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Essay about urbanization problems

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Essay about urbanization problems

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business plan labor : Clean Fuel of Future. TABLE OF CONTENTS. 1 Project Introduction#9;* 1.1 Start-up Summary#9;* 1.2 Team Introduction#9;* 1.3 Keys to Success#9;* 2. Production Summary#9;* 2.1 Plant Location#9;* 2.2 Biodiesel Production Technology#9;* 3. Marketing Plans#9;* 3.1 Market Analysis#9;* 3.2. About Urbanization Problems! Market Trends#9;* 3.3 Marketing Strategy#9;* 3.3.1 Strategy Pyramid#9;* 3.3.2 Value Proposition#9;* 3.3.3 Competitive Edge#9;* 3.4 Strategic Alliances#9;* 3.5.1 Product Description#9;* 3.5.2 Product Performance#9;*

3.5.3 Key Advantages of Biodiesel#9;* 3.5.5 Future Products and Services#9;* 4.1 Product Assortment#9;* 4.2 Sales Strategy#9;* 4.3 Sales Scenarios#9;* 6. Risk Analysis#9;* 7. Financial Planning#9;* 7.1 Project Financing#9;* 7.2 Important Assumptions#9;* 7.3 Projected Profit and Loss Reports#9;* 7.4 Projected Balance Sheets#9;* 7.5 Projected Cash Flow Statements#9;* 7.6 Key Financial Indicators#9;* 7.7 Break-even Analysis#9;* 8. Exit Scenarios#9;* 9. Project Enhancement Opportunities#9;* Clean Fuel of Future (CFF) is a producer of renewable and environment friendly fuel, the for dissertation biodiesel, delivered from vegetable oils. The company is located in the eastern part of Ukraine, in the Poltava region, and it is intended to provide full technological cycle of production: cultivation of oil seed (rape), processing them into essay urbanization, oil and final production of biodiesel. Purpose of the women business plan is to attract investment in the creation of biodiesel production plant and rape cultivation farming. Our major advantage is the competitive price of the biodiesel, due to high productivity in essay about cultivation (the best soils in the world and favorable climate) and letter computer technician no experience, the lowest variable and fixed costs in Europe (labor, land rent, transportation, facilities, utilities, chemicals). We offer fuel with the essay about problems same performance as that of conventional diesel, at competitive price and ecologically safe. Our markets expand rapidly all over the world due to growing concerns about levels of environmental pollution and limited supply of energy sources. Cover Letter Technician! Our target customers are transport companies inside Ukraine and the Western European countries. Our team’s skills cover all aspects of creating and managing the biodiesel production project: organizing, financing, auditing, marketing, promoting business, solving technical and organizational problems.

The capacity of the plant is 5,000 tons per year, the full capacity is intended to essay be reached by the end of the second operational year. By that time, we plan 2,102,270 EUR turnover, producing 825,525 EUR profit and a positive cash flow of 602,575 EUR. To reach these goals, we need 2,000,000 EUR investment payable up-front, so as to invest it in procuring the processing equipment, agricultural machinery and chemicals. The two project launchers require 10% of the thesis initial investment by essay about the end of the third operational year and 10% of the net after tax profit in each consecutive year thereafter. Having considered these contributions, the weighted average return on investment is 23.5% from the fourth operational year. The biggest risks for investors are the unfavorable weather conditions, therefore fall in yield, but only in essay short term; in the long term, this risk is problems being offset.

CFF is a company with limited liability, which offers 80% shares for outside investor. Other 20 % owned by its founder and director, Spivak Mykhaylo. 1. Start production of biodiesel by experience usasma the end of 2003. 2. Maintain Net Profit Margin 30% with selling price no higher than that of conventional fuels. 3. Increase the sales to more than 2 million EUR by the third year. CFF is a manufacturing company dedicated to developing better energy solutions for benefit of a whole society. We bring innovative technologies and unlimited supply of energy sources without damaging and essay urbanization, polluting environment. Our product replaces conventional diesel and thesis, becomes the most perspective fuel of 21 century due to its environmental friendliness, renewability and low costs. We intend to make lucrative profit to generate a fair return for our investors and to finance continued growth and continued development in quality product. We also maintain a friendly, fair, and essay about problems, creative work environment, which respects diversity, new ideas, and hard work.

1.2 Team Introduction. Ukrainian, 35 years old, engineer with entrepreneurial and managerial experience since 1993. Worked on agricultural market for 5 years: invested in cultivation of wheat, sunflower, rape. This included complete technological cycle: form sowing to harvesting and processing grain into wheat and oil seeds into oil. Exported grain to Hungary and Russia. Custom Writing Services! Knows very well technology of oil processing and esterification. About! Worked on fuel market for 6 years: purchase, delivering and sales of diesel, lubricants, petrol; created idea and technology of this project.

More detailed Resumes can be found in the Appendix session. The key success factors in the biodiesel project are: Competitive Prices : Unless the importance of the biodiesel products is fully understood by consumers, we’ll not be able to sell it above market price of conventional diesel. Constant Product Quality : This makes sense in personal paper usasma any case but because we are first on the market, good reputation and constant conformance to performance standards of conventional diesel are especially important. Essay Urbanization! High-profile Management Team : products delivered on time, costs controlled, marketing budgets managed. The project is essay planned to serve Poltava’s and neighboring regions (see map). Total project’s area is problems approximately 30,000 square km, of for dissertation, which the total arable land is 18,000 square km, that includes 3,000 square km (300,000 ha) for rape cultivation.

Physical location of the processing plant is 30 km from Poltava, near a railroad station and about, an elevator with total storage and processing capacity of 10,000,000 tons of grain per year. Cultivation of rape-seed requires 5,000 ha of arable land and will take place on the rented fields of local agricultural enterprises. Types Conomique! Exhibit 1. Project Area. Company has the following facilities: garage for agricultural machinery with a total surface of 1,000 square meters, an administrative building of essay about problems, 100 square meters, the plant building for the biodiesel production of 1,000 square meters. Territory of the plant is fenced; available for storage and other equipment in dissertation 5,000 square meters. Exhibit 2. Biodiesel Plant. Inc. (Ohio, USA) is an authorized retailer for goods and urbanization problems, services provided by Spivak. Please review also: The process Technological Scheme can be seen in the following chart: Inc. (Ohio, USA) is an authorized retailer for goods and services provided by Spivak. Please review also: Although biodiesel can be marketed as an ordinary fuel and our calculations in the financial section are based on the present market price of conventional diesel, we believe, that most perspective customers are farms, in-city transport companies and those who need the lowest possible pollution levels in their technological processes: warehouses, owners of generators, etc. The reasoning is the following: farms are suppliers of raw materials and personal experience paper, can receive biodiesel as a payment, in-city transport companies feel constant pressure to reduce their fleets’ pollution levels and will be happy to urbanization problems buy biodiesel, other users may also need non-polluting fuel for such reasons as safety, comfort, ecological concerns. These customers will definitely choose the biodiesel against stereotypes, the conventional diesel, if the about problems product pricing is types plan conomique approximately the essay problems same in future technology essay both cases. Problems! A summary of the cover market analysis is essay urbanization given in Table 1 and Chart 1. Assumptions about annual growth are based on historical trends and the current economic situation in china thesis Ukraine. It is necessary to underline that this market segmentation does not differ significantly from that of the EU countries, our potential customers, except broader usage of biodiesel in on-highway transportation. Essay Urbanization! Columns show number of potential (corporate) users around the country (except for farms) according to statistical data: transport companies, wholesalers, and other organizations, whose annual consumption of biodiesel may exceed 1,000 EUR. For this reason, the technology market for biodiesel is worth an essay, estimated 150 million EUR in 2003, and is projected to grow at 37% per datong china thesis year.

Table 1. Market Segmentation. Chart 1. Market segmentation. Rape meal is essay about urbanization problems a by-product of oil extraction and is valued for high protein content. We are planning also to sell rape-seeds in order to stabilize cash position in the periods when production of biodiesel would be insufficient: at the end of season, between production cycles. Our primary target customers for these two types of products are agricultural enterprises of Poltava region and exporters. Women Gender Essay! The demand in this market segment, especially in the latter one, can be regarded practically unlimited in our case. The most important trend in the fuel market is the growing prices. Although with some limitations, this was true for years and seems to be accelerating due to political and economic reasons. Biodiesel prices may grow even faster, because of its “ecological friendliness” and about problems, concerns in all industrialized countries about the level of environmental pollution. It is necessary to assume, however that because of datong, a future increase in the biodiesel production over about problems, the world and possible inventions of other alternative fuels (methanol, etc), prices of biodiesel can not exceed those of future essay, petrodiesel more than 10% (as it takes place in Germany now).

We are part of the rapidly growing biofuel business, which also includes producers of heating oils and oleochems. At present, biodiesel is being produced in more than 20 plants (see Appendix , section 10.5), most of which are located in Germany, with capacities ranging from 1.000 to 80.000 tons of biodiesel per year and about, total annual production of 1.020.000 tons. In this respect, in the long term, our plant with the capacity of 5.000 tons per annum may appear uncompetitive on plan, European market. However, because production of biodiesel in countries of former Soviet Union did not start yet, we believe in rapid growth and production expansion. Essay Urbanization Problems! Market prices of biodiesel are 10-15 % higher than those of conventional diesel despite of china thesis, tax exemptions for biofuels in many European countries (Germany, France, Czech), which is explained by high labor and energy costs in Europe. Because in Ukraine they are 30-35 times less than in Europe, our project will be able to essay about urbanization problems generate competitive (5% less than market) prices for datong china thesis, such sustainable fuel, as biodiesel. Our main competitors in Ukraine are the producers of essay problems, petrodiesel.

As long as the sale of petrodiesel is subject to excise and other taxes, our product would remain competitive on the Ukrainian market. Biggest problem may appear if state imposes the women gender stereotypes above-mentioned taxes for biodiesel, which however, is highly unlikely, because of the strategic importance of alternative fuels for the country. 1. Emphasize inherent qualities of biodiesel and essay problems, focus on target markets. We must differentiate biodiesel from other fuels. We need to establish our business offering as a clear and viable alternative for our target markets. 2. Produce high quality fuel.

3. Custom Services! Offer competitive price at essay about urbanization, the level of the conventional diesel fuel. Datong China! 4. About Urbanization Problems! Create strong distribution channels to women gender stereotypes ensure stability of production. 5. Emphasize key advantages of our product. Problems! 6. Build a relationship business: long-term relationships, not single-transaction deals with customers. Dissertation! Become their fuel supply department, not just a vendor. Make them understand the value of our relationship for the whole society and economy.

7. Focus on fuel distributors and big consumers as key target markets (see Sales Strategy) For placing emphasis on about urbanization problems, quality, our main tactics are technology expertise and women stereotypes, developing our own supply network. Our specific programs for technology are continuos learning and research. Specific programs for supply include cultivation of rape-seed and cooperative agreements with local farms. Our second strategy is the essay about urbanization problems product’s low cost. Women Essay! The tactics are reaching the lowest possible cost of raw material by using most productive breeds of about, rape, fertilizers and herbicides, implementing the most effective operations in production. Stereotypes Essay! We think our value proposition is quite clear and can be quite easily distinguished from most of the others in the market. We offer ecology-friendly and renewable type of fuel at essay about urbanization problems, a reasonable market price. Our project brings also new jobs and high-technology to Ukrainian agriculture and makes a further step towards the energy independence of the stereotypes Ukrainian economy. Our most important competitive edge is entering Ukrainian agriculture and essay urbanization problems, fuel supply industry with the most advanced technologies and gaining experience and market share before the intrusion of new competitors.

We’re positioning our product for writing services, those, who need and want to essay urbanization problems use non-polluting, ecologically friendly fuel. Women Gender Stereotypes! Unlike mineral fuel, biodiesel is renewable energy source, with comparable cost and performance. We must charge appropriately for this unique type of fuel, but we want also to predict revenues as close as possible and to eliminate market risk, so we plan to sell biodiesel at current market price for petrodiesel. We depend on direct contacts as our main way to reach new buyers. As we grow, however, we need to change the way we promote ourselves: 1. Advertising: We'll be developing our core positioning message: Clean Fuel of essay urbanization problems, Future to differentiate our service from the competition. We will be using local newspaper advertising, radio, and cover letter computer no experience, cable TV to launch the initial campaign. 2. Seminars, exhibitions and other promotion and charity campaigns. We focus on essay about urbanization problems, the market need for environment friendly fuel distributed through the authorized gas filling stations. We will also maintain close relationship with transport companies and agricultural enterprises. Experience Paper Usasma! We depend on our alliance with local producers of rape-seed (and their state representative Ukrripak) to generate continuos supply of raw material in the future, with Ukrainian diesel traders (especially gas filling station and bigger regional company: Poltavanaftoproduct) to ensure stable and planned production and sales. Because we plan to essay about rent land and cultivate rape, cooperative agreement with neighboring agricultural enterprises is essential.

They are suppliers of labor force, additional raw materials and equipment. We plan to future technology outsource rape cultivation in the future, so this cooperative would be a base for creating a suppliers’ network. This cooperative would provide joint cultivation, harvesting of rape, production of vegetable oils. Creation of essay, distribution network requires a reliable and strong partner, so we plan to personal usasma start strategic cooperation with Poltavanaftoproduct, the biggest fuel trader in the region. The reasoning is the following: one of the authors already has good experience doing business with this company; the company has selling capacity (gas filling stations, delivery services, certification laboratories, etc.) of 5 million tons of fuel per year and is in good financial condition. We want underline, however, that we are not limited only by this option of cooperation: the essay about further we move, the more options would appear. Use of cover technician no experience, biodiesel in Germany increased from 10 million liters per year in 1992 to 300 million liters in 2001 with prices at petrol stations around 1.5 DM per liter. We plan cooperation with one of the essay about urbanization biggest distributor of biodiesel in Germany, company Oelmhle Leer Connemann GmbH Co, to sell our products on European market.

Four products are planned to be produced and sold (in consequent order): biodiesel, rape-seed, rape meal and rape-oil. Production starts with cultivation and harvesting of rape-seed, processing it into rape-oil with rape meal as a by-product, and ends with the final production of biodiesel from oil (see the chapter on the Technology). The explanation for cover letter no experience, such a long technological cycle is a necessity to about ensure the supply stability of the raw material, the rape-seed, to writing produce final product biodiesel of premium quality. Biodiesel is the name for the methanol-ester-based biofuel made from vegetable oils or animal fats. In this business plan biodiesel will be produced from rape-oil, but equipment could be utilized also for processing other vegetable or waste cooking fats. Rape (canola), however has proved to be a best crop for the production of biodiesel, because of high productivity and oil content (45%). Biodiesel is a clear liquid, without unpleasant odor or handling characteristics, of virtually the same viscosity as mineral fossil diesel oil. For this reason, it may be used in a standard diesel engine without additional modifications. It may also be blended with petrodiesel to improve quality of latter.

There are also examples of crude rape-oil usage (not processed into biodiesel) in specially designed diesel engines, or blended (50/50) with petrodiesel oil in about ordinary diesel engines. Biodiesel shows similar fuel consumption, horsepower, torque, and haulage properties as conventional diesel fuel and provides significant lubricity improvement over petroleum diesel fuel. Lubricity results of biodiesel and petroleum diesel using industry test methods indicate that there is a marked improvement in lubricity when biodiesel is added to conventional diesel fuel. Even biodiesel levels below 1 percent can provide up to a 30 percent increase in lubricity. Biodiesel will soften and degrade natural rubber compounds over time, so users must replace them with elastomers in gender order to use pure biodiesel in the engine. Cold weather can cloud and even gel any diesel fuel, including biodiesel, but users of a 20 percent biodiesel blend will experience even a further decrease of cold flow properties (cold filter plugging point, cloud point,) of approximately 2 to 3°C. 1. Biodiesel is the only alternative fuel that runs in about problems any conventional, unmodified diesel engine.

It can be stored exactly like petroleum diesel. 2. Biodiesel can be used alone or mixed in stereotypes any ratio with petroleum diesel. 3. The use of biodiesel can extend the life of diesel engines because it is more lubricating than petroleum diesel fuel, while fuel consumption, auto ignition, power output, and engine torque are relatively unaffected. 4. Biodiesel is safe to handle and transport because it is as biodegradable as sugar (pure biodiesel degrades 85% to problems 88% in water within 28 days), 10 times less toxic than table salt (lethal dose is greater than 17.4 g/kg body weight, while for datong china thesis, salt (NaCL) it is 1.8 g/Kg), and has a high flashpoint of about 200°C compared to about urbanization petroleum diesel fuel, which has a flash point of 70°C. Cover Computer No Experience! 5. About Urbanization Problems! Biodiesel is a proven fuel with over 20 years of use in Europe and 30 million successful US road miles. 6. Combustion of biodiesel provides over a 75- 90% reduction in environmental pollution and a 90% reduction in cancer risks. 7. Biodiesel is the datong china only alternative fuel to about urbanization problems meet all environmental and human health requirements for energy sources. The major planned source of raw material is rape-seed. To ensure stability of supply, we are planning to cultivate them on 5,000 ha of rented fields. Cost allocation for this stage of business plan is presented in the Appendix part.

The average yield from winter oil-seed rape in Ukraine is around 3 tons of seed per hectare during a 270 day growing season. The seed is pressed to extract the oil content of about 30% by weight, the remaining cake (rape meal) being used either as high protein content cattle fodder or burnt as an energy source for the production of electricity. Final output, therefore is 1 ton of biodiesel per cover letter hectare. The energy cost of producing the crop is about 15% of the essay yield - the essay same as fossil oil. The main difference is that the essay about urbanization energy is renewable and come from the eco-friendly crop itself. Glycerol is future a by-product of our technological process, but it needs further cleaning.

We are not planning to install glycerol processing equipment in the first 3 years, because this equipment requires additional 40% investment and we want to ensure quality and essay, uninterrupted production of biodiesel, as a flagship product. However, after successful implementation of this biodiesel project, we are also planning to sell cleaned glycerol, which could generate an additional 10% turnover. Cover Computer Technician! Biodiesel is planned to problems be sold using direct mail, seminars, promotion programs and advertising in business newspapers. Because biodiesel is a valuable fuel for in-city transportation companies, direct mail to these and types plan conomique, other companies would be effective tool in essay urbanization promotion. Ecology, energy, technology related seminars are effective in finding regional representatives, partners, suppliers and buyers of cover no experience, our product. Promotion programs are: discounts to those carrying our trademark and symbolic, support to ecology and renewable energy concerned organizations, participation in regional fairs and events. Total budget for all these programs is urbanization problems shown in the Profit and Loss Statements, among the Advertising and Miscellaneous expenses.

Rape-seed is a commodity product which sells on agricultural exchanges, to producers of rape-oil and exporters. We plan to contact directly all these customers, because they are not so numerous and can ensure reliable business relationships. Rape meal has two markets: export to Poland, Lithuania, Turkey, or local agricultural producers. We prefer the latter option, because it would save a great deal of administrative and transport expenses, plus it would open the opportunity to use rape meal as a payment for rent, leasing of equipment, rape-seed (we plan also to buy rape-seed for further processing). Paper Usasma! Rape-oil sales are omitted from the business plan due to essay about high uncertainty factors. However, our plant will be able to provide this type of product and it remains a real option for us to sell rape-oil. Our major intention is to keep levels of monthly production, sales, and collections together. For this reason we planned storage capacities only for stereotypes, one month’s production, located plant near elevator (rape storage facilities) and railway (transportation network). Because biodiesel is essay highly liquid product, this goal can be implemented with right choice of experience usasma, distributors and suppliers (see also: Strategic Alliances).

Because cultivation itself is a risky business (due to weather conditions), we prepared 3 variants of sales: normal, when yield of urbanization, rape is normal and all sales would take place in Ukraine, pessimistic, when yield of rape is 50% of normal, and optimistic with normal yield and custom writing, sales to Germany for 70% of German market price. Summary of the risk events is presented in the risk assessment chapter. We expect to start sales at the end of 2003 and to reach the essay urbanization problems full plant’s capacity by 2004. We plan to decrease gradually the sales of rape-seed and increase the experience usasma sales of biodiesel instead. Nevertheless, it will still remain important so as to ensure cash stability during the year between possible interruptions in biodiesel production cycles (due to technological, organizational reasons, etc). The following table lists the first year milestones, with dates and budgets for each. Essay About Problems! The milestone schedule indicates our emphasis on planning the cover letter no experience implementation. The most important programs are rape-seed cultivation (Stage 1 - Harvesting) and equipment installation. We omitted inferior purchases like office preparation or stationery purchase.

Detailed description of each milestone is essay urbanization given below. Table 2. Milestones. Purchase of tools and tractors. Installation of types conomique, oil processing equipment. About Urbanization Problems! Rape-seed stage 1. Rape-seed stage 2. Rape-seed stage 3. Rape-seed stage 4. Rape-seed stage 5. Equipment payment 50%, installation. Equipment and maintenance. Cover Computer Technician! Sales of biodiesel. Total capital expenses in EUR.

Equipment orders will be possible after negotiations with producers of different parts and having completed the installation plan. This plan will be done by design institution using equipment producers’ drawings and specifications. Milestone’s budget is a cost of essay urbanization, equipment (50%) plus cost of installation plan. Quantity of cover computer technician, agricultural tools needed was estimated for a farm with a total arable area of 5-10 kha. Site preparation includes mainly construction works: fence, building, roof repair, building bases for about problems, equipment and storage capacities, installation storage reservoirs, energy supply and fire detection equipment. These works will be performed by subcontractors. We can start the oil processing right after site preparation, because this does not require complicated technology. So, installation of datong china, oil processing equipment (oil presses, filters, cisterns) and essay urbanization, the offer of oil processing services can be started at the beginning of the year. (Milestone 14) We did not plan cash inflows from these services. Farm preparation is writing services for dissertation soil fertilizing (depends on qualities of soil, may be omitted) and about, processing.

Milestone’s budget includes costs of fuel, fertilizers and labor force. Stage 1- Sowing of future technology essay, rape, cost of seeds, fuel and labor force costs are assigned here. Stage 2- Stage 5: entering of herbicides and chemicals additives to fasten the rape ripening. Costs of herbicides and accelerators were included. Harvesting will be done by subcontractor (lease terms), because this stage requires expensive and productive equipment.

Costs of leasing, delivering of rape to elevator and labor costs were also included. Payment of another 50% costs of equipment will be done after delivering it to the site, inspection, installation and testing. Works will be done by subcontractor (construction works) and equipment supplier. Budget includes costs of equipment, installation, labor force. Equipment and maintenance includes works with electricity, water, air supply equipment, biodiesel processing equipment, and implies the testing and the improvements. Oil processing costs include energy, labor force, maintenance. Processing of biodiesel is possible when sufficient (100 tons) quantity of oil will be pressed. Costs include chemicals, energy, labor force. Sales are possible when minimum railway transporting quantity (60 tons) produced. By that time, we’ll find clients, sign sales agreements and plan delivery for the next 3 months. Rape cultivation timing has key importance in the project implementation.

While any short delay in the equipment installation can be bearable, the first year harvest of the rape-seeds can`t be missed. All the three types of risks were analyzed in the risk pyramid: Country risk, Sector risk and Company risk. Essay About! Country risk : Ukraine is regarded as a risky business environment, but conditions are improving continuously. The country has entered a stable growth period after the former years’ decline. Country risk of the project is minimized in our case, due to technology the personal experience of one of the authors. About Urbanization Problems! Moreover, we determined the custom writing electricity costs to be higher than in urbanization problems normal cases, so as to finance the assurance of continuous electricity supply, an extra service in stereotypes the country. Sector risk : The main sector risk is the unpredictable output of the rape in each year. About! The necessary measures are assured in future essay the project budget to cover this risk. Essay! The appropriate cultivation conditions can be maintained by paper the proposed agricultural equipment, moreover, insurance was also planned to cover weather risks. Other part of the essay urbanization problems sector risk comes from the letter technician technology itself, the greatest threat may come from latest developments in the biodiesel processing. A more cost effective production method requiring totally new equipment could make our plant obsolete.

Therefore new inventions concerning the biodiesel fuels should be closely tracked, the cooperation with the local scientific organizations in the region is primarily aimed at minimizing this type of technological risk. Company risk : Because of the newest technology, the company has a bit more risk than that of a traditional firm. The highly qualified and fully committed management team will do its best to decrease it as much as possible. The overall risk of the project is moderate, which is expected to decrease over time. Having considered all these types of risks, the essay about urbanization problems following weigting allocation has been made for the three profitability scenarios: All the project financing is expected from china thesis, private investors at the beginning of the project in the amount of 2,000,000 EUR. The financing needs in essay about urbanization problems the following operational years will be fully covered by the autofinancing capacity of the company if the organic growth remains within the projected scenarios. The financial calculations of the business plan are based on stereotypes, the following real-life assumptions: Table 3. Important Assumptions. Short-term Interest Rate % Long-term Interest Rate % Payment Days Estimator.

Collection Days Estimator. The financial reports are prepared in a yearly split, they were intended to be comparable with each other. Hence, some slight modifications in the real life could be necessary to improve the profitability of the project, exclusively in the interest of the investors. Such changes may include an additional capital expenditure in fixed assets for higher return in the optimistic case, if the essay urbanization cash balance is too high to keep it lying on bank deposits without yielding interests. Inc. China! (Ohio, USA) is an authorized retailer for goods and services provided by Spivak. Please review also: Inc. Essay! (Ohio, USA) is an authorized retailer for goods and services provided by Spivak. Please review also: Here follow the paper usasma balance sheets of the biodiesel project.

Please note that in the first two years of the pessimistic scenario, additional loans would be necessary to borrow. However, in the third operational year, all these loans would be paid back. Cash and Securities. Total Short-term Assets. Total Long-term Assets.

Liabilities and Capital. Other Short-term Liabilities. Total Short-term Liabilities. Paid in Capital. Total Liabilities and Capital. Inc. (Ohio, USA) is an authorized retailer for essay about, goods and services provided by Spivak. Please review also: The following Cash Flow Statements show, that even in types plan conomique the optimistic case, the treasury control should be tight till 2005, in spite of the huge expected profit in 2004. Inc. (Ohio, USA) is an authorized retailer for about problems, goods and services provided by Spivak. Please review also: The following tables include all the important key financial ratios related to the project: (The key financial ratios within the Profit and personal experience paper, Loss Statements can be found in Chapter 7.3) Inc. (Ohio, USA) is an authorized retailer for goods and services provided by Spivak. Please review also: Profit Margin Ratio.

Total Assets Turnover Ratio. Rate of about problems, Return on Assets (ROA) Rate of women gender essay, Return on Equity. Return on Investment Ratio. Days Accounts Receivable. Days Accounts Payable. Days Inventories Held.

Quick Ratio (Acid Test) Total Debt to Equity Ratio. According to the normal scenario, we can regard 2005 as the reference year for the normal production. Total sales 2,130,680 EUR. Production quantity: 5,000 tons. Unit sales price: 426 EUR / ton. Total costs are 538,060 EUR. Urbanization! Variable costs can include chemicals and energy (see Appendix), since farm cultivation costs are fixed costs. These variable costs are: 176,000 EUR chemicals and 23,000 EUR variable energy costs, 199,000 EUR in total. Labor is not regarded as a variable cost, no worker should be fired in a bad situation, even if some money could be saved for a short time.

Thereby the unit variable cost: 39.8 EUR / ton. Fixed costs are 339,060 EUR. Types Dissertation Conomique! As a result, the break-even quantity of the biodiesel production is 878 tons / year . The gross margin / sales ratio is above 80%, that’s why the break-even quantity is so low, due to the exceptional conditions of the project. Let us think a little bit longer. Total payroll burden of the plant is 89,250 EUR / year. If we were giving 8 times more wages for everyone (not a good salary in Western Europe), that would mean an extra 624,750 EUR / year. Fixed costs in that case would be 963,810 EUR.

The break-even quantity would immediately rise to 2,496 tons / year. Nearly 3 times more than it has been originally planned. Exit may take place in essay about urbanization several possible ways: 1. Normal Exit : The project starts generating profit in the second year of operations and positive cash flow appears in the same year. It means that once spent, money can be fully recovered by investors. This creates very good chances for datong china thesis, the initial shareholders to sell their participation at a very good price for other investors. 2. Project Failure : The total cost of the initial equipment is 1,540,000 EUR, with an annual depreciation of approximately 154,000 EUR.

The market value of the assets differs type by type. The agricultural machninery can be sold at least for about, 70% of book value, oil processing equipment for 90-110% of book value (it’s already delivered, installed and buyer can start exploiting it), while market price of biodiesel production equipment is under question. The reasoning is the future essay following: biodiesel production is still a unique business in Ukraine, and to urbanization sell the equipment we need to find a buyer. This may or may not take time, so the selling price of the equipment may vary from 20% (valued only such general parts as pumps, reservoirs, pipes, etc) to 110% (we found buyer, who is interested to start the production on the existing facilities). The sale of other current assets, such as final and cover letter computer technician no experience, by-products (biodiesel, rape meal, rape-oil, and rape-seeds), chemicals, herbicides and fertilizers are possible at full market price in a very short time: in essay one month maximum. Other investments are planned to be around 60,000 EUR in the first year, consisting of china, office furniture and other small items.

Their market value will be around 80-100% of their book value. As a summary, we estimate that the investors could collect 30-100% of their initial investments, if they suddenly decide to sell everything. The two project initiators require 10% of the initial investment at the end of the third year of the project and 10% of essay about urbanization, net profits thereafter. If the exit of investors was made due to unexpected causes (irrelevant from the gender project results) before the end of 2005, the 10% share will be still required. The only reason to cancel the share transfer can be a cumulated result below the pessimistic scenario.

The payment of 10% of the net profits starting from the fourth operational year cannot be ceased. Inc. About! (Ohio, USA) is an authorized retailer for goods and women gender essay, services provided by Spivak. Please review also: Capacity of the plant is 5,000 tons of biodiesel per annum. Rape cultivation costs are expected to be the same in each scenario, the negative effects of the worse sales and weather conditions cannot be compensated by lowering the cultivation costs.

COST OF GOODS SOLD. In this section we’ll indicate only essay problems, such variable costs as costs of chemicals, fuel, energy, rape-seed cultivation, fertilizers. All other expenses (labor, rent, depreciation, leasing) are included in the ProfitLoss statement. Year 2003 contains a fraction of computer technician no experience, these costs, due to the proportional usage of the economic resources. Chemicals and energy. Problems! Table 4. Women Gender Essay! Cost of Chemicals. Inc. (Ohio, USA) is an authorized retailer for goods and services provided by essay about urbanization Spivak. Please review also: From year 2005 a +3.4% inflation has been built in the sales plans.

Table 5. Energy Costs. Writing For Dissertation! Quantity required per ton. Total quantity required. Energy for urbanization problems, production: electricity, hot water, compressed air. Fixed energy costs. Total energy costs. Total area of farm: 5,000 ha, Productivity: 15,000 tons of rape-seed or 5,000 tons of biodiesel per year.

Rape meal is a by-product of rape-seed processing. Table 6. Rape-seed Direct Cultivation Costs. Plan Dissertation! Quantity per ha. Estimates of production costs vary between reports due to about urbanization the wide variation of cost and value of inputs and outputs. Datong! The most comprehensive report known is that of the University of urbanization problems, Wales BEAM Project, carried out upon custom services for dissertation, the request of the essay about problems Rural Development Section of the custom writing services for dissertation Welsh Development Agency about two years ago. Without detailing the report, it calculates the 1997ish cost of production at between 17 and 27p per litre, taking into account the value of the by-products and allowing the input from set-aside grants. (Year 2000 ?400/600 per hectare) Other estimates have been produced, indicating costs of up to 63p per essay urbanization litre. Cost in the USA is currently about 34p per litre (penny is used to make comparable values). It would therefore be reasonable to assume a worst case cost of 40p per plan dissertation conomique litre at the pump, allowing for storage and essay about urbanization problems, transport costs and profit margins to the distributor and supplier.

Amortised in this cost is the capital value of the plant required, which is thesis not comparatively high - an esterification plant to produce 5,000 tons of RME yearly at a rural location is estimated at less than ?0.5m. To this must be added the cost of a seed crusher to recover the urbanization problems oil - about ?120,000. Total cost of equipment is 1,540,000 EUR out of which the capital expenditure in: Seed processing#9;64,000 EUR. Biodiesel production#9;1,318,000 EUR. Quantity of agricultural equipment was calculated according to the technological requirements.

Hence, for the cultivation of rape at 5000 ha, 10 tractors (10,500 EUR each), ploughs, sowing and other equipment are necessary. Datong China! Their total projected cost is 158,000 EUR . The machines and tools will be maintained on rented facilities of the Poltava region. Essay About Urbanization! Gas filling station and garages are also available there. Summary of the technical characteristics and costs is given in the table below. Dissertation Conomique! Table 7. Seed Processing. Inc. (Ohio, USA) is an authorized retailer for goods and services provided by about problems Spivak. Please review also: Summary is given in the table below. Esterification unit and catalyst preparation unit were offered by company Ekkoil Sk and were accepted after careful study. All other equipment are made in Ukraine. Table 8. Biodiesel Production Equipment. Inc. (Ohio, USA) is an authorized retailer for goods and services provided by Spivak. Please review also: Our management philosophy is based on essay, responsibility, mutual respect and entrepreneurial creativity. This means that we’ll create a work environment, where employees feel responsibility for the overall company’s performance and will be awarded accordingly. Although, better than projected results could be compensated with bonus payments, the most general way of extra remuneration is planned to be a centralized and controlled biodiesel product distribution for the workers (bonuses for extra quality production and problems, so on). Computer! The latter method could increase the interest, on behalf of the essay workers, in working in our plant, and hopefully, it could help propagating the Company’s environmental concern even further. Technology! The team includes 25 employees, under three managers, acting as partner executive directors.

No important decision can be made in one person, at least two executive managers should approve them. Our main management divisions are farming, processing, and sales. Farming handles cultivation of rape; processing-pressing of urbanization problems, oil seeds and production of biodiesel. Personal Experience! Management team requirements. We believe we have an excellent team for covering the main points of the business plan: cultivation of rape, sale of final products. At present, we can improve mostly in the area of about, technical capabilities to manage the production of biodiesel. The Personnel Plan reflects the conomique need to essay about urbanization bolster our capabilities to match our positioning in the fuel market.

Our total headcount would not change until 2005, but may decrease afterwards, because we plan to outsource farming and concentrate on our core competencies. The project launchers assume the Sales and Financial Management positions in the first three years, till the end of 2005. Employees are expected to work in teams, therefore huge salary inadequacies are not allowed. Personal Experience Paper Usasma! The need for labor force was estimated according to industry experience and technological needs.

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EssayForum Unanswered [2] / Urgent [3] Home / Speeches / 'Good morning friends!'; Introducing Myself - college speech . answers: 2 Sarath Kumar Oct 31, 2013, 11:19am #1 Introducing Myself - college speech Good morning friends! My name is Sarath Kumar. Problems. I'm going to introduce myself.I have born and grown up in Vizianagaram and I'm studying first year BSC computer science in essay, this prestigeous college, Vizianagaram. As for my family, I've just one brother older than me. My father.

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?In the introductory paragraph to essay about urbanization problems, this essay about essays I will tell you that you don’t need an introductory paragraph, at least . not of the 1) topic sentence 2) structural methodology 3) thesis statement varity that we were all taught in high school. What you do need is datong thesis That Thing; maybe a question, a fear or a fury. It makes your blood boil. It’s all you can talk about when you sit down with your friends over essay about urbanization problems, a glass of wine or two or five, or maybe you can’t talk about it with anyone, just your. Education , Essay , Essays 1304 Words | 4 Pages. try to figure out by myself . I was very sacred I didn’t know what I am going to do. Cover Letter Computer. I decided I am not going to essay, sit here and do nothing.

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360 , Comedy , Feeling 1197 Words | 3 Pages. stories, news articles, and essay urbanization, especially essays begin with good hooks because a writer is often judged within the first few sentences. Custom For Dissertation. Just as . the news tries to stimulate our fears by announcing a “danger in our water supply,” a writer must try to bring the reader from his or her world into the world of the essay . About Problems. This is done with a few choice words at the beginning of the essay : the infamous hook. It is not easy to think of how to writing services, make someone want to read an essay about a novel. It’s not even easy to.

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cast your mind back to the last time you stood your ground as your nine-year-old begged for yet another pair of trainers, or your 14-year-old threatened to writing services for dissertation, . fail his exams unless he could go out with his friends midweek ? bankrolled by you? Pampered kids can grow up to be dysfunctional within society Can you, hand on essay about urbanization problems heart, say that you have never once given in to the petulant insistence that everyone else I know has one, even when you knew, deep down, that you shouldn't? We all love our children. Child , Child discipline , CHILD syndrome 3138 Words | 6 Pages. Problem “ Kids will be kids .” Time and essay, time again, this phrase has been used to urbanization, dismiss the countless cases of bullying that take . place in schools across the country.

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And that. Adolf Hitler , Dragon , Essay 1624 Words | 4 Pages. Essay - Effect of Media on Kids - Apa.Doc Uploaded Successfully. COVER PAGE HOW DOES MEDIA AFFECT KIDS ? Student: Supervisor: HOW DOES MEDIA AFFECT KIDS ? There has been an . on-going debate whether or not media influences a child’s behavior. There isn’t a doubt that the media has an datong impact on essay a child, but is it so influential that it can make a child do something that they would have never thought of doing until they see it on the television? According to Dr. Susan Villani (1999), there is computer no experience a significant amount of evidence linking behavioral effects. Aggression , Behavior , Media influence 1291 Words | 4 Pages. Effect On Kids Video games have a positive and about urbanization problems, negative effect on kids . Video games affect the kids health, for . China. example lead to cardiovascular implication.

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An Introduction to RDF and the Jena RDF API. This is a tutorial introduction to both W3C's Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Jena, a Java API for RDF. It is written for the programmer who is unfamiliar with RDF and who learns best by prototyping, or, for other reasons, wishes to move quickly to implementation. Essay Urbanization? Some familiarity with both XML and Java is assumed. Implementing too quickly, without first understanding the RDF data model, leads to frustration and disappointment. Yet studying the data model alone is dry stuff and often leads to tortuous metaphysical conundrums. It is better to approach understanding both the data model and how to use it in parallel. Learn a bit of the data model and try it out. Then learn a bit more and try that out. Then the women theory informs the practice and the practice the theory. The data model is quite simple, so this approach does not take long.

RDF has an XML syntax and many who are familiar with XML will think of RDF in terms of essay urbanization that syntax. This is a mistake. RDF should be understood in terms of its data model. RDF data can be represented in XML, but understanding the datong thesis syntax is essay, secondary to understanding the data model. An implementation of the Jena API, including the working source code for for dissertation all the examples used in essay urbanization this tutorial can be downloaded from . Computer Technician No Experience? The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a standard (technically a W3C Recommendation) for describing resources.

What is essay about urbanization problems, a resource? That is rather a deep question and the precise definition is still the subject of debate. For our purposes we can think of it as anything we can identify. You are a resource, as is your home page, this tutorial, the number one and the great white whale in Moby Dick. Our examples in this tutorial will be about people. They use an no experience RDF representation of VCARDS. Essay Urbanization? RDF is datong, best thought of in the form of essay urbanization problems node and arc diagrams.

A simple vcard might look like this in RDF: The resource , John Smith, is shown as an thesis elipse and is identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) 1 , in this case http://. /JohnSmith. If you try to essay urbanization problems access that resource using your browser, you are unlikely to datong thesis be successful; April the first jokes not withstanding, you would be rather surprised if your browser were able to deliver John Smith to your desk top. If you are unfamiliar with URI's, think of them simply as rather strange looking names. Resources have properties . About? In these examples we are interested in the sort of properties that would appear on John Smith's business card. Figure 1 shows only one property, John Smith's full name.

A property is represented by an arc, labeled with the name of a property. The name of a property is letter computer, also a URI, but as URI's are rather long and cumbersome, the diagram shows it in XML qname form. The part before the about ':' is called a namespace prefix and stereotypes essay, represents a namespace. The part after the about urbanization ':' is called a local name and custom writing services, represents a name in that namespace. Properties are usually represented in this qname form when written as RDF XML and essay urbanization problems, it is a convenient shorthand for representing them in types plan dissertation diagrams and in text. Strictly, however, properties are identified by a URI.

The nsprefix:localname form is a shorthand for the URI of the namespace concatenated with the localname. There is no requirement that the about urbanization problems URI of plan dissertation a property resolve to anything when accessed by a browser. Each property has a value. In this case the essay value is a literal , which for now we can think of as a strings of characters 2 . Literals are shown in rectangles. Jena is a Java API which can be used to types conomique create and manipulate RDF graphs like this one. Jena has object classes to represent graphs, resources, properties and literals. The interfaces representing resources, properties and literals are called Resource, Property and Literal respectively. In Jena, a graph is about urbanization problems, called a model and is represented by the Model interface. The code to create this graph, or model, is simple: It begins with some constant definitions and then creates an empty Model or model, using the types plan dissertation ModelFactory method createDefaultModel() to create a memory-based model. Jena contains other implementations of the Model interface, e.g one which uses a relational database: these types of Model are also available from ModelFactory.

The John Smith resource is then created and a property added to it. The property is provided by a constant class VCARD which holds objects representing all the definitions in the VCARD schema. Jena provides constant classes for essay problems other well known schemas, such as RDF and RDF schema themselves, Dublin Core and OWL. The code to create the resource and add the property, can be more compactly written in china thesis a cascading style: The working code for this example can be found in the /src-examples directory of the Jena distribution as tutorial 1. As an exercise, take this code and modify it to about problems create a simple VCARD for yourself. Now let's add some more detail to the vcard, exploring some more features of plan dissertation conomique RDF and Jena. In the first example, the property value was a literal. RDF properties can also take other resources as their value.

Using a common RDF technique, this example shows how to represent the different parts of John Smith's name: Here we have added a new property, vcard:N, to represent the structure of John Smith's name. There are several things of interest about this Model. Note that the vcard:N property takes a resource as its value. Note also that the ellipse representing the compound name has no URI. It is known as an blank Node. The Jena code to construct this example, is again very simple. First some declarations and the creation of the empty model. The working code for this example can be found as tutorial 2 in the /src-examples directory of the Jena distribution. Each arc in an RDF Model is called a statement . Each statement asserts a fact about a resource. A statement has three parts: the subject is the resource from which the arc leaves the predicate is the essay urbanization property that labels the future essay arc the object is the resource or literal pointed to by the arc.

A statement is sometimes called a triple, because of about urbanization its three parts. An RDF Model is represented as a set of statements. Each call of addProperty in tutorial2 added a another statement to cover letter technician no experience the Model. (Because a Model is set of urbanization problems statements, adding a duplicate of a statement has no effect.) The Jena model interface defines a listStatements() method which returns an StmtIterator , a subtype of Java's Iterator over all all the statements in a Model. StmtIterator has a method nextStatement() which returns the next statement from the iterator (the same one that next() would deliver, already cast to Statement ). The Statement interface provides accessor methods to the subject, predicate and cover letter, object of a statement. Now we will use that interface to extend tutorial2 to list all the statements created and print them out. The complete code for urbanization this can be found in gender tutorial 3. Urbanization Problems? Since the object of a statement can be either a resource or a literal, the getObject() method returns an object typed as RDFNode , which is a common superclass of both Resource and Literal . The underlying object is of the types conomique appropriate type, so the code uses instanceof to determine which and about, processes it accordingly. When run, this program should produce output resembling: Now you know why it is clearer to draw Models.

If you look carefully, you will see that each line consists of three fields representing the subject, predicate and object of each statement. There are four arcs in the Model, so there are four statements. The anon:14df86:ecc3dee17b:-7fff is an internal identifier generated by Jena. It is not a URI and should not be confused with one. It is simply an internal label used by the Jena implementation. The W3C RDFCore Working Group have defined a similar simple notation called N-Triples. The name means triple notation. Custom Writing Services? We will see in the next section that Jena has an N-Triples writer built in. Jena has methods for reading and writing RDF as XML. These can be used to essay about urbanization problems save an RDF model to a file and later read it back in again. Tutorial 3 created a model and wrote it out in plan dissertation triple form.

Tutorial 4 modifies tutorial 3 to about write the model in RDF XML form to custom the standard output stream. Urbanization Problems? The code again, is very simple: model.write can take an OutputStream argument. The output should look something like this: The RDF specifications specify how to represent RDF as XML. The RDF XML syntax is quite complex. The reader is referred to the primer being developed by the RDFCore WG for a more detailed introduction. However, let's take a quick look at how to interpret the above. Plan Conomique? RDF is usually embedded in an rdf:RDF element. The element is optional if there are other ways of knowing that some XML is RDF, but it is usually present. The RDF element defines the two namespaces used in the document.

There is then an essay about urbanization problems rdf:Description element which describes the resource whose URI is http://somewhere/JohnSmith. If the rdf:about attribute was missing, this element would represent a blank node. Datong Thesis? The vcard:FN element describes a property of the resource. The property name is the FN in about urbanization problems the vcard namespace. Essay? RDF converts this to a URI reference by concatenating the URI reference for the namespace prefix and FN, the local name part of the essay about urbanization problems name. This gives a URI reference of Personal? The value of the property is the literal John Smith. Essay About Urbanization Problems? The vcard:N element is a resource. Letter Computer? In this case the about urbanization resource is represented by a relative URI reference. RDF converts this to an absolute URI reference by concatenating it with the base URI of the current document. There is an error in this RDF XML; it does not exactly represent the Model we created.

The blank node in the Model has been given a URI reference. It is no longer blank. Personal Paper? The RDF/XML syntax is not capable of representing all RDF Models; for example it cannot represent a blank node which is the object of urbanization problems two statements. The 'dumb' writer we used to write this RDF/XML makes no attempt to essay write correctly the subset of Models which can be written correctly. It gives a URI to each blank node, making it no longer blank. Jena has an extensible interface which allows new writers for different serialization languages for RDF to essay problems be easily plugged in. The above call invoked the standard 'dumb' writer. Jena also includes a more sophisticated RDF/XML writer which can be invoked by specifying another argument to the write() method call: This writer, the so called PrettyWriter, takes advantage of features of the RDF/XML abbreviated syntax to write a Model more compactly. It is also able to preserve blank nodes where that is cover no experience, possible. It is however, not suitable for writing very large Models, as its performance is unlikely to be acceptable.

To write large files and preserve blank nodes, write in N-Triples format: This will produce output similar to that of tutorial 3 which conforms to essay urbanization the N-Triples specification. Tutorial 5 demonstrates reading the statements recorded in RDF XML form into a model. With this tutorial, we have provided a small database of vcards in cover computer technician no experience RDF/XML form. The following code will read it in and write it out. Note that for this application to run, the input file must be in the current directory. The second argument to the read() method call is the URI which will be used for resolving relative URI's. As there are no relative URI references in the test file, it is allowed to be empty. When run, tutorial 5 will produce XML output which looks like: In the previous section, we saw that the output XML declared a namespace prefix vcard and used that prefix to abbreviate URIs.

While RDF uses only the full URIs, and not this shortened form, Jena provides ways of controlling the namespaces used on output with its prefix mappings . About Urbanization? Here's a simple example. The output from personal paper this fragment is three lots of RDF/XML, with three different prefix mappings. First the default, with no prefixes other than the standard ones: We see that the rdf namespace is declared automatically, since it is required for tags such as rdf:RDF and rdf:resource . XML namespace declarations are also needed for using the two properties P and Q, but since their prefixes have not been introduced to about the model in this example, they get invented namespace names: j.0 and j.1 . The method setNsPrefix(String prefix, String URI) declares that the namespace URI may be abbreviated by prefix . Jena requires that prefix be a legal XML namespace name, and that URI ends with a non-name character. The RDF/XML writer will turn these prefix declarations into XML namespace declarations and use them in its output: The other namespace still gets the constructed name, but the types nsA name is now used in the property tags. There's no need for the prefix name to essay about urbanization problems have anything to types conomique do with the variables in the Jena code: Both prefixes are used for output, and essay, no generated prefixes are needed.

Take the output produced by the previous fragment, and paste it into some file, with URL file:/tmp/fragment.rdf say. Then run the code: You'll see that the prefixes from the input are preserved in the output. All the prefixes are written, even if they're not used anywhere. You can remove a prefix with removeNsPrefix(String prefix) if you don't want it in the output. Since NTriples doesn't have any short way of writing URIs, it takes no notice of prefixes on output and doesn't provide any on input. The notation N3 , also supported by Jena, does have short prefixed names, and records them on input and types plan dissertation, uses them on output. Jena has further operations on the prefix mappings that a model holds, such as extracting a Java Map of the exiting mappings, or adding a whole group of mappings at once; see the documentation for urbanization PrefixMapping for details. Jena is a Java API for semantic web applications. The key RDF package for the application developer is org.apache.jena.rdf.model . The API has been defined in terms of interfaces so that application code can work with different implementations without change. This package contains interfaces for representing models, resources, properties, literals, statements and all the other key concepts of RDF, and a ModelFactory for creating models.

So that application code remains independent of the paper usasma implementation, it is about problems, best if it uses interfaces wherever possible, not specific class implementations. The org.apache.jena.tutorial package contains the working source code for datong all the essay examples used in this tutorial. The org.apache.jena. impl packages contains implementation classes which may be common to many implementations. For example, they defines classes ResourceImpl , PropertyImpl , and LiteralImpl which may be used directly or subclassed by different implementations. Applications should rarely, if ever, use these classes directly. For example, rather than creating a new instance of ResourceImpl , it is better to custom for dissertation use the createResource method of whatever model is being used. That way, if the model implementation has used an optimized implementation of Resource , then no conversions between the two types will be necessary. So far, this tutorial has dealt mainly with creating, reading and writing RDF Models. It is now time to deal with accessing information held in a Model. Given the essay urbanization URI of a resource, the resource object can be retrieved from a model using the Model.getResource(String uri) method. This method is defined to return a Resource object if one exists in the model, or otherwise to create a new one.

For example, to datong china thesis retrieve the John Smith resource from the essay about urbanization model read in from the file in tutorial 5: The Resource interface defines a number of methods for accessing the experience paper usasma properties of about urbanization problems a resource. The Resource.getProperty(Property p) method accesses a property of the resource. This method does not follow the types plan conomique usual Java accessor convention in that the type of the object returned is Statement, not the essay urbanization problems Property that you might have expected. Personal Paper Usasma? Returning the whole statement allows the essay urbanization problems application to access the value of the property using one of its accessor methods which return the object of the datong china thesis statement. For example to retrieve the essay about urbanization resource which is the cover computer no experience value of the vcard:N property: In general, the object of a statement could be a resource or a literal, so the application code, knowing the value must be a resource, casts the returned object.

One of the things that Jena tries to do is to provide type specific methods so the application does not have to cast and type checking can be done at essay urbanization problems, compile time. Personal Paper? The code fragment above, can be more conveniently written: Similarly, the literal value of urbanization a property can be retrieved: In this example, the vcard resource has only one vcard:FN and one vcard:N property. RDF permits a resource to repeat a property; for example Adam might have more than one nickname. Let's give him two: As noted before, Jena represents an datong thesis RDF Model as set of statements, so adding a statement with the subject, predicate and object as one already in the Model will have no effect. Jena does not define which of the two nicknames present in the Model will be returned. The result of calling vcard.getProperty(VCARD.NICKNAME) is about problems, indeterminate. Jena will return one of the values, but there is no guarantee even that two consecutive calls will return the types conomique same value.

If it is possible that a property may occur more than once, then the Resource.listProperties(Property p) method can be used to about problems return an iterator which will list them all. This method returns an iterator which returns objects of type Statement . We can list the nicknames like this: This code can be found in tutorial 6. The statement iterator iter produces each and personal, every statement with subject vcard and predicate VCARD.NICKNAME , so looping over it allows us to fetch each statement by about problems, using nextStatement() , get the object field, and convert it to a string. The code produces the following output when run: All the properties of a resource can be listed by using the listProperties() method without an datong argument. The previous section dealt with the case of navigating a model from a resource with a known URI. Essay About Problems? This section deals with searching a model. The core Jena API supports only a limited query primitive. The more powerful query facilities of SPARQL are described elsewhere. The Model.listStatements() method, which lists all the statements in a model, is perhaps the crudest way of querying a model. Its use is not recommended on very large Models.

Model.listSubjects() is similar, but returns an iterator over all resources that have properties, ie are the subject of some statement. Model.listSubjectsWithProperty(Property p, RDFNode o) will return an iterator over all the resources which have property p with value o . Future? If we assume that only vcard resources will have vcard:FN property, and that in our data, all such resources have such a property, then we can find all the vcards like this: All these query methods are simply syntactic sugar over essay about urbanization problems, a primitive query method model.listStatements(Selector s) . This method returns an iterator over all the statements in cover technician no experience the model 'selected' by urbanization problems, s . The selector interface is designed to writing services for dissertation be extensible, but for essay urbanization now, there is only one implementation of it, the class SimpleSelector from the package org.apache.jena.rdf.model . Using SimpleSelector is one of the rare occasions in Jena when it is necessary to use a specific class rather than an letter technician interface. The SimpleSelector constructor takes three arguments: This selector will select all statements with a subject that matches subject , a predicate that matches predicate and an object that matches object . Essay About? If a null is supplied in any of the positions, it matches anything; otherwise they match corresponding equal resources or literals. (Two resources are equal if they have equal URIs or are the same blank node; two literals are the same if all their components are equal.) Thus: will select all the statements in a Model. will select all the statements with VCARD.FN as their predicate, whatever the subject or object. Conomique? As a special shorthand, listStatements( S, P, O ) is equivalent to listStatements( new SimpleSelector( S, P, O ) ) The following code, which can be found in full in essay tutorial 7 lists the full names on all the vcards in the database. This should produce output similar to the following: Your next exercise is to modify this code to use SimpleSelector instead of listSubjectsWithProperty . Future Technology? Lets see how to implement some finer control over the statements selected. SimpleSelector can be subclassed and its selects method modified to perform further filtering: This sample code uses a neat Java technique of overridding a method definition inline when creating an instance of the urbanization problems class. Here the plan dissertation selects(. ) method checks to ensure that the full name ends with Smith. It is important to problems note that filtering based on the subject, predicate and object arguments takes place before the selects(. ) method is called, so the extra test will only custom writing services for dissertation be applied to matching statements. The full code can be found in tutorial 8 and essay urbanization problems, produces output like this: You might think that: is equivalent to: Whilst functionally they may be equivalent, the first form will list all the statements in technology the Model and test each one individually, whilst the second allows indexes maintained by the implementation to improve performance. Try it on a large Model and see for yourself, but make a cup of coffee first. Jena provides three operations for manipulating Models as a whole.

These are the common set operations of union, intersection and difference. The union of essay urbanization two Models is the union of the sets of statements which represent each Model. This is one of the key operations that the design of RDF supports. It enables data from future technology essay disparate data sources to be merged. Consider the following two Models: When these are merged, the two http://. Essay Urbanization? JohnSmith nodes are merged into one and the duplicate vcard:FN arc is dropped to produce: Lets look at the code to do this (the full code is in tutorial 9) and see what happens. The output produced by the pretty writer looks like this: Even if you are unfamiliar with the letter computer details of the RDF/XML syntax, it should be reasonably clear that the Models have merged as expected.

The intersection and difference of the Models can be computed in a similar manner, using the methods .intersection(Model) and about problems, .difference(Model) ; see the difference and intersection Javadocs for computer no experience more details. RDF defines a special kind of resources for representing collections of things. These resources are called containers . The members of a container can be either literals or resources. There are three kinds of container: a BAG is an unordered collection an ALT is an unordered collection intended to essay about urbanization problems represent alternatives a SEQ is an ordered collection. A container is represented by a resource. That resource will have an rdf:type property whose value should be one of rdf:Bag, rdf:Alt or rdf:Seq, or a subclass of one of these, depending on experience paper usasma the type of the essay urbanization problems container. The first member of the container is the value of the container's rdf:_1 property; the thesis second member of the container is the value of the container's rdf:_2 property and essay, so on. The rdf:_nnn properties are known as the ordinal properties . For example, the Model for a simple bag containing the vcards of the Smith's might look like this: Whilst the members of the bag are represented by the properties rdf:_1, rdf:_2 etc the ordering of the datong china properties is not significant. We could switch the values of the rdf:_1 and rdf:_2 properties and essay about urbanization problems, the resulting Model would represent the services same information.

Alt's are intended to represent alternatives. For example, lets say a resource represented a software product. It might have a property to essay about urbanization problems indicate where it might be obtained from. The value of that property might be an Alt collection containing various sites from which it could be downloaded. Alt's are unordered except that the rdf:_1 property has special significance.

It represents the default choice. Whilst containers can be handled using the basic machinery of technician no experience resources and properties, Jena has explicit interfaces and implementation classes to handle them. It is essay about problems, not a good idea to experience usasma have an object manipulating a container, and at the same time to modify the state of essay about that container using the lower level methods. Personal Experience Paper? Let's modify tutorial 8 to create this bag: If we write out this Model, it contains something like the following: which represents the about problems Bag resource. The container interface provides an iterator to list the contents of a container: which produces the following output: Executable example code can be found in tutorial 10, which glues together the fragments above into a complete example. The Jena classes offer methods for thesis manipulating containers including adding new members, inserting new members into the middle of a container and removing existing members. The Jena container classes currently ensure that the the list of ordinal properties used starts at rdf:_1 and is contiguous.

The RDFCore WG have relaxed this contraint, which allows partial representation of containers. This therefore is an area of Jena may be changed in the future. More about Literals and Datatypes. Essay About Problems? RDF literals are not just simple strings. Literals may have a language tag to indicate the language of the literal. The literal chat with an English language tag is considered different to the literal chat with a French language tag. This rather strange behaviour is an artefact of the original RDF/XML syntax.

Further there are really two sorts of letter Literals. About Urbanization? In one, the datong china string component is essay problems, just that, an personal paper ordinary string. In the essay other the string component is thesis, expected to be a well balanced fragment of XML. When an RDF Model is essay about urbanization, written as RDF/XML a special construction using a parseType='Literal' attribute is used to represent it. In Jena, these attributes of a literal may be set when the literal is constructed, e.g. in tutorial 11: For two literals to essay be considered equal, they must either both be XML literals or both be simple literals. In addition, either both must have no language tag, or if language tags are present they must be equal.

For simple literals the strings must be equal. XML literals have two notions of equality. The simple notion is about problems, that the conditions previously mentioned are true and the strings are also equal. The other notion is that they can be equal if the paper canonicalization of their strings is equal. About Urbanization? Jena's interfaces also support typed literals. The old-fashioned way (shown below) treats typed literals as shorthand for strings: typed values are converted in the usual Java way to strings and these strings are stored in datong china the Model. For example, try (noting that for simple literals, we can omit the model.createLiteral (. ) call): The output produced is:

Since both literals are really just the string 11, then only essay about urbanization one statement is plan, added. The RDFCore WG has defined mechanisms for supporting datatypes in RDF. Jena suports these using the typed literal mechanisms; they are not discussed in this tutorial. The identifier of an RDF resource can include a fragment identifier, e.g. http://hostname/rdf/tutorial/#ch-Introduction, so, strictly speaking, an RDF resource is identified by a URI reference. As well as being a string of characters, literals also have an optional language encoding to represent the language of the essay problems string.

For example the literal two might have a language encoding of en for English and the literal deux might have a language encoding of fr for France. [1]: sparql_data/vc-db-1.rdf. Copyright 20112017 The Apache Software Foundation, Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0. Apache Jena, Jena, the Apache Jena project logo, Apache and thesis, the Apache feather logos are trademarks of The Apache Software Foundation.

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Canadian Peacekeeping Essays and Research Papers. Rwanda solidified our commitment to ensuring peace is established and maintained. This mission relied heavily on the help of Canadian forces . directly on about urbanization, and off the battle field. Peace keeping is the writing services for dissertation, preservation of international peace and essay security by deployment of military forces. The development of this will be more evident, when it shows how Canada became a more peacekeeping nation over the 20th century due to our role in datong china thesis, the Paris Peace Conference, Suez Crisis and essay urbanization problems Battle of Rwanda. Types Plan Conomique! Efforts to.

Egypt , Lester B. Essay About Urbanization Problems! Pearson , Louis St. Types Conomique! Laurent 1328 Words | 4 Pages. Canadian Identity Essay Canada is known worldwide for our people’s resilience to nature, our acceptance of many different cultures, our . universal healthcare, and our contributions to world peace. I believe for these reasons Canada is one of the greatest nations on about problems, Earth. Firstly, Canadian citizens are among the hardiest people on earth when it comes to resisting Mother Nature. Canada is battered each year with ice storms, hurricanes’ and windstorms, yet we Canadians grit our teeth and fight.

Canada , Lester B. Pearson , Medicine 792 Words | 3 Pages. CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION INTRODUCTION Since its inception in 1945, the United Nations has been involved in cover computer no experience, peacekeeping operations and . Essay About Problems! conflict resolutions in the international system. According to Article 1 of the Charter of the United Nations, the UN is expected “to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of computer no experience aggression or other breaches of the about, peace, and to bring about by lawful means, and in conformity. Cold War , Korean War , Peacekeeping 1924 Words | 6 Pages. Canadian Peacekeeping: Afghanistan. Peace keeping essay: Afghanistan The Country Afghanistan is the most significant to Canadian peacekeeping . Afghanistan is writing services for dissertation, . very significant to essay urbanization our Canadian peacekeeping because we have been involved with this peacekeeping for datong years now.

It has come to the point where there is long term, immediate and widespread impact on us and Afghanistan. By going to Afghanistan and keeping peace, many events will influence us for an extended period of time. Families lives change from this peace keeping and. Canada , Hamid Karzai , Kosovo 502 Words | 2 Pages. 4th SPECPOL, Peacekeeping with Middle- East Terrorists I. Background of Topic It is evident that in essay, these times of hostility with Middle . Plan! Eastern nations, there is a threat of terrorist attacks, but as many of us know, it’s better to focus on a solution instead of a problem. Peacekeeping with Middle Eastern Terrorists has been a goal of the essay urbanization, West and nations all over the world for nearly twenty-five years. For Dissertation! Ever since political instability erupted in the Mideast, diplomats from all over the world. Asia , Middle East , Peacekeeping 946 Words | 4 Pages. EU UN Cooperation in Peacekeeping and P. ?EU-UN Cooperation in Peacekeeping and Peacebuilding A study of field and headquarter cases in Bosnia and essay problems Herzegovina and the Democratic . Custom Writing! Republic of Congo Table of Contents List of essay about urbanization problems Acronyms/Abbreviations DRC Democratic Republic of Congo EU European Union EUPM EU Police Mission (in Bosnia and Herzegovina) IFOR Implementation Force ( in Bosnia and Herzegovina ) IPTF UN International Police Task Force MONUC UN Organization Mission in services, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Democratic Republic of the essay urbanization, Congo , European Union , Italy 1277 Words | 7 Pages.

United Nations Peacekeeping Operation in Cyprus (1974 – present) United Nations Peacekeeping Operation in Cyprus (1974 – present) 1. What is peacekeeping ? 2. Cover No Experience! Cyprus – historical background of . conflict 3. UN intervention 4. UN peacekeeping operation history in Cyprus 5. The future of essay urbanization UN presence in Cyprus 6. Conclusion 1. Letter! United Nations Peacekeeping Operations The United Nations, founded after World War II in 1945, with the objective to stop wars between countries and problems provide a platform for dialogue, is the most representative inter-governmental organization. Canada , Cyprus , European Union 1454 Words | 5 Pages. Cosmopolitan Peacekeeping and Peacebuilding in Sierra Leone: What Can Africa Contribute? David Curran and Tom Woodhouse. Cosmopolitan peacekeeping and future essay peacebuilding in Sierra Leone: what can Africa contribute? David Curran and Tom Woodhouse Kofi Annan called . for a reform in the UN General Assembly in regards to global politics. Annans process of reform was called ‘thinking anew’. In spite of Annans process of urbanization problems ‘thinking anew‘, more than 300 recommendations for reform have been filed. Debates at the theoretical level has developed, which places an emphasis on reconceptualizing security. Norms on security have changed.

Canada , Conflict , European Union 996 Words | 3 Pages. History. Future Essay! His journey into politics began when he joined a new government department in 1927, the about urbanization, Department of future technology External Affairs. Urbanization! During his twenty-year . career in the department, Pearson served in the Canadian High Commission in Britain, the Canadian Embassy in the United States and served as the Canadian Ambassador to the United States as well as leading Canada into joining NATO and types plan attending the conference that created the United Nations in 1945. In 1948, newly elected to urbanization Parliament as a Liberal. Canada , Canada Pension Plan , Lester B. Pearson 1188 Words | 4 Pages.

Impact of a complex 1990's peacekeeping operation. Case of Somalia. Impact of technology essay a complex 1990's peacekeeping operation. Essay Urbanization Problems! Case of future technology Somalia. Peacekeeping has no one definition and has been . evolving since the beginning of its existence, from the end of 1940’s. The end of Cold War opened up the about, doors for UN to take steps towards collective actions that had been handicapped for decades due to the ideological and writing self-interest differences of great powers.

As a result, the number of peacekeeping operations and similar interventions increased significantly during the. Canada , Italy , Multinational Force and essay problems Observers 1969 Words | 6 Pages. Canada's Contributions Toward World Peace. government’s occupation of Afghanistan politically, militarily, and technology essay through its oil infrastructure in secret. Essay Problems! Canada’s participation in NORAD, NATO, and UN . peacekeeping missions has decreased since the 1970‘s, when compared to involvement levels of the United States and other Western nations.

However, this military draw down has not reduced the Canadian Government’s military expenditures. While many of Canada’s citizens feel its government is different from the United States, we can never forget the women stereotypes, political. Canada , European Union , Federal government of the United States 1219 Words | 4 Pages. Peacekeeping in Canada The Canadian military as peacekeepers is problems, a very prominent notion of the majority of . Canadians . It is what distinguishes Canada most strongly from the United States, and what has become an important aspect of their foreign policy. Peacekeeping , since the conclusion of the Cold War, however, is a myth. This essay will explore the history of peacekeeping , its use as a tool during the Cold War, and Canada's very prominent role in its development and use. Peacekeeping , in. Canada , Cold War , Peace 2736 Words | 8 Pages. A Review of: “Sovereignty and Standby: the 1964 Conference on Un Peacekeeping Forces” A REVIEW OF: “SOVEREIGNTY AND STANDBY: THE 1964 CONFERENCE ON UN PEACEKEEPING FORCES” John Macfarlane’s article Sovereignty and Standby: . Future! The 1964 Conference on UN Peacekeeping Forces details a 1964 meeting of 23 UN member-nations in Ottawa, Canada.

The purpose behind the meeting was a focus-group discussion regarding the creation of essay about urbanization problems either a standby force of military peacekeepers or some form of permanent military force, consisting of experience contributed military units from about problems, participating countries. Canada , Department of Peacekeeping Operations , European Union 1296 Words | 4 Pages. Lester B. Pearson and the Suez Canal Crisis. Canada had no direct ties to the Suez crisis, in terms of experience usasma control or economic interest. However, Canadian Secretary of State for Foreign . Affairs, Lester B. Essay About! Pearson, persuaded the china, UN General Assembly to send in the United Nations Emergency Force. Even though Lester B. About Problems! Pearson dismayed the Commonwealth with his measures for experience paper peace, Canada was recognized for starting the first ever United Nations Peacekeeping mission. In the 1950s the Middle East was affected by four different conflicts; each one separate. Cold War , Egypt , Gamal Abdel Nasser 1434 Words | 4 Pages. Position paper: Should internationalism be embraced? Position Paper The source presented talks about the Canadian government’s upcoming actions as it deals with the country’s economic . affairs. It can be inferred that the author feels that economic prosperity is the most important sign of progress and a good quality of life for Canadians , as jobs and about economic growth can lead to “long-term prosperity” that will benefit every citizen of the country.

An example of this envisioned economic prosperity is the Harper government’s economic action plan. Canada , Economics , International relations 1081 Words | 3 Pages. The Legendary Canadian Many great people and many great things shape history to what it is today. Types Dissertation Conomique! An example would be Adolf Hitler. Hitler was . a great man but that does not mean what he did was essentially a great thing. Hitler helped in shaping the world’s history by about causing World War 2. He was trying to shape the for dissertation, future as well because he wanted Germans to be the about, superior race.

However there are good people who did good things to women stereotypes essay shape history. One specific person that comes to mind is essay urbanization problems, Lester. Canada , Lester B. Pearson , Multinational Force and thesis Observers 1167 Words | 3 Pages. Over the years, there have been many Great Canadians . Whether they have had numerous amazing accomplishments, or only essay urbanization one very grave one, they . are defined as a huge role in the country. Many Great Canadians have changed Canada in a good way, or have done things for the citizens. Lester B. Pearson’s efforts and accomplishments as Prime Minister helped improve Canada. He helped create Canada’s reputation as peacekeepers. When he felt Canadians needed it, he brought Universal Health Care into Canada.

Health care , Lester B. Women Stereotypes! Pearson , Louis St. About! Laurent 1001 Words | 3 Pages. Lester B Pearson and custom writing services for dissertation the Suez Canal. prevented another world war from occurring with the decisions he made during the Suez Canal Crisis. Pearson prevented the war from essay urbanization problems, occurring by future essay his overall . personality, his achievements before the Suez Crisis, and about problems him forming the United Nation Peacekeeping Force. His overall personality helped him mentally prepare for and keep him calm during the china, Suez Canal Crisis.

Pearson had a deep personal reserve that people found difficult to penetrate (Bothwell). It would be hard to persuade him into doing. Cold War , Lester B. Pearson , Louis St. Laurent 870 Words | 3 Pages. Lester B. Pearson, as he showed the about urbanization problems, world that Canada is a very peaceful and independent country. Services! The final one was the Canadian Constitution . of problems 1982, as Canada showed that we are an custom services, independent and multicultural country. About! Three 20th century events that defined Canada as a nation were Canada’s participation in writing for dissertation, the battle of Vimy Ridge, the actions of Lester B. Pearson, and essay urbanization problems the Canadian Constitution Act of usasma 1982. One event that defined Canada as a nation was Canada’s participation in the battle. Canada , Constitution of Canada , Lester B. Essay Urbanization! Pearson 941 Words | 3 Pages.

keeping Tasks Patrolling Unarmed monitoring Maintain a physical presence “Dextraze in the Congo” How peace keeping is kept in 1950’s Consent . Impartiality Non-threating behaviour UNEF in Egypt The 1960’s The rise and thesis decline of peacekeeping A government priority as it falters in practice 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis Kennedy – create a quarantine Behind the essay about, scenes October First time military resources were used despite the prime minister Fight over how to custom writing for dissertation use missiles . 1903 , 1912 , 1913 458 Words | 4 Pages. the Suez Canal Zone o This prompted the UN to call for an emergency session to discuss the state of affairs UN Initiative: . Peacekeeping : • Once the about urbanization, UN had realized that this conflict was going to datong thesis happen, and with backing from other nations, they called together an emergency session, to discuss their intervention in the conflict • Canadian Affairs minister, Lester B. Pearson, was in essay about, perfect position to carve out a middle ground between two extreme positions o His diplomatic. Canada , Egypt , Gamal Abdel Nasser 1112 Words | 4 Pages. cur- rent and future strident debates have centered on peacekeeping , a term that appears nowhere in the U.N. charter but has always been the . organization’s foremost priority. The term “ peacekeeping ” was first used to describe the activities of the first U.N. observer mission in 1948, in which U.N. personnel were sent to the Middle East to prevent hostilities between the newly created state of Israel and its Arab neighbors. The first lightly armed peacekeeping mission was conducted in 1956 along the Suez Canal. Canada , European Union , Peacekeeping 2256 Words | 6 Pages.

four days without stopping in order to essay urbanization present a resolution on November 3rd, 1956. Cover Letter Computer Technician! Calling for a UN police force, the resolution from Pearson included a . plan for setting up a United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) which would become the UN’s first peacekeeping force to secure peace in the region. Under Pearson’s collaboration with the Secretary-General, all shooting stopped at midnight on November 6th; by the 15th the first UN troops arrived in essay about problems, the Canal Zone. The resolution provided peace which many. Cold War , Egypt , Lester B. Pearson 1522 Words | 5 Pages. ?ROBUST PEACEKEEPING Introduction 1. The UN Capstone Doctrine, in its Glossary of terms, defines ‘Robust Peacekeeping ’ as, . “the use of force by a United Nations peacekeeping operation at the tactical level, with the women gender stereotypes, authorization of the Security Council, to defend its mandate against essay about problems spoilers whose activities pose a threat to civilians or risk undermining the peace process”. 2. A ‘Concept Note on Robust Peacekeeping ’ issued in 2009 by letter technician the DPKO Office of Military Affairs offers an interim definition. Department of Peacekeeping Operations , European Union , Military operations other than war 1174 Words | 4 Pages. In several instances, the essay about urbanization problems, UN has proven itself credible to its peace-keeping and philanthropic mandate, settling international strife and cover no experience promoting . socioeconomic good, even to the extent of winning the Nobel Peace Prize in 1988 for its effective peacekeeping force (

The UN generally does this by their work in keeping good relations between nations on essay about problems, a day by day basis, building up a sort of war immunity. Various treaties, negotiations, and organizations have been promoted and supported. League of Nations , Peacekeeping , Rwandan Genocide 1880 Words | 5 Pages. see whether they support these solutions. The solutions are 1) shoot on sight ,2) deployment of UN peacekeeping troops in Somalia. More than . half agree to the shoot on sight solution and personal experience more than one third of the respondent have shown support to the deployment of UN Peacekeeping troops in Somalia. Overall, the majority agree to the solutions.

However the respondent show more support in peacekeeping activities in Somalia than shoot on sight order. Moreover, from the data collected, more of the. Gulf of about urbanization Aden , Islamic Courts Union , Peacekeeping 1121 Words | 6 Pages. Nations The last of the paper usasma, three main ways that Australia contributes to the United Nations is in peace operations. Australia has a large contribution in about problems, the . Experience Paper Usasma! Peace and urbanization security operations of the custom, UN as mentioned before. Part of the United Nations role in urbanization, peacekeeping is it invites member states to contribute soldiers or people with other special skills to work in an area of the world that is troubled or where outbreaks of conflict may happen in the future. Writing Services! The United Nations aims to stop war before it even. Canada , Multinational Force and essay about urbanization Observers , Peace 922 Words | 3 Pages.

International court of justice, Economic and social council, Security Council, secretariat and the trainee council. All have different, yet major roles in datong china, . striving to make the UN a success. About Urbanization! 4. China Thesis! The Security Council is the council in problems, charge of the peacekeeping side of the United Nations. Services! The Security Council contained 15 countries in 1995. The countries were Argentina, Botswana, China, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Honduras, Indonesia, Italy, Nigeria, Oman, Russian Federation, Rwanda, UK and the U.

European Union , Peace , Peacekeeping 772 Words | 3 Pages. Unamir (United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda) discuss, in urbanization, depth, the, United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) that took place in Rwanda in personal paper, 1994. This essay will provide; an essay urbanization, explanation of . Types Conomique! why Rwanda was in need of a UN peacekeeping forces by covering the events leading up to about problems the 1994 genocide, an explanation of the role Australia played in the peacekeeping mission by cover no experience covering the assistance Australia provided and urbanization an outline of the situation in the country now, and how the UN’s involvement assisted in technology, this situation by outlining the countries. Hutu , Juvenal Habyarimana , Paul Kagame 1399 Words | 5 Pages. United Nations who already had UN peacekeeping forces stationed in Rwanda.

The United Nations have also recognized this atrocity as UN failure. . Another example would be the second Congo war. The United Nations had failed to send humanitarian aid as well as intervene which led to the death of over 3 million people in less than 5 years. In 1995, the UN again fails to get involved in the Srebrenica Massacre and defend the Bosnians. It could have permitted the essay about, peacekeeping forces to women gender essay actually keep the peace. European Union , Peacekeeping , Republic of China 1651 Words | 4 Pages. its power in the UN, aside from the US to keep this organization vital. France and essay problems Great Britain as members of the P-5 hold veto power, continue to be . significant donors and major actors in the UN. They have played key roles in post Cold War UN peacekeeping and enforcement operations by providing troops in the Gulf War and Afghanistan. Since 1990, each had a responsibility for a subcontracted enforcement operation, Great Britain in Sierra Leone and France in Rwanda. This explains what kind of power. Cold War , European Union , Peacekeeping 1325 Words | 4 Pages.

1. Education Institutes,! 2. Hospitals,! 3. Roads;! Emphasizes that militaristic action can only be taken through Security Council consent, and that . disobedience will result in such consequences but not limited to:! 1. Economic Sanctions! 2. UN Peacekeeping Force Involvement if necessary;! Requests the future essay, UN to problems form a new department named as The Department of Economic Sanctions (DoES) that is tasked with the future technology, following but not limited to:!

1. Discussing the initiation of unified economic sanctions, and. Middle East , Military operations other than war , Multinational Force and Observers 716 Words | 3 Pages. Hiv/ Aids as a Global Security Threat: an Overview. of HIV among the militaries in troop-contributing countries may make it more difficult to staff peacekeeping missions [3]. Essay Problems! High rates of HIV in women essay, . the South African and Nigerian militaries in particular, which are major contributors of peacekeeping troops, may imperil African-led responses to regional crises such as that in Sudan. Essay About! Countries may also be less willing to contribute personnel for peacekeeping operations if soldiers risk returning from the mission infected with HIV [3]. 3. Consequently.

AIDS , Armed forces , HIV 1592 Words | 5 Pages. Outline Plan: I have chosen the siege at Jadotville which took place in the Congo in computer technician no experience, September 1961 as the subject of essay urbanization problems this study. I have chosen this . subject because I am an African living in Ireland and this event involved Irish soldiers on peacekeeping duty in Africa. The aim of this study is to describe the events that took place in Jadotville and also the computer technician no experience, subsequent treatment by the Irish authorities of these brave men. I intend to do this by giving a detailed description of the about problems, events that. Artillery , Irish Army , Military operations other than war 1210 Words | 3 Pages.

Chapter 7:International Organizaton, Law, and Human Rights. though they are great powers that contribute substantial UN dues and make large contributions to future essay UN programs and peacekeeping operations. Any . overhaul of the Security Council would require a change in the UN Charter, and a change in membership would reduce the problems, power of the current five permanent members, any of which could veto the change, making any change very difficult. Peacekeeping Forces. International relations , Peacekeeping , United Nations 791 Words | 3 Pages. time of need. That I’m sorry. In another reading, a story called “Cri De Coeur” (Heart Cry), by Lieutenant General Romeo Dallaire, compassion is used in a . different way. Lieutenant General Romeo Dallaire who was commander of a United Nations peacekeeping force in Rwanda during the 1994 genocide that took place and claimed over 500, 000 East African lives.

Mr. Dallaire explains seeing a child wandering across the road, in a particularly dangerous part of the country that had been known to be open. Boy , Compassion , Man 2020 Words | 5 Pages. Social and Psychological Sources of Power in Bangladesh. others. Being internationally responsible and eager to participate in multilateral peacekeeping missions is an important part of social and . psychological sources of power of Bangladeshi self-image. This friendly attitude is confirmed by the actions of Bangladeshi governments. Nearly 10,000 Bangladeshi military personnel are deployed overseas on peacekeeping operations, making it a large contributor to the UN peacekeeping forces.

Under UN auspices, Bangladeshi troops have served or are serving in Somalia. Bangladesh , Bangladesh Liberation War , East Pakistan 1788 Words | 5 Pages. militia and gender government soldiers announced a curfew and put up roadblocks around the capital. The Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR) and the Hutu militia known as the . Interahamwe then went from house to house killing Tutsis and moderate Hutu politicians. About Problems! U.N peacekeeping forces known as the UNAMIR (United Nations Assistance Mission in Rwanda) stood by cover letter as the slaughter went on as they were forbidden to intervene, because it would breach their monitoring mandate.

The next day on April 7th , 1994 ten Belgian soldiers. Arusha Accords , Hutu , Juvenal Habyarimana 1759 Words | 5 Pages. The UN is now an outdated body, discuss. in which challenges increasingly have a transnational if not global dimension, such weak intergovernmentalism may no longer be appropriate. This was . illustrated with the essay about urbanization problems, Rwandan genocide of 1994 and by the difficulties in the UN carrying out its peacekeeping role. Another example can be seen in the recent case of Syria. Although the thesis, West would ideally intervene, under humanitarian intervention.

Within the about urbanization problems, UN security council, Russia and China would use their power of veto since they resent Western. Peacekeeping , People's Republic of China , United Kingdom 1599 Words | 5 Pages. FORCES Peacekeeping , as defined by the United Nations, is a way to help countries torn by conflict create conditions for sustainable peace. . Such assistance comes in many forms, including confidence-building measures, power-sharing arrangements, electoral support, strengthening the rule of law, and economic and custom services social development. India is a charter member of the United Nations and participates in urbanization problems, all of paper its specialized agencies. India is regular contributor to United Nations peacekeeping missions. Diplomacy , Human rights , Peace 921 Words | 4 Pages. Internationalism: Nation and about urbanization World.

involvement of global organizations, treaties and agreements made by nation states. An example peacekeeping carried out by the United Nations. . In order to be involved and benefit from peacekeeping efforts, a nation-state must be a member of the United Nations which can only be done if they act through international means. An evident example that presents us with the benefits of custom writing services being a part of peacekeeping efforts is seen through the Suez Canal crisis. The canal was owned by the British and at the. European Union , Nation , Nation state 1021 Words | 3 Pages.

themselves to essay about urbanization problems disarmament and gave power of intervention, by force, to the UN against anyone who broke the agreement. Writing Services! The peace-making principle was . effectively put into essay urbanization problems, place. Peacekeeping in this instance would have been most effective though the deployment of a UN presence in the field. Essay! In this principle of peacekeeping military personnel is deployed into an area of conflict to essay problems try and minimize or contain the conflict and personal experience paper usasma this was most applicable during the ceasefire .During this period the UN. Boutros Boutros-Ghali , Mohamed Farrah Aidid , Peace 1456 Words | 4 Pages. The United Nations was more successful than the League of Nations in maintaining world peace by comparing with the scale and powerfulness of essay urbanization members, structure and measures in personal experience usasma, solving conflicts. Geneva, Switzerland. In the other side, even before the WW2, the Allies decided to form a new international peace keeping org to replace LN.

In 1942, the . 20 Allied nations agreed with the plan for setting up a more comprehensive and permanent peacekeeping body. During the problems, wartime period, the Allies discussed about it, and about to the end of 1945 50 nations joined the UN. Cover Computer Technician No Experience! It was aimed at maintaining the world peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations according to the principles. Gulf War , Peace , Peacekeeping 957 Words | 3 Pages. the united nations success or failure. achieved little progress in problems, early and mid-1992 brokering a ceasefire among the warring clans and subclans.

General Mohamed Farah Aideed rejected the . deployment of peacekeepers until fall. In lieu of this, the secretary-general followed standard peacekeeping procedures: no blue helmets would be deployed unless all parties consented. The result was that the civil war in Somalia continued unabated, humanitarian assistance could not be delivered, thousands of Somalis died of disease and starvation. Peacekeeping , Rwandan Genocide , Srebrenica massacre 1486 Words | 5 Pages. Latest Reports: Future Of The Malaysian Defense Industry 2014, Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends And Forecast. Attractiveness and women gender stereotypes Emerging Opportunities 3.1. Defense Market Size Historical and Forecast 3.1.1.

The Malaysian defense budget is expected to reach US$6.5 . billion by 2019, at a CAGR of 6.07% 3.1.2. Modernization of the armed forces, participation in UN peacekeeping operations, and territorial disputes are the major drivers of the Malaysian defense industry 3.1.3. Defense budget as a percentage of GDP will remain at about urbanization problems, an average of 1.4% over the forecast period 3.2. Analysis of Defense Budget Allocation 3. Arithmetic mean , Arms industry , Capital expenditure 813 Words | 4 Pages.

How Efficient Is the United Nations Security Council in china, Promoting Global Security (with Specific Reference to Darfur and essay about problems Iraq)? would allow UN peacekeeping troops to enter (Majendie 2006). Dissertation Conomique! The Economist Magazine (Mission Impossible, 2007) showed that ethnic wars and . religious violence are not by any means uncommon phenomena. In fact, they argue that following the Cold War, the UN, with no standing army, little equipment, military or peacekeeping experience and essay about urbanization training had to future technology grapple with these uncomfortable realities and today the essay about problems, UN Security Council needs much more resources in order to accomplish peacekeeping (Spiegel et. George W. Bush , Human rights , Peacekeeping 2767 Words | 7 Pages. International Organizations: the United Nations. contributors to the UN in 2011. As of 1 January 2011, the top providers of asessed financial contributions to the United Nations peacekeeping . operations were: the United States, Japan, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, China, Canada, Spain and the Republic of Korea (, 2011). A RAND Corp studied revealed that the UN successfully accomplishes two out of writing services three peacekeeping efforts, and compared to the UN nation-building effort to the United States and found that seven out of ten UN cases are.

Canada , European Union , Peacekeeping 1465 Words | 5 Pages. weapons, and establishing a high level of consent and authority for the follow-on mission. As a result, the INTERFET mission was conceptualised as a peace . support operation because the essay urbanization, military forces had to be able to no experience move between traditional peacekeeping tasks (in order to facilitate conflict resolution and lay the groundwork for the interim administration) and about urbanization problems peace enforcement tasks (in response to personal experience specific breaches of the peace by about urbanization the militias). INTERFET’s task was complicated by the fact . East Timor , Humanitarian aid , Indonesia 1621 Words | 5 Pages. massacres of the kind which began in Rwanda after the plane crash which killed the Presidents of Rwanda and Burundi. Personal! However, the urbanization problems, Inquiry has found that the . fundamental capacity problems of computer technician no experience UNAMIR led to the terrible and humiliating situation of a UN peacekeeping force almost paralyzed in about problems, the face of a wave of types plan dissertation some of the worst brutality humankind has seen in this century. Essay About Urbanization! Despite the failures of stereotypes essay UNAMIR, it should be said that United Nations personnel within UNAMIR and in the programs and agencies also. Genocide , Hutu , Peacekeeping 1553 Words | 5 Pages. decision making; rational, bureaucratic, garbage can and political will be discussed. The review will also look into the geo-political relations. Dallaire’s . assessment was to make a decision whether the UN should commit in sending a full-fledged peacekeeping force to Rwanda.

Dallaire required a long period of time to come out essay about with his decision as it required him to do a fact finding mission. Cray, David ; Mallory, Geoffrey R. ; Butler, Richard J. ; Hickson, David J. ; Wilson, David C. (1998) indicated. Decision making , Flipism , Genocide 1768 Words | 7 Pages. The Un Us Mishandling of the women gender, Rwandan Genocide. and United Nations pulled out. Their negligent attitude towards world conflicts restricts this organization from achieving its goals.

Most people know all . too well of the genocide between the Hutus and Tutsis in Rwanda and the U.N.’s role in “ peacekeeping ,” but to understand the essay, full picture one would need to visit the origins of this conflict. After World War I Belgium received Rwanda as a colony. Under the Belgian’s colonial rule over experience paper usasma Rwanda, the essay urbanization problems, minority Tutsi ethnic group was favored over. Genocide , Hutu , Peacekeeping 1367 Words | 4 Pages. community with the power to prevent the future technology, genocide did not and the Rwandan government not only essay failed to protect its people but also aided in the killings. The . Technology! most moving part of the film for me unquestionably was when the commander of the U.N. peacekeeping force in Rwanda, Gen. Romeo Dallaire says he remains haunted by his inability to stop the killing. Rwanda will never leave me: it's in the pores of my body. …We saw lots of essay about problems them dying, and lots of china thesis those eyes still haunt me -- angry eyes, innocent. Democratic Party , European Union , Genocide 769 Words | 3 Pages. international territory.The Norwegian Foreign Minister, Trygve Lie, was elected as the first UN Secretary-General. . About! COLD WAR ERA Though the datong china thesis, UN's primary mandate was PEACEKEEPING , the division between the US and about problems USSR often paralysed the cover letter technician no experience, organization, generally allowing it to intervene only in conflicts distant from the COLD WAR.(A notable exception was a Security Council resolution in 1950 authorizing a US-led coalition.

European Union , Human rights , Peacekeeping 1797 Words | 7 Pages. Political Unrest in Bangladesh Its Impact on Economy. for their role in the 2005 murder of two judges. Bangladesh is a world peace Keeper! Bangladesh is about, generally a force for moderation in international . Thesis! forums, and it is also a long-time leader in international peacekeeping operations.

It is the second-largest contributor to UN peacekeeping operations, with 10,481 troops and essay urbanization problems police active in November 2009. Its activities in international organizations, with other governments, and with its regional partners to promote human rights, democracy, and free. Bangladesh , Bangladesh Awami League , Dhaka 1164 Words | 4 Pages. debate and negotiation, as well as through UN-sponsored fact-finding missions, mediators, and truce observers. UN Peacekeeping forces, . comprised of troops and equipment supplied by member nations, have usually been able to limit or prevent conflict, although sometimes not. Experience Paper Usasma! Some conflicts, however, have proven to be beyond the capacity of the about urbanization, UN to influence. Key to the success of UN peacekeeping efforts is the personal experience usasma, willingness of the parties to a conflict to come to essay about urbanization problems terms peacefully through a viable political. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty , Peacekeeping , United Kingdom 1273 Words | 4 Pages.

developing countries, and more than 30 per cent volunteering within their own countries. UN Volunteers help to organize and run local and china national elections . and support a large number of peacekeeping and about urbanization humanitarian projects. UN Volunteers comprise one third of all international civilians working in plan dissertation, UN peacekeeping operations. UNV also operates the Online Volunteering service, which connects development organizations directly with thousands of online volunteers who can provide services and advice. Peacekeeping , United Nations , United Nations Volunteers 1026 Words | 2 Pages.

was done in order to guarantee that an extremity of conflict like WWII would never occur again. 51 countries with a commitment to maintaining peace . world-wide founded the organization, replacing the League of Nations. The UN is well known for its peacekeeping , peace building, prevention of conflicts and involvement in humanitarian efforts. The four main purposes of the United Nations are; to keep peace across the world, to develop friendly relationships among nations while promoting social progress;. Haiti , Human rights , Peace 2421 Words | 7 Pages. problem for social justice (i.e. what ought to be done). In particular, protection of the global environment should . be an issue with less political controversy (as compared to, for example, Japan’s participation in the UN Peacekeeping Operations). But in reality, each country’s effort on environmental affairs is dependent on the interplay of various international / domestic factors and economic gains. As a result, it would continue to urbanization be a difficult . Economics , Economy of Japan , European Union 692 Words | 2 Pages.

International Relations Case Study UN. from international security, in doing so 'when the Security Council was not able to act, the general assembly also played a key part in initiating or . providing guidance for peacekeeping operations.' (N. et al. 1996) Strengths and weaknesses The United Nations has had a lot of strengths in dealing with the issue of world peacekeeping and order. One of its primary strengths, has been to revel where the League of Nations failed; the attainment of Near-Universal Membership. It has accomplished this due. Cold War , League of personal paper Nations , Peacekeeping 2207 Words | 8 Pages. EMILIO AGUINALDO, Quezon City – The Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) marks another milestone in its commitment to international peace by deploying the . first all-Navy “Fleet Marine” contingent to conduct peacekeeping operations in Haiti. It is about, also the first group to have undergone Peacekeeping Operations Training at the AFP Peace Keeping Operations Center (AFPPKOC) headquarters in Camp O’Donnell, Tarlac – the home of AFP’s peacekeepers. The send-off ceremony for custom writing services the 14th Philippine Contingent.

Armed forces , Army , Military 1507 Words | 4 Pages.