs in the fourth century Talmud and in Rabbanic writings thereafter.

This bleeding disorder is essay introduction as old as time but they seem to have been neglected by the Egyiptian, Roman, and Greek physicians (Kemball-Cook, 1997, 21). Proposition 2: Patients with hemophilia A lack the blood clotting protein. Political Science? Favtor VIII. Hemophilia A is the most common type of hemophilia. It is also known as factor VIII deficiency or classic hemophilia. Factor VIII is an essential blood clotting factor also known as anti-hemophilic factor (AHF). In humans, Factor VIII is encoded by the F8 gene. Defects in this gene results in hemophilia A, a well-known recessive X-linked coagulation disorder (Kemball-Cook, 1997, 21). Proposition 3: Patients with hemophilia B lack the blood clotting protein. Favtor IX. Hemophilia B is the second most common type of hemophilia.

It can also be known as factor IX deficiency, or Christmas disease. Factor IX is produced as a zymogen, an in the bluest inactive precursor. It is processed to remove the science umich, signal peptide, glycosylated and then cleaved by factor XIa (of the contact pathway) or factor VIIa (of the tissue factor pathway) to dbq 19 of world, produce a two-chain form where the chains are linked by science honors thesis umich, a disulphide bridge (Kemball-Cook, 1997, 21). Proposition 4: The severity of thinking final quizlet, hemophilia is related to the amount of the clotting factor in the blood. Political Science Thesis Umich? About 70% of hemophilia patients have less than one percent of the a 1 essay, normal amount, and, thus, have severe hemophilia. Umich? A small increase in the blood level of the clotting factor, up to five percent of normal, results in mild hemophilia with rare bleeding except after injuries or surgery (Yhe, 1997, 229). Proposition 5: Hemophilia is a sex-linked disease. Factor VIII and factor IX are located on the long arm of the X chromosome. Females have two X chromosomes, while males have one X and one Y chromosome.

A female carrier of hemophilia has the hemophilia gene on one of here X chromosomes, and the wild book there is political science thesis a 50 percent chance that she may pass the defective gene to her male offspring (Yhe, 1997, 229). Proposition 6: Males who inherit the defective gene will develop hemophilia. Males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome. If they acquire a defective X chromosome, they will surely have hemophilia for they only have a single X chromosome (Yhe, 1997, 229). Proposition 7: Females who inherit the racism bluest eye essay, defective gene will become carriers who may, in turn, have a 50 percent chance of passing it on to their children. Females have two X chromosomes. If they acquire a defective X chromosome, they will still not have the disease for they have another X chromosome that will prevent them from having the political, disease. Thus, there will only racism in the bluest eye essay, be a probability that they will pass this defective gene on to her male offspring (Yhe, 1997, 229). Proposition 8: The ability to stem blood loss after vascular injury is political honors umich vital for all vertebrate species.

Blood clotting is very important to thinking final exam, all vertebrate species for it stops the blood from coming out of our body. Political Honors Umich? If will not be able to in the bluest eye essay, clot blood, it will continuously bleed out until we run out of it and die (Ratnoff, 1997, 7). Proposition 9: When bleeding occurs in honors thesis a closed space such as the tip of a finger or toe, blood loss is less. This is such because of the back-pressure of extravastated blood which pushes the blood back at eye essay, the same time while it is political science thesis umich bleeding out (Ratnoff, 1997, 7). Proposition 10: Extravascular pressure may also be important in limiting bleeding with joint spaces. In the special case of the uterus, bleeding after delivery is dbq 19 causes of world war 1 essays further controlled by contraction of the myometrium, applying external pressure on blood vessels at the site of the avulsed placenta. Honors Thesis Umich? A similar mechanism may participate in the control of menstrual bleeding (Ratnoff, 1997, 7).

Proposition 11: The hemostatic system, consisting of the blood vessels and a 1 essay the blood, plays a crucial role in human survival. Blood is a body fluid that delivers essential substances like nutrients and oxygen to the cells of the body. Blood also transports carbon dioxide and other waste products away from the political thesis, cells, to the lungs, kidneys, and digestive system; from there they are removed from the body. Our body has billions of cells that need regular supply of fuel and oxygen to function. Blood meets these requirements and ensures proper functioning of cells, thus, also making sure that our body keeps in good health (Berntorp, 1997, 181). Proposition 12: Factor IX deficiency is 4-6 times less prevalent than factor VIII deficiency.

1 in thinking quizlet 5,000 males worldwide are born with hemophilia A, while 1 in 30,000 males worldwide are born with hemophilia B (Lusher, 1997, 203). Proposition 13: Hemophilia carrier assessment can be made in several ways. There are number of ways in order to know or evaluate whether someone is thesis umich a possible carrier of a 1 essay, hemophilia or not. One is based upon science, the detailed family tree where no uncertainties are present (Goodeve, 1997, 63). Proposition 14: The starting point for any family study in hemophilia must be and accurate family tree. An accurate family tree is needed in showing the into the wild, precise relationship between affected and non-affected family members. Science Thesis? The nature of the inherited condition must be certain and ethnic background of the book vs movie, family may also be important (Goodeve, 1997, 64). Proposition 15: Hemophilia may cause deep muscle bleeding that leads to swelling of a limb.

The swelling may press on nerves and political science honors umich lead to numbness or pain. This may result in a reluctance to use that limb (Rickard, 1997, 53). Proposition 16: Patients with hemophilia who undergo liver transplantation are cured of their hemophilia. This is because factor VIII and factor IX are synthesized in the liver. FIX is produced by hepatocytes. The exact site of vs movie essay, synthesis of FVIII in the liver is unknown (Rickard, 1997, 53). Proposition 17: Patients with hemophilia should not be deprived of political science honors umich, engaging in dbq 19 of world war 1 essays sports. Those with hemophilia are still recommended to engage in sports and various physical activities in umich order to have a healthy lifestyle, however, they are advised to avoid sports that may cause them to bleed (Rickard, 1997, 55). Proposition 18: People with hemophilia are at greater risks of receiving contaminated blood products. Until the mid-1980s, it was more likely for people with hemophilia to become infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or hepatitis through contaminated blood products (Rickard, 1997, 56). Proposition 19: People with or without hemophilia just have the same life expectancy.

Hemophilia doesn’t affect one’s life span as long as it is diagnosed and treated as early as possible. One’s lifespan depends on his lifestyle and way of living (Rickard, 1997, 58). The proponent tried to compare and contrast the differences and similarities of the two major types of hemophilia. The proponent concludes that there is really no permanent treatment to hemophilia; however, patients undergoing liver transplant are cured of a 1 essay, their disease. Hemophilic patients’ life expectancy is just the same as those people without hemophilia as long as it’s given proper treatment every time. Hemophilic patients should not be deprived of being engaged in political honors sports, but are recommended take sports with less physical contact and refrain from bleeding. There are certain facts that the two types of hemophilia are different in some of bluest, its aspects. Science Honors Thesis Umich? First, the reason why patients with hemophilia A and hemophilia B bleeds is because they lack protein factors in a 1 essay their blood. Thesis Umich? The former lacks in factor VIII while the into the wild vs movie essay, latter lacks in science thesis factor IX. Second, factor IX deficiency is 4-6 times less prevalent than factor VIII deficiency for there is only 1 person with hemophilia A in every 5,000 males; on the other hand, there is 1 person with hemophilia B in every 30,000 males. However, the two main types of the a 1 essay, disease also have their similarities as it is almost clinically identical in nature.

Both types of hemophilia only political umich, affect men because this is a sex-linked disease and into essay is found in political science honors umich the X chromosome. And men have an XY chromosome, so if they acquired a defected X chromosome, they will surely acquire the disease. A 1 Essay? Unlike on the case of the women, they have an XX chromosome, so if they acquired a defected X chromosome, they still have another X chromosome which can protect them from having the disease. This disease affects all people of science honors thesis umich, all races and ethnics globally. For further study, I recommend the readers to writing programs, continually research for the disease hemophilia specifically their treatment and diagnoses. Political Honors? At the causes, present time with the science umich, given present level of technology, there is still no permanent treatment for this disease.

What we have are just merely “remedies” which cures the disease only for a certain period of time but it doesn’t really cure it permanently. Howard, M. (2002). Hematology. United Kingdom: Harcourt Press. Essay? Waterbury, L. (1996). Hematology. USA: Vicks. Forbes, C.D. Science Umich? (1997).

HEMOPHILIA. UK: Alden Press Ltd. Aledort, L. (1997). HEMOPHILIA. London: Chapman Hall. Li, S. (2008). Atomic? Electroporation Protocols Preclinical and Clinical Medicine. Totowa, New Jersey: Humana Press. Tefferi, A. (2001). Primary Hematology.

Totowa, New Jersey: Humana Press. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Research on Hemophilia. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Research on Hemophilia. 1. Why will you want to monitor his fluid status very carefully? C.W has a past medical history of congestive heart failure (CHF). According to an article on Johns Hopkins… Stem Cell Research Controversy: Argumentative Essay.

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Research paper on into the wild vs movie, stroke. Strokes have been around for thousands of years. Hippocrates recognized and political science honors thesis umich described what we now call strokes as the onset of sudden paralysis. In ancient times stroke was called apoplexy…

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15 Sample Athletic Resumes and Letters. (I’ve added other resources since I originally published this article so I#8217;m now up to 22 samples. Recently, I#8217;ve only been adding resources that offer something other than a generic resume template. Political Science Umich. However, if I come across a great sample only resume, I#8217;ll be sure to programs uk, include it.) There are plenty of samples of political, athletic resumes/profiles on dbq 19 war 1 the internet. It’s just tedious going through all the search results to find something useful. Well, I’ve just saved you the trouble–you can thank me later. And yes, you should have an athletic resume. If for no other reason, having the political science thesis umich, resume will allow you to easily complete all of the online profiles teams require prospects to complete. This way the dbq 19 causes essays, information will be all in one place. The following is a list resources I’ve found and honors thesis actually opened and looked at.

I’ve divided them into critical exam two sections, the political science honors, first has some sort of additional recruiting information along with the samples. The second section includes just sample resume and letters. Racism In The Bluest. With the exception of the umich, first document, they are in no particular order. The resources in the samples only causes of world war 1 essays, section aren’t any better or worse than those that provide some sort of guide as well. In fact, I’ve included some even if I didn’t think they were so great (and indicate such) so you might only open these to use for comparison purposes. I didn’t include just one best because sometimes you’ll find the best solution for you is to use a little something from a variety of sources. For all of these sources, be sure to double-check with the NCAA and science honors umich NAIA for the latest information since very few of these guides are updated on a regular basis. The College Planning Guide for Student Athletes by the New Hampshire Higher Education Assistance Foundation Network. This is one resource I recommend everyone download. It includes a sample resume and cover letter but so much more. It provides an of world, overview of the political science honors, different NCAA divisions along with the percentage of athletes going pro.

There is creative writing uk, a sample in-season Division 1 athlete schedule to show the time commitment required. Other information includes Recruitment: Myths Facts; Tips for Campus Visits; Marketing Yourself; and a comprehensive list of important terms. Team Evanston College Soccer Recruitment Guide for Parents and Players. Comprehensive guide for political science honors soccer recruiting. Includes usual timelines, samples, and contact info but also explains different college umbrella organizations and basic financial aid information. West Islip High School Guide to the College Bound Athlete. Critical Final Quizlet. Comprehensive guide including profile, sample letter, and science honors umich questions to ask.

Contains information on 2016 eligibility changes and New York state specific schools. St. Ignatius College Prep Planning Guide for the College Bound Student Athlete. Comprehensive guide that includes a checklist grid you can use for tracking your recruiting contacts with colleges. Only sample letter I’ve come across that actually mentions graduation rates. Academy of the a 1 essay, Holy Cross The NCAA College: What You Need to political science honors thesis, Know About Playing Competitive Sports in College. Contains a sample volleyball resume and cover letter.

Overall guide to recruiting process and includes the most recent changes in the NCAA academic eligibility rules. South Windsor A College Admissions Guide for the Student Athlete. Essay. From 2007 so double-check the NCAA information. Political Science Honors. Includes sample letters of introduction, 2 resumes, questions to ask, detailed timelines, and a 1 essay addresses core course rule. Peddie School A Guide for College Bound Student-Athletes. Basic overview with an explanation on the National Letter of Intent.

Includes sample athletic resume (useful), sample letter (useful), questions to ask, and check list. Knoxville Catholic High School College Athletics and Recruiting Handbook. Detailed description of the umich, recruiting process. Provides numbers of players who make it to the next level and programs what it means when a coach contacts you. Includes a sample letter, sample athletic resume, and sample follow-up letter. Deerfield High School College Bound Student-Athlete Planning Guide. Honors Thesis Umich. Good, concise overview of the recruiting process.

Includes sample resume, sample letter, checklists, timeline, and questions to ask. Collegiate Soccer Academy Soccer Resume. Only resume I#8217;ve seen that includes an a link to a video setup as an image so that it look embedded. Website also includes pre- and post-tournament sample letters to college coaches as well as other resources. Racism. Montgomery County Public Schools The Student Athlete#8217;s Game Plan. Like other guides, the NCAA information is probably dated. However, besides the sample letter and profiles, it includes a section on the role of school personnel in the application process.

Capital Area Soccer League College Guide and College Letter Samples. Overview of the recruiting process with sample letter and resume. Includes section directed to parents and political honors thesis umich useful Questions and causes of world war 1 Answers section. NCSA Writing a Recruiting Resume. Includes how to political honors umich, write an introduction, what academic information to include as well as specific information for football, basketball, baseball, soccer, volleyball, and softball. Dbq 19 War 1. T20 Aquatics. Basic sports resume for a swimmer. Provides sample correspondence with coaches for monthly updates, unofficial visit, and post-recruit trip.

My College Tracker. Includes a sample letter and profile. I wouldn’t use them. Political Honors Thesis Umich. The profile is just basic headings. The letter is too generic and comes across as you not knowing anything about the into book vs movie, coach, school, or recruiting rules. Gateway Region Volleyball Sample Athletic Resume. The focus is volleyball but still a good example to use. Orinda Aquatics Sports Resume, Cover Letter Correspondence. Word document that has a sample resume, coaches letter, and samples of other letters to political science, keep the coach updated including a thank you letter. (In links after Junior Year) Campolindo High School Sample Student-Athlete Resume. Nothing special but some might find the sample letter useful.

Chesapeake Lacrosse Sample Resume and Cover Letters. Basic sample letter and resume. Dbq 19 Causes Of World. Midwest Water Polo Sample Resume and Cover Letter. I think the letter is a little over political honors done but might be helpful for people looking for causes war 1 essays different phrases. Humble Sample Athletic Resume. Something to look at if only for formatting ideas. This is the format for the profile I used for my son (DIY Profile). Castro Valley Soccer Club PDF soccer resume template. Nice set-up for club members since they only have to fill-in the blanks. Make Sure You Send Your Profile to the Schools Will Recruit You. (Try the sample spreadsheet below) [#8230;] together a player profile that you can mail or email a coach as a follow-up to your phone [#8230;] [#8230;] are a variety of ways to format an political science honors thesis umich, athletic profile for baseball. And, yes, you want to have an athletic profile you can print out the wild essay or email to political honors thesis umich, [#8230;] [#8230;] of this assumes that you have an a 1 essay, athletic profile as well as video available.

If you don#8217;t, take care of it before you make the phone call. [#8230;] [#8230;] questionnaire until they#8217;re actually being recruited, they need to honors umich, make sure they include the relevant information on their own profiles. But they can probably skip listing their [#8230;] [#8230;] 15 Sample Athletic Resumes and Letters [#8230;] [#8230;] 15 Sample Athletic Resumes and racism in the bluest Letters No matter the sport, you#8217;re going to have to put together an athletic resume that shows your accomplishments. There is no #8220;right#8221; way to do it but it must be done. This post has links to useful examplesfind the one that works for you. [#8230;] [#8230;] together your athletic profile so it can be easily [#8230;] [#8230;] academic resume is not the same thing as an athletic profile which is a necessary part of the honors thesis umich, athletic recruiting [#8230;] [#8230;] 15 Sample Athletic Resumes and Letters Michelle Kretzschmar of war 1 essays, DIY College Rankings has put together an excellent listing of resources to help with athletic recruiting resumes, but these resources also so much more to help with the athletic recruiting process. Political Honors. [#8230;] You must be logged in to post a comment.

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essay voip All online transactions are done using all major Credit Cards or Electronic Check through either PayPal™ or Moneybookers™. These are safe, secure, and political honors thesis, efficient ways to make payment online. Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP) refers to the transmission of voice using IP networks that are packet switched. VOIP is one of the most essential emerging technologies that facilitate business communications. Creative Programs? Just like with other emerging technologies, VOIP suffers a potential for security threats (Aggelou 100). The architecture implemented by the VOIP is significantly different from the traditional telephony that is circuit based; these architectural differences are the core causation of security threats in VOIP. Low operational costs and increased flexibility are one of the most important advantages associated with VOIP for the business enterprise. However, the science honors implementation of VOIP should not be implemented without taking into consideration security problems that VOIP introduces (Bates 74). A common misconception observed in many organizations is that since VOIP is digitalized, they just plug the components into the existing network architecture. VOIP is time critical and it has low tolerance with respect to disruption and losses in packets, the security strategies that are deployed in conventional telephony systems cannot be used in VOIP in its present architecture (Black 89), this means that firewalls and systems for intrusion detection has to be customized for the VOIP architecture, which are presently using a proprietary protocol and the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP).

The design and implementation of VOIP on existing network architectures requires a careful security analysis. In addition, the integration of writing VOIP in a network that is already overloaded is likely to science honors thesis, impose serious issues for the organization (Bates 79). There is of world no single solution that can address all the security challenges of VOIP. This paper addresses the challenges associated with VOIP security at the Business Fusion Ltd, which mainly relies on VOIP for commercial purposes. In addition the paper outlines the counter strategies that can be implemented in order to ensure security in science honors, the VOIP systems of the organization. VOIP systems can take diverse forms including the conventional telephone handsets, mobile units and conferencing units.

Other components that have been implemented within the organization to facilitate the use of VOIP include call processors, gateways, routers, firewalls and various protocols. Many of the components of the atomic essay VOIP systems are mostly integrated with the existing data communications frameworks. However, implementing an effective VOIP system requires the addition of special VOIP hardware and software to the existing data network (Aggelou 41). In addition, the integration of VOIP services into the existing data networks imposes various performance complications on the data network, which are magnified by the security vulnerabilities imposed by VOIP (Tanenbaum 48). Quality of political science thesis umich Service is critical a core requirement for the functionality of a VOIP system that is required to meet the quality of political science honors thesis umich expectations of the end users. The challenge is that the implementation of the security measures in VOIP systems has a significant deterioration regarding the quality of service. Causes War 1 Essays? Some of the complications include the delaying and the blocking of call set ups associated with firewall implementation, and the aspect of latency and delay variation that is due to encryption (Bates 47).

In addition, most of the political science honors thesis umich security strategies that are used in the traditional wired telephone systems. The successful operation of packet networks significantly depends on the configuration of parameters such as IP addresses and MAC addresses of the into the wild book vs movie voice terminals, router and firewall addresses and science umich, software applications that are specific to Internet telephony such as call managers and applications that are used for call routing. It is important note that the configuration parameters are mostly dynamic, especially when a VOIP service is added to the network or restarted. This increases the security vulnerability of most hardware and software components that are used to facilitate internet telephony (Bates 14). With the introduction of writing uk VOIP in an organization, there is need to increase the security strategies within the organization’s network architecture. In addition, the network security strategies have to political thesis umich, be compounded in order to protect voice and data. The internet architecture does not offer the physical security compared to a 1 essay, the phone lines. This paper outlines the potential security threats and attacks and the defenses that are relevant to VOIP. In addition, the paper also offers the appropriate security strategies that can be employed in VOIP networks (Hunt 50).

A security threat to VOIP can be described as a potential source of an unwanted incident that may impose unavailability of the telephony service, interruption of the political thesis umich IP telephony service and fraud. In this analysis, the paper discusses the into vs movie essay potential security threat that affects VOIP. The following are some of the potential security threats associated with the implementation of VOIP services at the Business Fusion Ltd. Political Honors Thesis Umich? The following are the potential sources of the security threats associated with security of the VOIP (Meghanathan 14). Masquerading attacks are usually associates with the pretence of an entity claiming to be another legitimate identity. Attacks of masquerade can results to integrity and privacy breaches. In addition, masquerading can also result to charging fraud regarding the use of IP telephony services, meaning that they are likely to increase the operational costs for the organization (Shenja 18). Attacks that are associated with masquerading are normally associated with hijacking of the wild essay a link after the establishment of thesis umich authentication by the parties. Masquerading can also be initiating using eavesdropping and constant replaying of the information that has been used for authentication (Meghanathan 14).

Malicious users and attackers can make use of a masquerading attack to obtain unauthorized access to the IP telephony services. This is normally undertaking by an identity theft of the real user and then posing as the legitimate end user on the terminal point. Replay attacks are used in obtaining the a 1 essay authentication credentials for the legitimate user, after which the attacker replays the science message that is used for authentication in order to have unauthorized access to the IP telephony service. Additionally, a masquerading attack can be used as a source of thinking exam quizlet deception of the attacker in such a manner that the IP telephony service is made unavailable for the user (Black 74). The basic form of an attack of masquerade entails the re-using of the science thesis umich username and the corresponding password that are captured in the process of atomic bomb interception or during the science honors thesis social engineering process between the hacker and the users of the dbq 19 of world essays IP telephony service (Shenja 58).

A more advanced instance of the authentication data can be captured for purposes of initiating an attack of masquerade is through using the reverse engineering of passwords techniques which is political umich mostly deployed in dbq 19 causes of world essays, cases of SIP digest authentication. In such a case, the attacker usually sends a false message or challenges to the SIP user agent located at the terminal of the intended user with the main objective of generating a list that can be used to political thesis, facilitate the process of cracking the Message Digest Algorithm 5 cryptographic hash of the passwords. An attack of masquerade can then be integrated with data alteration in order to critical final exam, have unauthorized access to the IP telephony services. This increase the security threats associated with initiating a malicious call or initiating fraud (Black 74). Masquerading attacks can impose various effects to the organization such as the privacy of the organizational information, breaches of integrity during communication, which may result to political science umich, information leakages; charging fraud may also serve to increase the operating costs for the organization (Hunt 41).

Denial of Service attacks. A Denial of Service attack is defined as an attack that is initiated with the main objective of a 1 essay imposing unavailability of a service. Political Science? A denial of service attack can be initiated at different various levels of the VOIP architecture, including the transport, server and racism, signaling levels. At the transport level, an IP level denial of service attack can be initiated through flooding the target user using techniques such as flooding and ping of death (Bates 15). Science Honors Thesis? At the server level, a denial of service attack makes the servers unusable through a modification of the information stored with the main objective of barring the users from accessing the IP telephony service. At the signaling level, a denial of the wild essay service attack may be used to overload the SIP server with a lot of invalid messages, reducing its ability to handle valid SIP messages (Tanenbaum 47). Unauthorized users can also initiate a denial of service attack through over-using the IP telephony service, as a result, affecting the quality of science honors umich service for the legitimate users. Most of the atomic bomb introduction denial of service attacks can result to a disruption of services such as attacks that are aimed at collapsing the Session Initiation Protocol signaling network (Black 74).

The SIP is vulnerable to a number of denials of science honors thesis umich service attacks such as sending of spoofed SIP messages that are used in tearing down the call. In addition, flooding the targets invite packets can be used to initiate an attack; this is final exam because of the vulnerability of the participating entities. The SIP is also vulnerable to a server overload of the honors thesis SIP messages that are illegal (Hunt 47). Denial of service attacks are a communication bottleneck to communication between the organization and other entities may impose significant quality constraints when using IP telephony services. This implies that security strategies should be implemented appropriately to racism, ensure that the availability of the IP telephony service is 100 percent (Bates 78). This is a significant organizational requirement owing to the fact that real time communication is important for the organization because its various branches are located in areas that widely separated by geographical barriers, meaning that a secure IP telephony service is only effective communication service that the organization rely on honors thesis, for communication (Bates 47). Eavesdropping is a security threat whereby an atomic bomb essay introduction attacker deploys a strategy of copying valid messages between the legitimate terminal users. This is political thesis umich a potential threat to thinking, privacy during communication, in the sense that an honors umich attacker can access the information without the required authorization through acquiring personal information concerning the source and target of the internet call. This threat imposes dire consequences to the organization because the company mainly relies on racism bluest eye essay, IP telephony services for communication with its clients and internal communication among the various company branches (Bates 78). It is usually easier to initiate an eavesdropping attack on IP telephony compared to political science, the traditional wired telephones. This form of attack is easily established using avenues such as increasing the VOIP traffic on eye essay, the Wide Local Area Network or the shared infrastructures.

Eavesdropping is a real potential security threat because of the readily available packet sniffers that have embedded codec that are used for eavesdropping calls that use the IP telephony service. Additionally, eavesdropping can also result to honors thesis umich, the alteration of the legitimate communication. Dbq 19 Causes War 1 Essays? Attackers and malicious users can make use of the data acquired using eavesdropping on the signal level to manipulate the various elements of the audio stream and establish internet calls for fraudulent reasons or speech injection into the audio stream between two communicating entities (Meghanathan 78). Eavesdropping is the political science umich most probable IP telephony threat that organizations should not underestimate. Despite the fact that SIP messages are may be encrypted because there are available standards for encryption, the racism in the significant challenge concerning the use of encrypted SIP messages is SIP interoperability.

As a result, most of the SIP messages during VOIP are not encrypted, increasing the vulnerability of the IP telephony services within the organization (Black 79). Eavesdropping attacks may impose negative consequences especially when attackers initiate speech injection to obtain information from the terminal users. This is a breach of thesis umich integrity and privacy, and may impose significant challenges to the organization if appropriate strategies are not implemented to address the potential threats due to eaves dropping. Call Quality and critical thinking final exam, Integrity issues (Bates 41). Instances of packet losses in an IP network can be recovered using retransmission. However, for the case of science honors lost VOIP packets, there are no chances of retransmission and this has significant effects on into book essay, the quality of the science voice transmission. The internet environment is increasingly facing attacks associated with denial of service. This means that as organizations are increasingly integrating their voice communications into the existing data communication platforms, their vulnerability to denial of service attacks increases. This implies that the network administrator of the organization has to ensure appropriate security within the VOIP servers.

In addition, it is vital that the organization implement appropriate security strategies at the gateway device in order to ensure that quality of service and integrity of the internet calls (Aggelou 89). Abuse of access. This is a kind of security threat whereby malicious attackers have access to the system for the wild book vs movie, various reasons such as modification, injection and causing unavailability of the system. In the context of the VOIP, abuse of access can be initiated in diverse forms such as click-to-dial services, whereby organizations call back the users through the traditional phone system (Bates 58). RECOMMENDED SOLUTIONS AND IMPLEMENTATION.

VOIP can be considered to be an science honors emerging technology, implying that it is essay complex to develop a comprehensive security strategy that can be used for addressing all the security threats that may be initiated within the infrastructure. In addition, the development of honors thesis new protocols and technologies are bound to affect the uk functionality of VOIP. Unless a universal standard for VOIP is developed, the solutions for addressing the honors umich security threats in a 1 essay, VOIP will mostly serve to address the proprietary elements, which is a limitation of the honors security strategies for business enterprises that rely on VOIP for book vs movie essay, commercial communication (Cisco 258). It is political umich important to note that the the wild book essay design and the implementation of an effective and secure VOIP is a complex task that requires critical analysis between the implications of the security strategies on the quality of political honors thesis service for VOIP. Integrating VOIP into an existing data communication infrastructure that is overburdened is likely to impose serious issues for the organization. This means that the security solutions for VOIP must be implemented in racism bluest, accordance with the network layout of the organization. The following are the recommendations for the Business Fusion Ltd concerning its implementation of VOIP (Aggelou 100). The first recommendation is science honors thesis that the use of shared media devices on a 1 essay, the VOIP networks should be avoided. Using a shared media increases the security vulnerability and allows a prospective hacker to have access to all the internet conversations across the network. In addition, this increases the complexity of reassembling the random packets into political science thesis umich a form that can be recognized for transmission. Therefore, network administrators at the company have the responsibility of undertaking regular audits in causes of world, order to make certain that there are no unauthorized devices on the network (Aggelou 47).

It is recommended that the all the VOIP traffic to and from the company be encrypted, this is a security enhancement strategy because the honors umich company’s VOIP traffic is writing uk sent via the public IP. Presently, the core consideration when using VOIP is the quality of service. Encryption of the VOIP traffic plays an political umich integral role in the mitigation of most of the a 1 essay security threats associated with VOIP. Encryption should not only political thesis umich, be implemented at the end-end level, it should also be done at the link level (Cisco 89). Despite the essays fact that end-to-end encryption requires a high processing power for the IP telephony devices, it is plays an important role in eliminating threats associated with eaves dropping and ensures integrity and quality of service.

The gateway devises should also have high processing power in order to support link encryption. In order to avoid constraints associated with quality of service due to encryption, it is vital for to encrypt only specific fields of the VOIP packets that are holding sensitive data (Bates 47). The VOIP servers used within the organization have to be locked down and be given the same security measures that are assigned to the servers that host confidential data such as database servers. Science Thesis Umich? This can be effectively implemented by segmenting the VOIP servers on book vs movie essay, the network and protecting them with a firewall application that is VOIP aware (Hunt 78). The third recommendation for the organization towards ensuring that their VOIP system is secure is science umich through building a redundant VOIP network. The significant driving force behind the implementation of thinking final quizlet VOIP and political science honors thesis, data networks on a single platform is one of the driving forces towards the increasing use of VOIP. However, the constraints associated with this integration are that there will be outages in component of the data networks. This means that the implementation plan of the VOIP should take into consideration the alternative ways of offering phone services in cases of network problems. The argument is that the phone services should function at all times even if the network is racism bluest eye essay down (Aggelou 89). Aggelou, Greg.

Mobile ad hoc networks: design and integration. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004. Bates, Donald,. Voice #038; data communications handbook. Science Thesis? New York: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2007. Black, Uyless. Voice over IP. Into The Wild Essay? New York: Prentice Hall, 1999. Cisco. IP Telephony Solutions Guide. New York: Cisco Technical Solutions Series, 2000.

Hunt, Craig. TCP/IP network administration. New York: O’Reilly Media, Inc, 2002. Meghanathan, Natarajan. Recent Trends in Network Security and Applications: Third International Conference, CNSA 2010, Chennai, India, July 23-25, . Political Science Honors Thesis Umich? New York: Springer, 2010. Shenja, Yuichi.

Information communication technologies and emerging business strategies. New York: Idea Group Inc (IGI), 2007. Tanenbaum, Andrew. Computer networks. Upper saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall Professional, 2003.