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Overseas Filipino Workers Essay Sample. Nowadays, there are many cases of unemployment in the Philippines. It is undeniable that life in the Philippines is hard. With the title for a research paper apa format, monthly increase in transportation fees and help basic commodities, the closing of local companies and title page for a research factories, not to mention the economic crisis the world has been going through, Filipino citizens, both rich and poor, have been suffering a lot. Networking Assignment. As a result, people hoped to for a research apa format find a better life in other countries. People may come from slums, middle class, or even higher classes and want to migrate to “rich” countries. They might want to move to best creative writing courses a better or different environment.

Maybe the person has always dreamed of pursuing a career that requires experience abroad. It doesn’t always mean the for a research, person is materialistic. OFWs are called as the country’s modern day hero; probably because of their big heart to work to short essay of television on children an anonymous country to support their families, the remittance they contribute the country and because they have been executed, kidnapped, raped and title research apa format extorted. The Philippine government considers Overseas Filipino workers (OFWs) as a new breed of economic investors in the country because of ucla statement, millions of remittances they brought to the country. Human migration is movement by humans from one area to another, sometimes over long distances or in large groups. People who migrate into a territory are called immigrants, while at the departure point they are called emigrants. For further understanding of what is migration let me discuss first its type. Migration has 5 types first is the impelled migration where a person was not forced to leave the country because of the unfavorable situation of the country where he stayed such as warfare, political problems and religious persecution. Another is the step migration where a migrant is just going to a shorter distance from the place of origin to the final destination. The third type is the chain migration that often begins with one family member who sends money to bring other family member to a new location. Another type is the return migration where the immigrants went back to their place of origin.

Last is the seasonal migration where migrants move for a period of time due to labor or climate conditions. Poor living conditions, violence and armed conflicts, environmental problems, a lack of economic perspectives and the growing gap between rich and poor are the factors the greatly influence a person to migrate from a place to another. The media and global motility also cause migration. Migration greatly influence the economical and cultural aspects of a country but it also has its negative effect. One of it is the page research apa format, cultural effects. Countries like the United States, Argentina, and Brazil have always included a large immigrant population. Citizenship in those countries is based not on ethnic grounds but on a different sort of national identity in which commitment to certain values and ideas is paramount. But for European countries, the nation is often defined in a cultural way—by a common language, heritage, and ethnicity. Indeed, cultural issues are a significant factor in best writing courses the response of Europeans to global migration. In recent years, the title, European public has questioned immigration’s effect on culture and national identity.

Fear and distrust of development, immigrants has fueled the creation and success of anti-immigrant political parties in research several European countries. Many of these parties have linked social ills, such as unemployment and crime, to immigration. Another is the economic effect. The economic effects of migration vary widely. Sending countries may experience both gains and losses in the short term but may stand to gain over the longer term. For receiving countries temporary programs help to address skills shortages but may decrease domestic wages and add to public welfare burden. How Do U Write A Speech. A Swedish Professor notes “The problem is not immigration; it is integration, especially in the labour market. If there are no jobs, the consequences are segregation, housing problems and title research paper divided cities” (Traynor, 2010). Nevertheless, most commentators argue that the net effects of migration are generally positive.

In the CATO Journal, University of California SanDiego Professor of on forgiveness cs lewis, Economics Gordon H. Hanson (2012) writes “Despite many hurdles to their entry, high-skilled immigrants make important contributions to U.S. productivity growth. By making it easier for talented foreign students to stay on in the country once their studies are finished, their contributions could be even larger.” If there are positive effects, there will be negative effects. The first negative effect of page for a, migration is cs lewis that it causes economic problems for the cities. Most importantly, it leads to a decrease on the quality of worker s. Apart from creating economical problems for for a research paper, the government, it also causes economical problems for the citizens. One of short on influence on children, these problems is ‘increasing cost of living’. In U.S. a family can reach average life standards with an paper apa format eight or nine dollar per hour. Immigrants and other workers gain four or five. Another remarkable negative impact of migration to urban is the social problems in cs lewis citizens’ lives.

First of page for a research paper, all, the poor conditions of immigrants’ lives encourage them to commit crime. In addition to the criminal problems, cultural erosion is also a big problem. To begin with, the immigrants vary because of the a speech, new culture which they try to adapt, and title research apa format this is called natural assimilation. How Do U Write. The final consequence of migration is the environmental problems which destroy the physical appearance of the city. First and foremost, the human-made part of the cities, structural environment is becoming damaged by the migration. Most importantly, immigrants create unhealthy, illegal houses, ‘the slums’ in and around the title for a research, city, because they have to shelter with their limited economies. There are different issues regarding migration. Let’s discuss first the issues about cs lewis HUMAN RIGHTS. An estimated 214 million people currently live outside their country of origin, many having moved for a variety of title page research paper apa format, reasons in which the search for protection and the search for opportunity are inextricably entwined.

Migration affects every region of the world, and many countries are now simultaneously countries of best online creative writing courses, origin, destination and transit. Large numbers of migrants today move between developing countries, and around 40 percent of the total global migrant population have moved to a neighbouring country within their region of origin. Migrants are often to be found working in jobs that are dirty, dangerous and degrading (the 3 Ds). While for some migration is a positive and empowering experience, far too many migrants have to endure human rights violations, discrimination, and exploitation. There are also issues about BRAIN DRAIN.

More than a decade ago, US presidential candidate Ross Perot talked about the “giant sucking sound” made as American jobs went south of the border. These days, there is a far more significant sucking sound, one that concerns the whole world and one that could impede collective efforts to make poverty history. That new sucking sound is being made by highly skilled people leaving developing countries and heading to the developed world. The scale of this “brain drain” is staggering. As demographer B. Lindsay Lowell and geographers Allan Findlay and Emma Stewart point out in their research, nearly one in 10 tertiary-educated adults (those with some university or post-secondary schooling) born in the developing world — between a third and title page research half of the developing world’s science and technology personnel — now live in the developed world. With demand for skilled workers in development the developed world unlikely to diminish soon, that sucking sound is likely to get louder. Lastly, you should know the issues about IRREGULAR workers. Irregular migration has emerged as a major issue affecting the management of paper apa format, international migration globally. The seriousness of the problem led the essay on forgiveness, Royal Thai government to convene an international symposium on the issue with the participation of 18 countries and Hong Kong SAR in April 1999. People all over the world migrate to different countries. The top 10 countries that have a large population regarding migration are USA(42,788,029), RUSSIAN FED.(12,270,388), GERMANY(10,758,061) SAUDI ARABIA(7,288,900) CANADA(7,202,340) UNITED KINGDOM(6,955,738) SPAIN(6,900,547) FRANCE(6,684,842) AUSTRALIA(5,522,408) INDIA(5,436,012) Overseas Filipino workers are the ones who contribute to page for a research paper apa format the economy through remittances, buying properties and creating businesses.

Remittance is the transfer of money by foreign worker to his or her job. It also contributed to the economic growth and livelihoods of people worldwide. It fosters in the receiving countries a further economic dependence on global economy instead of a speech, building sustainable, local business. In 2012, the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP), the central bank of the Philippines, expects official remittances coursed through banks and agents to grow 5% over 2011 to US$21 billion, but official remittances are only a fraction of all remittances. Remittances by unofficial, including illegal, channels are estimated by for a research paper apa format, the Asian Bankers Association to be 30 to 40% higher than the official BSP figure. Development Phd Thesis. In 2011, remittances were US$20.117 billion. This Philippines is the page, fourth largest recipient of short essay on influence, official remittances after China, India, and Mexico. OFW remittances represent 13.5% of the title page apa format, country’s GDP, the largest in proportion to the domestic economy among the four countries In 2012, approximately 80% of the remittances came from only 7 countries–United States and Canada, the United Kingdom, UAE and Saudi Arabia, Singapore, and Japan. These countries are widely dispersed around the globe–in North America, Europe, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and East Asia, respectively. Officially recorded remittance flows to developing countries are estimated to have reached $351 billion in personal statement 2011, up 8 percent over 2010.

For the page for a research paper, first time since the ucla personal, global financial crisis, remittance flows to page for a research paper all six developing regions rose in 2011. Growth of remittances in 2011 exceeded our earlier expectations in four regions, especially in on forgiveness cs lewis Europe and Central Asia (due to higher outward flows from Russia that benefited from high oil prices) and Sub-Saharan Africa (due to strong south-south flows and weaker currencies in some countries that attracted larger remittances). According to the Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA) last 2005, land-based OFWs reached to 733,970 while sea-based workers reached to 241, 707 which make a sum of 981,677. There is a 5.15% growth since 2004’s 933,588.Nowadays, there are1.06 million Overseas Filipinos Workers. 33.4% are unskilled workers, 15.4% are Trades and related workers, 15.1% are plant and title page research paper machine operators and assemblers.49.3% are males, 50.7% are females. Remittances are 64.7 billion Philippine pesos (equaled 1.2 billion USD then) An Overseas Filipino is a person of Filipino origin who lives outside of the Philippines.

This term applies to u write a speech Filipinos who are both abroad as citizens or permanent residents of a different country, and to page for a research paper apa format those Filipino citizens abroad for a limited, definite period, such as on economics phd thesis, a work contract or a student. It can also include seamen and title for a others who work outside the Philippines but are not residents, either permanent or temporary, of another country. They are known by a variety of terms with slightly different and sometimes overlapping meanings. Overseas Filipino Workers or OFWs are Filipinos working abroad that are expected to return permanently either upon the expiration of a work contract or upon retirement. Best Creative. Balikbayans are Filipinos who have become citizens of another country and have returned to the Philippines for a temporary though extended visit.

Global Filipino is a term of more recent vintage that less widely used. Page Paper Apa Format. Former Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo applied the term Overseas Filipino Investor or OFI for Filipino expatriates who contribute to development economics the economy through remittances, buying properties and creating businesses. As a result of this migration, many countries have substantial Filipino communities. Overseas workers more than double after a decade . Page Research Paper Apa Format. The number of creative writing, overseas workers, based on the 2000 Census of Population and title page for a research Housing, was 992,397. This accounted for 1.3 percent of the population and an increase of 210,100 persons over the 1995 census results. From only 417,301 in 1990, the number of best courses, overseas workers more than doubled after 10 years. Number of title page for a paper, male and female overseas workers are almost equal. On Forgiveness Cs Lewis. Overseas deployment by page paper, sex was almost even with the males (50.27 percent) at a little advantage over the females (49.73 percent). This translated to a sex ratio of 101 males for networking assignment, every 100 females.

Also, there was a male overseas worker for every 77 males in the Philippine population. Paper. The same was true for the females. Largest proportion of creative writing courses, overseas workers were from Southern Tagalog Southern Tagalog (Region IV) contributed 177,155 overseas workers or 17.85 percent of all overseas workers. This was followed by the National Capital Region (NCR) with 165,575 persons and Central Luzon (Region III) with 135,802 persons. Although these three regions combined accounted for thirty-nine percent of the total population, they contributed almost half (48.2 percent) of the for a paper apa format, overseas workers. Creative. This could be attributed to paper the relatively high unemployment in these areas. Another possible reason is that many employers and recruitment agencies were based in NCR and the other two neighboring regions.

Caraga region contributed the smallest number of overseas workers, with 10,279 persons (1.04 percent). Overseas workers had a median age of 32 years. Best Creative Courses. Also, more than half were married. Males are mostly the heads of the households. Regarding to their religion, most were Roman Catholics. Title Page For A Paper. Almost all were literate and Tagalog was the best creative writing, predominant ethnic group. Lastly, 13% were academic degree holders. A study was conducted by title page apa format, ADB Philippines: “Enhancing the Efficiency of Overseas Workers Remittances”. The study covered topics like OFW Remittance behaviors, Issues raised for measuring remittances and challenges ahead, Remittance trends. Although the study was conducted in 2005, it’s good to development review at page for a research paper apa format, this time to see how much progress we’ve made. Some characteristics of the survey respondents are noted below, and may very among other Overseas Filipino Worker groups.

80% of online, survey respondents regularly remit through banks or other regulated channels. Speed, trustworthiness, reliability and efficient service were rated as most important factors in selecting remittance modes. 9 out of 10 respondents save in banks or through personal hoarding, with 70% maintaining bank accounts in the Philippines and 52% using automated teller machine (ATM) for payments or remittance. In Singapore, where more than half of title page research paper, respondents were in domestic work which typically paid low wages, 80% stated they were able to best online courses save, and title page research almost half indicated that they keep their savings in Singapore banks. A large percentage of respondents, 41% in the nationwide Philippines survey and 49% in Singapore, had to borrow money to pay for recruitment expenses, and 19% said they borrow while working overseas. Average amount of remittance sent monthly is $340.

Monthly remittances ranged from how do $205 to $524. Paper Apa Format. Beneficiaries surveyed use remittances for food, utilities, household expenses, personal care and effects, communications, transportation, education and special occasions. When we talk about the Savings and Spending Behavior, in the nationwide OFW market study, about essay on forgiveness cs lewis 90% said they were able to research paper apa format save money. In Singapore, where more than half the respondents were in low-paying jobs as domestic workers,80% said they were able to save. Ucla Personal. A relatively high percentage of respondents appeared to keep their savings in their country of apa format, work. Networking Assignment. A higher percentage of title page, survey respondents in the US said they owned a savings account and an automated teller machine (ATM) card in their country of work than those surveyed in Singapore and the Philippines. Personal Statement. Possibly due to for a research their higher income levels, US respondents reported a noticeably higher ownership of personal effects and bank accounts compared to respondents from u write other countries (Table 1.12). However, the percentages on mobile phone ownership were quite close among survey respondents: US 63%, Philippines 65%, and Singapore 70%. According to the Manila Bulletin, January 12,2013 issue, many overseas Filipino workers (OFWs) who are repatriated from conflict- torn Syria still prefer to work abroad than to stay in the Philippines. Title Page Research Apa Format. Which only says that OFWs can risked their own lives to have a good future for their families.

An OFW also said, “The life of an OFW is not easy, I have been through it and short essay of television on children I have witnessed the title page for a apa format, difficult life of domestic helpers of Saudi Arabia” Another true to life example of an OFW is M.B. Pangilinan and best online creative he stated that “I’m an OFW in Singapore, 24 years old and have started to become serious about my finances. I have already started to save but, sometimes, I feel like a “bank”, needing to send money home. Title Page For A Paper Apa Format. I am now torn between helping my family and best online creative preparing for my future. Title Page For A Research Apa Format. I have already built my emergency fund, so what’s next for me?” Life of OFWs can also be seen on economics, different films. One of it is the 2005 film entitled “Dubai”, starting Aga Mulach and John Lloyd Cruz. In the film, Raffy (Aga Mulach) and Andrew (John Lloyd Cruz) were orphan kids and had only each other to page research paper depend on. Raffy has spent the last nine years of his life working in Dubai. His ultimate goal is to fulfill a life-long dream: to eventually move to Canada with his young brother, Andrew. The Alvarez brothers are finally united when Andrew goes to Dubai. Another inspiring film of a life of an OFW is the 2008 film with the title “Caregiver”.

Starting Sharon Cuneta as Sarah, a grade school, English teacher, joins the 50 000 Pinoy OFWs working in the United Kingdom to support her husband, Teddy, in making a better living for their family. More than a chronicle of the Filipino experiences working as nurses and caregivers in the UK. This story also charts Sarah’s journey to self-discovery- from a submissive wife who makes sacrifices to make way for her Teddy’s aspirations to an empowered woman who finds dignity and pride in a humbling job as a caregiver in London. There are many reasons why many Filipinos work abroad. Whether it is their choice or they are only forced to do so.

If you go abroad you are not just leaving your country but also your family and just being contented with long distance call or SMS. Some of the development phd thesis, OFWs are sacrificing many things in research exchange of the life abroad. But what are the reasons why a family man, a loving mother and an only u write child has to title page for a leave home and find work. The first cause of why Filipinos work abroad is the unstable economic situation. There is best writing a longstanding lack of confidence in the government’s effort to secure a better future for its citizens may have driven many Filipinos to seek employment overseas. Title For A. Corruption, gross inefficiency in cs lewis government functions, relatively high tax rate, and no sound fiscal policy has put a damper on hopes of an ambitious Filipino, who now thinks the grass is greener elsewhere but home. Second is the title page research apa format, high unemployment rate. Perennial high unemployment rate has been a chronic problem in a country that produces almost a million college graduates on courses that are deemed popular but whose demand is on decline. Fresh graduates join the labor force, thereby increasing the competition for jobs available. Another single biggest reason why Filipinos are willing to go abroad for work is the generally low salary offered by employers in ucla statement the Philippines.

Even jobs that are sought after and in demand in certain parts of the world like nurses, engineers and teachers are paid poorly. No wonder many would prefer to work abroad as domestic helpers or office clerks and leave their teaching jobs because they’ll get paid higher overseas. Page Research Apa Format. The high unemployment rate in the country brings due advantage to best online creative employers who simply hire people on contractual basis. From mall sales ladies to fast food servers, the practice is widespread in the country. Research Paper. This brings a great deal of job insecurity for those who are employed under such conditions. Filipinos inherently don’t mind receiving basic salary, as long as there is security of tenure. However, such type of work arrangement is hard to find for many sectors, knowing that the supply of workers always outstrip the demand for their services.

Local employers also prefer to contractual employees because it is easier to let go of them and development — a labor loophole in the country — no health benefits and accident insurance coverage necessary. High unemployment rate ensures a steady flow of applicants, no matter how lame the job offer is. Such unfair situation keeps employers happy almost all the time. Also, OFWs are now more pampered. Believe it or not, OFWs are now covered by better protection, offered advantages (hotel offers only valid to OFWs, special lanes for overseas workers at airport and discounted health insurance premiums to name a few) in page apa format addition to being heralded as the nation’s new breed of heroes. Heroes in the coffers of the country, pumping in billions worth of remittance dollars. Nowadays, it’s not so lonely to go abroad anymore Before, going overseas is like sentencing oneself into exile into a hostile land. No friends around, will need to deal with unfamiliar language, weather and food. Ucla Personal. But now times have changed, many overseas Filipino communities have mushroomed all over title research apa format, the world: Tokyo, Barcelona, Sydney, Dubai, Singapore, New York and more. Cultural programs, tours of Filipino entertainers have brought the overseas Filipino workers closer to home. Not to mention the cheaper long distance rates and how do a speech availability of the web to communicate with loved ones.

Lastly, Discrimination in job hiring. Research Paper. This is a sad fact that local job applicants have to essay deal with. Again this has something to title page research apa format do with the glut of available workers willing to get paid lower salaries and not enjoy benefits and paid holidays. Employers tend to pick the “best” candidates but they’re not necessarily the most qualified for the jobs. They are usually those aged between 21 and 30, graduates of schools like University of the how do u write, Philippines or Ateneo de Manila, and are at least five foot tall for women, even if the job nature don’t require them. For A Research Paper Apa Format. The process was leaved qualified but overage applicants in essay on influence the dark and decide to go broad. This migration of the Filipinos have different effects. Page For A Apa Format. We’ll start first with its economic effects.

There are some who benefits it. Generally, business owners benefit from essay on forgiveness cs lewis having a “flexible workforce.” Immigrants swell the labor pool, especially for unskilled jobs which tend to be more seasonal and/or sensitive to business cycle fluctuations. A larger labor pool means that businesses can increase and decrease employment as needed, gaining and shedding workers as labor needs change. This leads to more efficiency and profitability for business owners and more productivity for the economy. A larger labor pool drives down wages business owners have to pay to title page paper apa format attract workers. In addition, when a large potential labor pool exists, companies have less incentive to make jobs attractive in terms of employment benefits and perks, as well as working conditions. Business owners generally save money on their labor costs – immigrants will often work for less money, and their willingness to accept a lower salary impacts the wages of native laborers. Consumers benefit. Lower labor costs to business owners help drive down the prices of the goods they produce.

Lower-priced consumer goods benefit migrant and native consumers alike, enabling them to buy goods that might not otherwise be affordable. On Forgiveness. Overall economy benefits from immigrant talent. As a group, skilled immigrants (and even many unskilled immigrants) tend to be entrepreneurial. Page For A Research Apa Format. Economist Stephen Moore has written that there is a “self-selection process” involved in the act of immigration – it is risk-takers and self-motivators who most often brave the journey – and essay on children that “by coming, they impart productive energies on the rest of us.” Immigrants often create jobs and have been shown to title page research apa format be on the forefront of technological innovation. Between 1995-1998, 30% of Silicon Valley businesses, including Google, were started by Chinese and Indian immigrants. Even unskilled immigrants often start family businesses and ventures. Everyone benefits when immigrants fill jobs that are difficult to short fill. Known as the 3Ds – dirty, dangerous, and difficult – many jobs filled by recent immigrants do not generally attract native workers.

Yet, the economies of developed countries are dependent on these manual labor and service sector jobs –construction workers, custodians, home health care workers, etc. Having immigrant labor fill these lower-end jobs frees native workers up to title page research paper take jobs on the next rung of the ladder. Statement. The return on page for a research paper apa format, immigration for society grows over the course of subsequent generations. Best Creative Courses. The children and grandchildren of immigrants, on average, do better in school and title page paper apa format are more productive than their native counterparts. Employment is high and short on influence use of welfare benefits low among second and third generation immigrants. As a group, they tend to pay taxes, create jobs, and title page research paper apa format give back to their communities. On the other side, there are who loses.

While business owners experience short-term gains in profitability from best online courses a plentiful and research paper apa format flexible labor supply, they may actually lose in the long run. Companies become used to not needing to make reforms or modernize or invest in the productivity of essay cs lewis, their workers, and apa format thus compromise their long-term competitiveness in development economics phd thesis a globalized marketplace. The Economist magazine presents the California raisin industry as a case in point, noting that cheap immigrant labor has discouraged farms from adopting automated harvesting like the more profitable grape industries worldwide. Native workers pay a price for cheap immigrant labor. Most experts believe that this is generally not significant in terms of unemployment rates – rarely do immigrants “steal jobs” from native workers; they are more likely to “steal jobs” from each other with newly arrived immigrants taking jobs from those already in the labor market. Title For A Research Paper. Yet, there is a small negative effect on native wages, mostly among unskilled workers (particularly those without a high school diploma), as immigrant wages drive down the value of assignment help, labor in title page for a research paper lower pay grades where workers are plentiful. However, percentage declines in development economics native worker wages attributed to immigration must be weighed against the benefits native workers gain in lower priced consumer goods and from general economic growth attributed to paper immigrant labor. Native and immigrant laborers both suffer when there is little incentive to improve working conditions. When companies don’t need to compete for labor, there is little need to enhance the help, attractiveness of jobs. Trade unions and workers’ advocates lose leverage when there is a line of people outside the factory ready to title page for a paper take the job of how do a speech, a dissatisfied or striking worker.

Do immigrants consume public services and/or welfare benefits in line with their tax contributions? Accurate measurements are difficult to obtain because national, state and local laws differ on paper apa format, eligibility for education, health and welfare services, and on the instruments used to collect taxes from on forgiveness cs lewis illegal immigrants. Most believe that immigrants end up paying for their use of public services through tax contributions and general economic contributions to society, but this may take more than one generation. The balance sheet on immigration’s effects on a country of destination is not merely economic. Even though immigration’s net economic effect on a host nation’s economy is apa format positive, the debate about its larger effects is far from cs lewis resolved. As a RAND corporation study quoted in The Economist summarizes, “the economic pluses and minuses are much smaller than the political and emotional salience” of the issue. The following costs and benefits are examples of additional considerations of immigration’s effect on societies. Title For A Apa Format. Let’s discuss first the benefits. Developed destination countries are currently struggling demographically to maintain their population levels and age structures. With low fertility and longer life spans, many MDCs are in danger of developing skewed dependency ratios in the future (number of people in the workforce to the number of people too young or too old to assignment work). Title Page Apa Format. Immigrants are an answer to this dilemma, as they are usually of working and childbearing age.

They keep the population growing, boosting the on forgiveness cs lewis, dependency ratio in a favorable direction. Page For A Research Paper. (See Demographics in assignment Special Issue Section). Immigrants add a cultural richness to page for a paper a society, bringing with them unique customs and traditions that become part of the multilayered fabric of a nation. Essay Cs Lewis. Beneath the obvious food, flag, festival and folk hero contributions, a multicultural diverse society is title page research paper more culturally and intellectually stimulating and innovative than a mono-cultural one. Many advances made by the human race have been the result of contact between different peoples, in artistic and short essay of television on children scientific realms. Efficiency is generated by for a apa format, a pooling of diverse talent in personal statement geographical hubs. Urbanization tends to accompany internal and international immigration.

The movement of people is partly a story of people moving from rural to urban areas, or small cities to title page apa format larger ones, whether they cross international borders or not. The growth of cities brings together talent that is on children highly conducive to innovation, increasing the economic and page social vibrancy of a nation. All of these benefits have corresponding costs. Short Essay. Some natives fear immigrant populations will alter the religious and socio-cultural foundations of their nation. For example, immigrants are increasingly bringing non-Judeo-Christian religions to Western countries. Conversely, within Christianity, Hispanic populations are boosting the title page research, membership of the Catholic Church. Some fear that family practices such as preference for male children in Asian societies may be aided by modern reproductive technologies and alter the gender balance in countries of destination for this population.

There are those who raise the issue of immigrants changing national identity and coherence. Some fear the dilution of national symbols, narratives and experiences that have traditionally formed a country’s heritage and image abroad. Security concerns are associated with immigration when porous borders are conceivably able to assignment help facilitate the transport of enemies of the state and title for a research paper apa format radical ideologies. Major terrorist events occurring in destination countries, such as the US and UK, carried out by foreign nationals and/or 1st and 2nd generation immigrants feed this fear. The presence of large ethnic immigrant interest groups impacts the foreign policy of the host country toward their countries of origin. US lawmakers develop policies toward Mexico with the American Hispanic communities in mind; few politicians make statements regarding US policy on phd thesis, Israel or the Middle East in general without regard for apa format, the sentiment of American Jewish groups. Short Of Television On Children. Host nations are adversely affected when internal conflicts within the title for a research paper, home countries follow immigrants to their new homes. The violence that accompanies rivalries between different Italian “mafia” families in the US or between Russian exiles in online creative the UK creates criminal and public safety concerns for host nations.

Finally, urbanization associated with migration has a significant downside as illustrated by title for a apa format, the slums of many global cities. Service delivery and general capacity often do not keep pace with the growth of urban populations in places like China, India and South Africa, dragging down the quality of life for on forgiveness, many immigrant and native residents. Page For A Research Paper Apa Format. Large global cities like New York and essay London provide a microcosm of the rich-poor divide that motivates much migration in the first place. Highly paid professionals live alongside impoverished immigrants who staff the service economy that this high net worth lifestyle demands. Conclusion and Recommendation. It is undeniable that life in the Philippines is hard. With the monthly increase in transportation fees and basic commodities, the closing of local companies and factories, not to mention the economic crisis the title research paper apa format, world has been going through, Filipino citizens, both rich and poor, have been suffering a lot. As a result, people hoped to find a better life in other countries. We are one of the how do a speech, children who have a parent working abroad and page for a research apa format we cannot even think of doing such cruel things to my parents. We love them so much and we will truly do everything like studying very hard for them to be happy.

Someday, we will help and do everything for them in exchange to everything that they had done for us. We will always make them our inspiration when studying and also every single time of phd thesis, our lives. We will never do what others did to their parents similar to those who do not treat their OFW parents working abroad. It is really hard to have a parent working outside the country because the love and care of a parent is different from any other. Nevertheless, we still have to page paper apa format endure it and be brave so as to essay on influence on children attain our goals not only for ourselves but also for them.

The sacrifices of Overseas Filipino Workers cannot be avoided, as they need to struggle to fulfill their dreams and to achieve success in page life. Those hardships and sacrifices should bear good fruits rather than withered tree. http://www.globalization101.org/cultural-effects-of-migration/ http://www.globalization101.org/economic-effects-of-migration/ http://daffodil2010.hubpages.com/hub/Negative-Effects-of-Migration http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Migration/Pages/MigrationAndHumanRightsIndex.aspx http://www.migrationinformation.org/feature/display.cfm?ID=324 http://oit.org/public/english/protection/migrant/download/imp/imp57e.pdf http://www.trademarksa.org/news/remittance-flows-developing-countries-exceed-350-billion-2011 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Overseas_Filipino. http://education.nationalgeographic.com/migrationguidestatement http://www.bfm.admin.ch/content/bfm/en/home/theme/migration_analysen/weltweite_migration_migration/migrationsgruende.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Remittance. http://s.pangonilo.com/index.php/2009/11/the-life-of-an-ofw-is-not-a-joke.html http://business.inquirer.net/34241/a-day-in-the-life-of-an-ofw-hero http://www.rmniloilo.net2011/03/8-reasons-why-many-filipinos-like-to-word-abroad.html http://shineoasis.hubpages.com/hub/owwa-ofw. Is this the perfect essay for how do a speech, you? Save time and order Overseas Filipino Workers. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed!

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1984 ap lit essay clqczpf (6th Period) Advanced Placement Literature/Composition is a college-level course that emphasizes critical reading and page for a research paper apa format analytical thinking and u write a speech writing. By enrolling in this course, students have committed themselves to a program of reading and writing on page for a research a level above that of the advanced high school senior. By EVSC policy, students must take the AP Literature exam in the spring. Assignment? Full details for this assignment can be found on the proper tab of paper apa format, my Weebly site. On Influence On Children? Students are expected to read How to Read Literature like a Professor and one novel or play from a list. Students write six specific reading journals (a character analysis, a theme analysis, etc.) and title page paper one extended personal essay synthesizing ideas from How to Read Literature like a Professor with the novel or play the students selected. The required texts for this class are: The Bedford Introduction to Literature , Tenth Edition 5 Steps to a 5 , AP English Literature Novels and plays checked out from the economics phd thesis, Harrison bookstore. The course approaches literature by title research apa format, genre: short story, poetry, novel, and drama. Because thoughtful, informed discussion of economics phd thesis, literature forms the basis of our class, being prepared for title page for a paper apa format each class is ESSENTIAL.

If you have not read and short of television reflected upon the piece of literature under discussion, you will not be able to contribute effectively to the discussion, nor will the contributions of others be very relevant to title page research paper apa format, you. Informed discussion is the best way to understand and analyze each piece we read. In-class timed writings (monthly), out-of-class essays (quarterly), cold readings (monthly), and tests (each unit) make up the bulk of the course assessments. Detailed schedules outlining all reading assignments, assessments, and due dates will be posted on u write the Weebly site each week. Netbooks and Electronic Devices.

Because we strive to be a paperless course, your netbook is a vital educational tool. However, when used for social media, gaming, or unrelated Internet surfing, netbooks can be a distraction and can negatively impact your performance in class. You are expected to make responsible choices regarding netbook use in this class. Any evidence of title page for a research paper apa format, plagiarism, presenting someone else's work or ideas as your own, results in failure for the specific assignment and an office referral, which may result in development economics, loss of citizenship. Title Page For A Research Paper Apa Format? If the plagiarism involves a student presenting as his or her own the work of another student, both students will receive a 0 for the assignment and a referral.

You must do your own work. I expect assignments to development, be submitted by the date and time indicated on paper apa format the Weebly. Assignments on a speech the due date but past the designated time receive an apa format initial 10% deduction with a 10% deduction for online creative writing each additional late day (up to 50 percent). Research Paper? Assignments submitted after the due date receive an initial 20% deduction with a 10% deduction for economics each additional late day (up to 50 percent). A student is page for a paper, expected to attend school regularly to derive maximum benefits from the u write a speech, instructional program. After students miss 10 days, they and title for a research their parent(s) may be notified of the need to attend a pre-court conference. At that time, legal notice is given. Students who miss additional days of school after the pre-court conference are required by Indiana law to have a medical statement from a physician or be seen and possibly sent home by economics phd thesis, the school nurse. Failure to follow this law will result in a referral to title paper, Child Protective Services or Juvenile Court, depending upon the circumstances and networking the age of the student. Title Research Paper? There can also be a pre-court conference called if the student has missed 5 consecutive days (habitual truancy).

Email me at peter.barringer@evsck12.com with your questions or concerns. Weeks Six through Ten: 1984 1984 Literary Data Sheet Poetry connections, short story connections, ancillary readings, video comparisons, historical background, modern music comparisons, class discussions, close readings Evaluative, argumentative essay: students draw upon short of television textual details to make and explain judgments about title for a research paper apa format, a work's artistry and essay of television quality, and its social and cultural values. Weeks Eleven through Fifteen: The Handmaid's Tale The Handmaid's Tale Poetry connections, short story connections, ancillary readings, video comparisons, historical background, modern music comparisons, class discussions, close readings Study guide AP-style timed writing assessment Cold Reads: Complete two cold reads Teach multiple choice PowerPoints Prose Timed Writing Introduce techniques and read examples and title page research paper apa format commentary Complete one official AP prose timed writing (analyze and economics phd thesis interpret) Read examples and commentary for that prompt. Weeks Sixteen through Eighteen: Death of a Salesman Death of a Salesman Poetry connections, short story connections, ancillary readings, video comparisons, historical background, modern music comparisons, class discussions, close readings Reader Response Journals Free Response Timed Writing Introduce techniques and read examples and commentary Complete one official AP free response timed writing (analyze and interpret) Read examples and title for a research commentary for that prompt. Weeks Eighteen and Nineteen: AP Practice Test Poetry Timed Writing Introduce techniques and read examples and commentary Complete one official AP poetry timed writing (analyze and interpret) Read examples and commentary for that prompt Cold Reads 5 Steps lesson and 1-page intros AP test multiple choice PowerPoints Complete two cold reads AP full-length Practice Test.

Weeks Six through Nine: Hamlet Hamlet Poetry connections, short story connections, ancillary readings, video comparisons, historical background, modern music comparisons, class discussions, close readings, activities Syntax walk Reader Response Journals each act Timed Writing Assessment#8203; Timed Writings: Refresher lessons for each type of timed writing Complete one of each type of how do u write, timed writing (analyze and interpret) Read examples and commentary for each prompt Cold Reads: Teach AP multiple choice PowerPoints Complete three cold reads. Weeks Ten through Thirteen: Kite Runner Kite Runner Poetry connections, short story connections, ancillary readings, video comparisons, historical background, modern music comparisons, class discussions, close readings Literary criticism Literary data sheet Timed Writing assessment#8203; Cold Reads: Teach AP multiple choice PowerPoints Complete three cold reads. Week Fourteen through Sixteen: Short Fiction and title page for a paper apa format Poetry Refresher Cold Reads: Teach AP multiple choice PowerPoints Complete three cold reads Timed Writings: Refresher lessons for networking help each type of timed writing Complete one of title for a paper, each type of timed writing (analyze and interpret) Read examples and commentary for each prompt. Weeks Seventeen through Nineteen: AP Test and how do u write Reflections AP Test preparation AP testing Complete final reflections.

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competence essay Copyright © 2001 Eric S. Raymond. As editor of the Jargon File and author of title research apa format a few other well-known documents of similar nature, I often get email requests from personal statement enthusiastic network newbies asking (in effect) how can I learn to be a wizardly hacker?. Back in 1996 I noticed that there didn't seem to title page for a research paper be any other FAQs or web documents that addressed this vital question, so I started this one. A lot of hackers now consider it definitive, and I suppose that means it is. Still, I don't claim to be the exclusive authority on this topic; if you don't like what you read here, write your own. If you are reading a snapshot of short this document offline, the current version lives at http://catb.org/ Note: there is a list of paper apa format Frequently Asked Questions at the end of this document. Please read these€”twice€”before mailing me any questions about this document. The five-dots-in-nine-squares diagram that decorates this document is called a glider . It is a simple pattern with some surprising properties in a mathematical simulation called Life that has fascinated hackers for many years. I think it makes a good visual emblem for what hackers are like €” abstract, at first a bit mysterious-seeming, but a gateway to a whole world with an intricate logic of its own.

Read more about the glider emblem here. If you find this document valuable, please support me on Patreon. And consider also supporting other hackers who have produced code that you use and value. Lots of small but continuing donations add up quickly, and can free the people who have given you gifts of writing courses their labor to create more value. The Jargon File contains a bunch of definitions of the term €˜hacker€™, most having to paper apa format do with technical adeptness and a delight in solving problems and overcoming limits. Short On Influence Of Television On Children! If you want to know how to become a hacker, though, only two are really relevant. There is page for a research apa format a community, a shared culture, of networking expert programmers and networking wizards that traces its history back through decades to the first time-sharing minicomputers and the earliest ARPAnet experiments.

The members of this culture originated the term €˜hacker€™. Hackers built the Internet. Hackers made the title page paper, Unix operating system what it is today. Hackers make the World Wide Web work. If you are part of this culture, if you have contributed to it and other people in it know who you are and call you a hacker, you're a hacker. The hacker mind-set is not confined to this software-hacker culture. There are people who apply the hacker attitude to other things, like electronics or music €” actually, you can find it at the highest levels of development any science or art. Software hackers recognize these kindred spirits elsewhere and may call them €˜hackers€™ too €” and some claim that the hacker nature is really independent of the particular medium the page for a research apa format, hacker works in.

But in the rest of this document we will focus on the skills and attitudes of software hackers, and the traditions of the shared culture that originated the cs lewis, term €˜hacker€™. There is another group of page for a research paper apa format people who loudly call themselves hackers, but aren't. On Forgiveness Cs Lewis! These are people (mainly adolescent males) who get a kick out of breaking into paper apa format computers and phreaking the phone system. Real hackers call these people €˜crackers€™ and want nothing to do with them. Creative! Real hackers mostly think crackers are lazy, irresponsible, and not very bright, and title for a research paper apa format, object that being able to break security doesn't make you a hacker any more than being able to hotwire cars makes you an networking help automotive engineer.

Unfortunately, many journalists and page, writers have been fooled into using the word €˜hacker€™ to describe crackers; this irritates real hackers no end. The basic difference is this: hackers build things, crackers break them. If you want to be a hacker, keep reading. If you want to networking assignment be a cracker, go read the alt.2600 newsgroup and get ready to do five to title for a ten in help, the slammer after finding out you aren't as smart as you think you are. Paper! And that's all I'm going to short say about page paper apa format crackers. Hackers solve problems and build things, and they believe in freedom and voluntary mutual help. To be accepted as a hacker, you have to behave as though you have this kind of attitude yourself. And to behave as though you have the attitude, you have to really believe the attitude.

But if you think of cultivating hacker attitudes as just a way to gain acceptance in online creative, the culture, you'll miss the point. Becoming the kind of person who believes these things is important for you €” for helping you learn and keeping you motivated. As with all creative arts, the most effective way to become a master is to imitate the mind-set of title page for a paper masters €” not just intellectually but emotionally as well. Or, as the following modern Zen poem has it: To follow the path: look to the master, follow the master, walk with the master, see through the master, become the master. So, if you want to be a hacker, repeat the best online writing, following things until you believe them: 1. For A Research Apa Format! The world is full of fascinating problems waiting to be solved. Being a hacker is lots of fun, but it's a kind of fun that takes lots of effort. The effort takes motivation.

Successful athletes get their motivation from a kind of physical delight in making their bodies perform, in pushing themselves past their own physical limits. Similarly, to be a hacker you have to get a basic thrill from solving problems, sharpening your skills, and a speech, exercising your intelligence. If you aren't the kind of page research paper person that feels this way naturally, you'll need to become one in order to networking help make it as a hacker. Title For A! Otherwise you'll find your hacking energy is sapped by distractions like sex, money, and social approval. (You also have to develop a kind of faith in your own learning capacity €” a belief that even though you may not know all of what you need to solve a problem, if you tackle just a piece of it and learn from that, you'll learn enough to solve the next piece €” and essay on forgiveness cs lewis, so on, until you're done.)

2. No problem should ever have to be solved twice. Creative brains are a valuable, limited resource. They shouldn't be wasted on re-inventing the wheel when there are so many fascinating new problems waiting out there. To behave like a hacker, you have to believe that the thinking time of other hackers is precious €” so much so that it's almost a moral duty for you to share information, solve problems and then give the page for a apa format, solutions away just so other hackers can solve new problems instead of having to perpetually re-address old ones. Note, however, that No problem should ever have to be solved twice. does not imply that you have to online writing consider all existing solutions sacred, or that there is only one right solution to any given problem. Often, we learn a lot about the problem that we didn't know before by research apa format, studying the networking, first cut at a solution. It's OK, and often necessary, to decide that we can do better.

What's not OK is artificial technical, legal, or institutional barriers (like closed-source code) that prevent a good solution from being re-used and force people to page research apa format re-invent wheels. (You don't have to on influence of television on children believe that you're obligated to give all your creative product away, though the hackers that do are the ones that get most respect from other hackers. It's consistent with hacker values to sell enough of research it to keep you in food and short essay of television, rent and computers. Page Research Paper! It's fine to short essay on influence use your hacking skills to support a family or even get rich, as long as you don't forget your loyalty to your art and your fellow hackers while doing it.) Hackers (and creative people in general) should never be bored or have to drudge at stupid repetitive work, because when this happens it means they aren't doing what only they can do €” solve new problems. This wastefulness hurts everybody. Therefore boredom and title research, drudgery are not just unpleasant but actually evil. To behave like a hacker, you have to believe this enough to essay cs lewis want to automate away the boring bits as much as possible, not just for yourself but for everybody else (especially other hackers). (There is one apparent exception to this.

Hackers will sometimes do things that may seem repetitive or boring to an observer as a mind-clearing exercise, or in order to for a acquire a skill or have some particular kind of experience you can't have otherwise. But this is by choice €” nobody who can think should ever be forced into a situation that bores them.) Hackers are naturally anti-authoritarian. On Forgiveness! Anyone who can give you orders can stop you from title page for a research paper apa format solving whatever problem you're being fascinated by €” and, given the way authoritarian minds work, will generally find some appallingly stupid reason to essay do so. Title Paper! So the authoritarian attitude has to be fought wherever you find it, lest it smother you and other hackers.

(This isn't the same as fighting all authority. Children need to be guided and criminals restrained. A hacker may agree to accept some kinds of authority in order to get something he wants more than the time he spends following orders. But that's a limited, conscious bargain; the kind of personal surrender authoritarians want is not on offer.) Authoritarians thrive on censorship and secrecy. And they distrust voluntary cooperation and information-sharing €” they only like €˜cooperation€™ that they control. So to how do u write behave like a hacker, you have to develop an instinctive hostility to censorship, secrecy, and the use of force or deception to compel responsible adults. And you have to be willing to page for a research paper apa format act on development phd thesis, that belief.

5. Attitude is no substitute for title, competence. To be a hacker, you have to develop some of these attitudes. But copping an attitude alone won't make you a hacker, any more than it will make you a champion athlete or a rock star. Becoming a hacker will take intelligence, practice, dedication, and hard work. Therefore, you have to learn to distrust attitude and respect competence of every kind. Hackers won't let posers waste their time, but they worship competence €” especially competence at hacking, but competence at networking, anything is valued. Competence at title research, demanding skills that few can master is especially good, and competence at demanding skills that involve mental acuteness, craft, and concentration is creative courses best. If you revere competence, you'll enjoy developing it in yourself €” the hard work and dedication will become a kind of intense play rather than drudgery. That attitude is vital to becoming a hacker.

The hacker attitude is page for a research vital, but skills are even more vital. On Influence On Children! Attitude is no substitute for competence, and there's a certain basic toolkit of skills which you have to have before any hacker will dream of for a research calling you one. This toolkit changes slowly over time as technology creates new skills and development, makes old ones obsolete. For example, it used to include programming in machine language, and page for a apa format, didn't until recently involve HTML. But right now it pretty clearly includes the following: This, of course, is the fundamental hacking skill. If you don't know any computer languages, I recommend starting with Python. Economics! It is for a paper cleanly designed, well documented, and relatively kind to beginners. Despite being a good first language, it is not just a toy; it is very powerful and flexible and well suited for networking help, large projects.

I have written a more detailed evaluation of Python. Good tutorials are available at the Python web site; there's an title page for a excellent third-party one at Computer Science Circles. I used to recommend Java as a good language to learn early, but this critique has changed my mind (search for €œ The Pitfalls of Java as a First Programming Language € within it). A hacker cannot, as they devastatingly put it €œ approach problem-solving like a plumber in u write a speech, a hardware store € ; you have to page research apa format know what the ucla statement, components actually do . Now I think it is title page paper probably best to learn C and writing, Lisp first, then Java. There is perhaps a more general point here. If a language does too much for you, it may be simultaneously a good tool for production and a bad one for learning. It's not only languages that have this problem; web application frameworks like RubyOnRails, CakePHP, Django may make it too easy to reach a superficial sort of page research paper understanding that will leave you without resources when you have to statement tackle a hard problem, or even just debug the solution to apa format an easy one.

If you get into serious programming, you will have to learn C, the core language of Unix. C++ is essay very closely related to page research C; if you know one, learning the networking assignment help, other will not be difficult. Neither language is a good one to try learning as your first, however. And, actually, the more you can avoid programming in C the more productive you will be. C is very efficient, and very sparing of your machine's resources. Research Paper! Unfortunately, C gets that efficiency by requiring you to do a lot of essay low-level management of resources (like memory) by hand. Page For A Research! All that low-level code is complex and bug-prone, and will soak up huge amounts of your time on ucla personal statement, debugging. With today's machines as powerful as they are, this is usually a bad tradeoff €” it's smarter to use a language that uses the machine's time less efficiently, but your time much more efficiently.

Thus, Python. Other languages of particular importance to hackers include Perl and title, LISP. A Speech! Perl is worth learning for practical reasons; it's very widely used for active web pages and system administration, so that even if you never write Perl you should learn to page paper read it. Many people use Perl in the way I suggest you should use Python, to avoid C programming on jobs that don't require C's machine efficiency. Ucla Statement! You will need to be able to title page apa format understand their code. LISP is essay worth learning for a different reason €” the title page research, profound enlightenment experience you will have when you finally get it.

That experience will make you a better programmer for the rest of your days, even if you never actually use LISP itself a lot. (You can get some beginning experience with LISP fairly easily by writing and modifying editing modes for the Emacs text editor, or Script-Fu plugins for the GIMP.) It's best, actually, to learn all five of Python, C/C++, Java, Perl, and LISP. Economics! Besides being the page apa format, most important hacking languages, they represent very different approaches to programming, and each will educate you in valuable ways. But be aware that you won't reach the skill level of a hacker or even merely a programmer simply by help, accumulating languages €” you need to learn how to think about page for a programming problems in a general way, independent of any one language. Short On Children! To be a real hacker, you need to get to the point where you can learn a new language in days by relating what's in the manual to page what you already know. This means you should learn several very different languages. I can't give complete instructions on how to learn to program here €” it's a complex skill. But I can tell you that books and courses won't do it €” many, maybe most of the essay on forgiveness, best hackers are self-taught. You can learn language features €” bits of knowledge €” from for a paper books, but the mind-set that makes that knowledge into living skill can be learned only by practice and apprenticeship.

What will do it is (a) reading code and (b) writing code . Peter Norvig, who is one of how do Google's top hackers and the co-author of the most widely used textbook on AI, has written an title research excellent essay called Teach Yourself Programming in Ten Years. His recipe for programming success is worth careful attention. Learning to program is like learning to write good natural language. The best way to do it is to read some stuff written by development economics, masters of the form, write some things yourself, read a lot more, write a little more, read a lot more, write some more . and repeat until your writing begins to page for a research apa format develop the ucla personal statement, kind of strength and economy you see in your models. I have had more to say about paper this learning process in How To Learn Hacking. It's a simple set of instructions, but not an easy one. Finding good code to read used to be hard, because there were few large programs available in source for fledgeling hackers to read and tinker with. This has changed dramatically; open-source software, programming tools, and operating systems (all built by phd thesis, hackers) are now widely available. Which brings me neatly to our next topic.

2. Get one of the open-source Unixes and learn to use and run it. I'll assume you have a personal computer or can get access to one. Title For A Research Apa Format! (Take a moment to appreciate how much that means. The hacker culture originally evolved back when computers were so expensive that individuals could not own them.) The single most important step any newbie can take toward acquiring hacker skills is to get a copy of Linux or one of the BSD-Unixes, install it on a personal machine, and development economics, run it. Yes, there are other operating systems in the world besides Unix. But they're distributed in binary €” you can't read the code, and you can't modify it.

Trying to learn to research hack on a Microsoft Windows machine or under any other closed-source system is like trying to best creative courses learn to dance while wearing a body cast. Under Mac OS X it's possible, but only part of the system is open source €” you're likely to hit a lot of walls, and you have to be careful not to develop the bad habit of depending on page research paper, Apple's proprietary code. If you concentrate on the Unix under the hood you can learn some useful things. Unix is the operating system of the Internet. Best Online Writing! While you can learn to use the Internet without knowing Unix, you can't be an Internet hacker without understanding Unix. For this reason, the hacker culture today is pretty strongly Unix-centered. (This wasn't always true, and some old-time hackers still aren't happy about for a research paper apa format it, but the symbiosis between Unix and the Internet has become strong enough that even Microsoft's muscle doesn't seem able to seriously dent it.) So, bring up a Unix €” I like Linux myself but there are other ways (and yes, you can run both Linux and u write a speech, Microsoft Windows on the same machine). Learn it.

Run it. Title Page For A Apa Format! Tinker with it. U Write A Speech! Talk to the Internet with it. Read the code. Modify the title research, code. You'll get better programming tools (including C, LISP, Python, and Perl) than any Microsoft operating system can dream of networking assignment help hosting, you'll have fun, and you'll soak up more knowledge than you realize you're learning until you look back on it as a master hacker.

For more about learning Unix, see The Loginataka. You might also want to have a look at title for a paper, The Art Of Unix Programming. The blog Let's Go Larval! is a window on the learning process of a new Linux user that I think is networking unusually lucid and helpful. For A Research! The post How I Learned Linux makes a good starting point. To get your hands on a Linux, see the Linux Online! site; you can download from best online writing there or (better idea) find a local Linux user group to title for a apa format help you with installation.

During the first ten years of short essay of television this HOWTO's life, I reported that from a new user's point of view, all Linux distributions are almost equivalent. But in 2006-2007, an actual best choice emerged: Ubuntu. While other distros have their own areas of strength, Ubuntu is far and away the most accessible to Linux newbies. Beware, though, of the title research paper apa format, hideous and nigh-unusable Unity desktop interface that Ubuntu introduced as a default a few years later; the Xubuntu or Kubuntu variants are better. You can find BSD Unix help and resources at www.bsd.org. A good way to dip your toes in the water is to boot up what Linux fans call a live CD, a distribution that runs entirely off a CD or USB stick without having to on forgiveness modify your hard disk. This may be slow, because CDs are slow, but it's a way to title page for a research get a look at the possibilities without having to do anything drastic. I used to recommend against installing either Linux or BSD as a solo project if you're a newbie. Nowadays the installers have gotten good enough that doing it entirely on your own is how do u write a speech possible, even for for a paper apa format, a newbie.

Nevertheless, I still recommend making contact with your local Linux user's group and asking for help. It can't hurt, and on forgiveness cs lewis, may smooth the process. 3. Learn how to use the World Wide Web and write HTML. Most of the things the hacker culture has built do their work out of sight, helping run factories and offices and title page paper, universities without any obvious impact on how non-hackers live. Essay Cs Lewis! The Web is the one big exception, the huge shiny hacker toy that even politicians admit has changed the world. For this reason alone (and a lot of other good ones as well) you need to title page research paper learn how to work the Web. This doesn't just mean learning how to drive a browser (anyone can do that), but learning how to write HTML, the Web's markup language. Help! If you don't know how to program, writing HTML will teach you some mental habits that will help you learn. So build a home page. But just having a home page isn't anywhere near good enough to title page make you a hacker.

The Web is full of home pages. Most of them are pointless, zero-content sludge €” very snazzy-looking sludge, mind you, but sludge all the same (for more on this see The HTML Hell Page). To be worthwhile, your page must have content €” it must be interesting and/or useful to other hackers. And that brings us to online the next topic. 4. If you don't have functional English, learn it. As an American and native English-speaker myself, I have previously been reluctant to suggest this, lest it be taken as a sort of cultural imperialism. Title For A Paper Apa Format! But several native speakers of other languages have urged me to point out networking assignment help that English is the working language of the title research paper, hacker culture and the Internet, and that you will need to know it to function in the hacker community. Back around 1991 I learned that many hackers who have English as a second language use it in technical discussions even when they share a birth tongue; it was reported to me at the time that English has a richer technical vocabulary than any other language and personal, is therefore simply a better tool for the job.

For similar reasons, translations of technical books written in English are often unsatisfactory (when they get done at all). Linus Torvalds, a Finn, comments his code in English (it apparently never occurred to page for a research paper apa format him to do otherwise). His fluency in English has been an important factor in his ability to recruit a worldwide community of developers for Linux. U Write! It's an example worth following. Being a native English-speaker does not guarantee that you have language skills good enough to page research function as a hacker. If your writing is semi-literate, ungrammatical, and riddled with misspellings, many hackers (including myself) will tend to ignore you. While sloppy writing does not invariably mean sloppy thinking, we've generally found the correlation to be strong €” and essay on influence, we have no use for sloppy thinkers. If you can't yet write competently, learn to. Like most cultures without a money economy, hackerdom runs on research paper apa format, reputation.

You're trying to solve interesting problems, but how interesting they are, and whether your solutions are really good, is something that only your technical peers or superiors are normally equipped to judge. Accordingly, when you play the hacker game, you learn to keep score primarily by what other hackers think of assignment your skill (this is why you aren't really a hacker until other hackers consistently call you one). Title Page For A Paper! This fact is obscured by the image of hacking as solitary work; also by a hacker-cultural taboo (gradually decaying since the late 1990s but still potent) against admitting that ego or external validation are involved in on forgiveness, one's motivation at all. Specifically, hackerdom is what anthropologists call a gift culture . You gain status and reputation in it not by dominating other people, nor by being beautiful, nor by having things other people want, but rather by giving things away. Specifically, by giving away your time, your creativity, and the results of your skill.

There are basically five kinds of things you can do to be respected by hackers: The first (the most central and most traditional) is to write programs that other hackers think are fun or useful, and research apa format, give the ucla personal statement, program sources away to the whole hacker culture to use. (We used to call these works €œfree software€, but this confused too many people who weren't sure exactly what €œfree€ was supposed to mean. Most of us now prefer the term €œopen-source€ software). Hackerdom's most revered demigods are people who have written large, capable programs that met a widespread need and given them away, so that now everyone uses them. But there's a bit of title for a apa format a fine historical point here. Networking Help! While hackers have always looked up to the open-source developers among them as our community's hardest core, before the page for a research, mid-1990s most hackers most of the time worked on closed source. This was still true when I wrote the first version of this HOWTO in 1996; it took the mainstreaming of open-source software after 1997 to change things.

Today, the hacker community and open-source developers are two descriptions for what is essentially the same culture and population €” but it is worth remembering that this was not always so. (For more on this, see the economics phd thesis, section called €œHistorical Note: Hacking, Open Source, and Free Software€.) 2. Page For A Research Paper Apa Format! Help test and debug open-source software. They also serve who stand and debug open-source software. In this imperfect world, we will inevitably spend most of development our software development time in the debugging phase. That's why any open-source author who's thinking will tell you that good beta-testers (who know how to describe symptoms clearly, localize problems well, can tolerate bugs in page research paper apa format, a quickie release, and short essay on children, are willing to apply a few simple diagnostic routines) are worth their weight in rubies. Title For A Paper! Even one of these can make the difference between a debugging phase that's a protracted, exhausting nightmare and one that's merely a salutary nuisance. If you're a newbie, try to find a program under development that you're interested in and be a good beta-tester. There's a natural progression from helping test programs to helping debug them to of television helping modify them. Title For A Research Paper! You'll learn a lot this way, and generate good karma with people who will help you later on. Another good thing is to collect and filter useful and assignment help, interesting information into web pages or documents like Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) lists, and make those generally available.

Maintainers of major technical FAQs get almost as much respect as open-source authors. 4. Help keep the page for a research apa format, infrastructure working. The hacker culture (and the engineering development of the Internet, for that matter) is run by volunteers. There's a lot of necessary but unglamorous work that needs done to keep it going €” administering mailing lists, moderating newsgroups, maintaining large software archive sites, developing RFCs and other technical standards. People who do this sort of thing well get a lot of ucla statement respect, because everybody knows these jobs are huge time sinks and not as much fun as playing with code. Title Page! Doing them shows dedication. 5. Serve the statement, hacker culture itself.

Finally, you can serve and propagate the culture itself (by, for example, writing an accurate primer on how to become a hacker :-)). This is not something you'll be positioned to research do until you've been around for while and become well-known for economics phd thesis, one of the first four things. The hacker culture doesn't have leaders, exactly, but it does have culture heroes and tribal elders and historians and spokespeople. When you've been in the trenches long enough, you may grow into one of these. Title! Beware: hackers distrust blatant ego in their tribal elders, so visibly reaching for this kind of u write a speech fame is title page paper dangerous. Rather than striving for it, you have to sort of position yourself so it drops in your lap, and a speech, then be modest and gracious about your status. Contrary to popular myth, you don't have to be a nerd to be a hacker. It does help, however, and many hackers are in title page for a paper apa format, fact nerds.

Being something of personal statement a social outcast helps you stay concentrated on the really important things, like thinking and hacking. For this reason, many hackers have adopted the label €˜geek€™ as a badge of pride €” it's a way of declaring their independence from normal social expectations (as well as a fondness for other things like science fiction and strategy games that often go with being a hacker). The term 'nerd' used to be used this way back in the 1990s, back when 'nerd' was a mild pejorative and apa format, 'geek' a rather harsher one; sometime after 2000 they switched places, at least in U.S. popular culture, and there is essay on forgiveness cs lewis now even a significant geek-pride culture among people who aren't techies. If you can manage to concentrate enough on hacking to be good at it and still have a life, that's fine. This is a lot easier today than it was when I was a newbie in page research paper, the 1970s; mainstream culture is creative courses much friendlier to techno-nerds now.

There are even growing numbers of page for a people who realize that hackers are often high-quality lover and spouse material. If you're attracted to hacking because you don't have a life, that's OK too €” at of television on children, least you won't have trouble concentrating. Maybe you'll get a life later on. Again, to be a hacker, you have to enter the hacker mindset. There are some things you can do when you're not at a computer that seem to help. Page For A Research! They're not substitutes for hacking (nothing is) but many hackers do them, and networking, feel that they connect in some basic way with the page for a research, essence of hacking. Learn to write your native language well. Though it's a common stereotype that programmers can't write, a surprising number of hackers (including all the most accomplished ones I know of) are very able writers. Read science fiction. Go to science fiction conventions (a good way to how do meet hackers and research apa format, proto-hackers).

Join a hackerspace and make things (another good way to meet hackers and personal, proto-hackers). Train in a martial-arts form. Paper Apa Format! The kind of mental discipline required for martial arts seems to be similar in important ways to what hackers do. The most popular forms among hackers are definitely Asian empty-hand arts such as Tae Kwon Do, various forms of Karate, Kung Fu, Aikido, or Ju Jitsu. Western fencing and Asian sword arts also have visible followings. Essay On Forgiveness! In places where it's legal, pistol shooting has been rising in title page for a, popularity since the u write a speech, late 1990s.

The most hackerly martial arts are those which emphasize mental discipline, relaxed awareness, and precise control, rather than raw strength, athleticism, or physical toughness. Study an actual meditation discipline. Page Research! The perennial favorite among hackers is Zen (importantly, it is possible to benefit from Zen without acquiring a religion or discarding one you already have). Personal Statement! Other styles may work as well, but be careful to choose one that doesn't require you to believe crazy things. Develop an analytical ear for title, music. Learn to appreciate peculiar kinds of development phd thesis music. Learn to play some musical instrument well, or how to sing.

Develop your appreciation of page puns and wordplay. The more of short on influence these things you already do, the title for a, more likely it is that you are natural hacker material. Why these things in particular is not completely clear, but they're connected with a mix of economics left- and right-brain skills that seems to be important; hackers need to be able to title page paper both reason logically and step outside the apparent logic of a problem at a moment's notice. Work as intensely as you play and play as intensely as you work. For true hackers, the personal, boundaries between play, work, science and page for a research apa format, art all tend to disappear, or to networking help merge into a high-level creative playfulness.

Also, don't be content with a narrow range of skills. Title Research Paper! Though most hackers self-describe as programmers, they are very likely to be more than competent in several related skills €” system administration, web design, and PC hardware troubleshooting are common ones. A hacker who's a system administrator, on networking help, the other hand, is title for a paper likely to be quite skilled at essay of television, script programming and title page research paper, web design. Assignment! Hackers don't do things by halves; if they invest in page paper apa format, a skill at cs lewis, all, they tend to get very good at it. Finally, a few things not to page apa format do.

Don't use a silly, grandiose user ID or screen name. Don't get in u write, flame wars on Usenet (or anywhere else). Don't call yourself a €˜cyberpunk€™, and don't waste your time on anybody who does. Don't post or email writing that's full of spelling errors and bad grammar. The only reputation you'll make doing any of these things is as a twit. Hackers have long memories €” it could take you years to live your early blunders down enough to be accepted. The problem with screen names or handles deserves some amplification. Concealing your identity behind a handle is a juvenile and silly behavior characteristic of crackers, warez d00dz, and other lower life forms. Hackers don't do this; they're proud of what they do and apa format, want it associated with their real names. So if you have a handle, drop it.

In the hacker culture it will only mark you as a loser. Historical Note: Hacking, Open Source, and Free Software. When I originally wrote this how-to in late 1996, some of the conditions around it were very different from the way they look today. How Do U Write A Speech! A few words about these changes may help clarify matters for people who are confused about the relationship of open source, free software, and page for a research, Linux to the hacker community. If you are not curious about this, you can skip straight to economics phd thesis the FAQ and bibliography from here. The hacker ethos and page for a paper apa format, community as I have described it here long predates the emergence of Linux after 1990; I first became involved with it around 1976, and, its roots are readily traceable back to the early 1960s. But before Linux, most hacking was done on networking help, either proprietary operating systems or a handful of quasi-experimental homegrown systems like MIT's ITS that were never deployed outside of page research apa format their original academic niches. While there had been some earlier (pre-Linux) attempts to change this situation, their impact was at development, best very marginal and confined to communities of dedicated true believers which were tiny minorities even within the title page for a research paper apa format, hacker community, let alone with respect to the larger world of software in general.

What is best online creative courses now called open source goes back as far as the hacker community does, but until 1985 it was an unnamed folk practice rather than a conscious movement with theories and manifestos attached to title for a research paper apa format it. This prehistory ended when, in 1985, arch-hacker Richard Stallman (RMS) tried to help give it a name €” free software. But his act of naming was also an act of claiming; he attached ideological baggage to the free software label which much of the existing hacker community never accepted. As a result, the free software label was loudly rejected by a substantial minority of the hacker community (especially among those associated with BSD Unix), and used with serious but silent reservations by a majority of the remainder (including myself). Despite these reservations, RMS's claim to define and lead the hacker community under the free software banner broadly held until the mid-1990s. It was seriously challenged only by the rise of title page paper apa format Linux. Ucla Personal Statement! Linux gave open-source development a natural home. Many projects issued under terms we would now call open-source migrated from title research apa format proprietary Unixes to Linux. The community around Linux grew explosively, becoming far larger and more heterogenous than the u write a speech, pre-Linux hacker culture. RMS determinedly attempted to co-opt all this activity into page his free software movement, but was thwarted by both the exploding diversity of the Linux community and the public skepticism of its founder, Linus Torvalds. Torvalds continued to use the term free software for lack of any alternative, but publicly rejected RMS's ideological baggage.

Many younger hackers followed suit. In 1996, when I first published this Hacker HOWTO, the hacker community was rapidly reorganizing around Linux and a handful of other open-source operating systems (notably those descended from BSD Unix). How Do! Community memory of the fact that most of us had spent decades developing closed-source software on closed-source operating systems had not yet begun to title paper apa format fade, but that fact was already beginning to seem like part of a dead past; hackers were, increasingly, defining themselves as hackers by their attachments to open-source projects such as Linux or Apache. The term open source, however, had not yet emerged; it would not do so until early 1998. When it did, most of the development phd thesis, hacker community adopted it within the following six months; the for a, exceptions were a minority ideologically attached to the term free software. Since 1998, and online creative courses, especially after about 2003, the identification of 'hacking' with 'open-source (and free software) development' has become extremely close. Title Research Paper Apa Format! Today there is little point in essay on influence, attempting to title for a distinguish between these categories, and it seems unlikely that will change in the future.

It is networking assignment help worth remembering, however, that this was not always so. Paul Graham has written an essay called Great Hackers, and another on for a paper, Undergraduation, in which he speaks much wisdom. Younger hackers might find Things Every Hacker Once Knew interesting and useful. I have written a paper, The Cathedral and online creative courses, the Bazaar , which explains a lot about how the Linux and for a paper, open-source cultures work. I have addressed this topic even more directly in its sequel Homesteading the Noosphere . Rick Moen has written an networking help excellent document on page paper apa format, how to run a Linux user group. Rick Moen and I have collaborated on another document on best courses, How To Ask Smart Questions. This will help you seek assistance in page for a apa format, a way that makes it more likely that you will actually get it. If you need instruction in networking assignment help, the basics of title how personal computers, Unix, and the Internet work, see The Unix and essay on forgiveness cs lewis, Internet Fundamentals HOWTO. When you release software or write patches for page for a research paper, software, try to follow the guidelines in creative writing, the Software Release Practice HOWTO.

How do I tell if I am already a hacker? Ask yourself the following three questions: Do you speak code, fluently? Do you identify with the goals and values of the hacker community? Has a well-established member of the title page research apa format, hacker community ever called you a hacker? If you can answer yes to on forgiveness all three of these questions, you are already a hacker.

No two alone are sufficient. The first test is about skills. You probably pass it if you have the minimum technical skills described earlier in this document. You blow right through it if you have had a substantial amount of code accepted by an open-source development project. The second test is page for a apa format about attitude.

If the five principles of the hacker mindset seemed obvious to you, more like a description of the personal statement, way you already live than anything novel, you are already halfway to passing it. Page For A Research! That's the inward half; the other, outward half is the degree to how do u write which you identify with the hacker community's long-term projects. Here is an research apa format incomplete but indicative list of some of those projects: Does it matter to you that Linux improve and spread? Are you passionate about software freedom? Hostile to economics monopolies? Do you act on the belief that computers can be instruments of empowerment that make the world a richer and more humane place? But a note of caution is in order here. The hacker community has some specific, primarily defensive political interests €” two of them are defending free-speech rights and for a research apa format, fending off intellectual-property power grabs that would make open source illegal. Some of those long-term projects are civil-liberties organizations like the Electronic Frontier Foundation, and the outward attitude properly includes support of them.

But beyond that, most hackers view attempts to systematize the hacker attitude into an explicit political program with suspicion; we've learned, the creative writing, hard way, that these attempts are divisive and distracting. If someone tries to recruit you to page research paper apa format march on your capitol in the name of the hacker attitude, they've missed the point. The right response is probably €œ Shut up and development, show them the code. €. The third test has a tricky element of recursiveness about it. I observed in the section called €œWhat Is a Hacker?€ that being a hacker is partly a matter of belonging to a particular subculture or social network with a shared history, an inside and title page for a research, an outside.

In the far past, hackers were a much less cohesive and self-aware group than they are today. But the importance of the social-network aspect has increased over the last thirty years as the Internet has made connections with the core of the hacker subculture easier to develop and maintain. One easy behavioral index of the change is that, in this century, we have our own T-shirts. Sociologists, who study networks like those of the hacker culture under the general rubric of essay on forgiveness cs lewis invisible colleges, have noted that one characteristic of such networks is that they have gatekeepers €” core members with the social authority to page for a research paper apa format endorse new members into the network. Because the invisible college that is hacker culture is a loose and creative writing courses, informal one, the role of gatekeeper is informal too. But one thing that all hackers understand in their bones is that not every hacker is title page for a apa format a gatekeeper.

Gatekeepers have to have a certain degree of short essay on influence on children seniority and accomplishment before they can bestow the title. How much is hard to quantify, but every hacker knows it when they see it. Will you teach me how to hack? Since first publishing this page, I've gotten several requests a week (often several a day) from people to title page teach me all about hacking. Unfortunately, I don't have the time or energy to short of television on children do this; my own hacking projects, and working as an open-source advocate, take up 110% of my time. Even if I did, hacking is an attitude and skill you basically have to teach yourself. You'll find that while real hackers want to title paper help you, they won't respect you if you beg to be spoon-fed everything they know. Learn a few things first. Show that you're trying, that you're capable of ucla learning on your own. Title For A Apa Format! Then go to the hackers you meet with specific questions. If you do email a hacker asking for essay on forgiveness cs lewis, advice, here are two things to know up front.

First, we've found that people who are lazy or careless in their writing are usually too lazy and title page paper, careless in their thinking to make good hackers €” so take care to spell correctly, and use good grammar and punctuation, otherwise you'll probably be ignored. Secondly, don't dare ask for a reply to an ISP account that's different from the account you're sending from; we find people who do that are usually thieves using stolen accounts, and we have no interest in how do a speech, rewarding or assisting thievery. How can I get started, then? The best way for you to get started would probably be to page apa format go to a LUG (Linux user group) meeting. You can find such groups on the LDP General Linux Information Page; there is probably one near you, possibly associated with a college or university. Short Essay On Influence! LUG members will probably give you a Linux if you ask, and will certainly help you install one and page for a research paper apa format, get started. Your next step (and your first step if you can't find a LUG nearby) should be to find an open-source project that interests you.

Start reading code and reviewing bugs. Best Writing Courses! Learn to title page paper apa format contribute, and work your way in. The only economics phd thesis, way in is by working to improve your skills. If you ask me personally for advice on title, how to get started, I will tell you these exact same things, because I don't have any magic shortcuts for online courses, you. I will also mentally write you off as a probable loser - because if you lacked the stamina to read this FAQ and the intelligence to understand from it that the page, only way in is by working to improve your skills , you're hopeless.

Another interesting possibility is to go visit a hackerspace. U Write! There is a burgeoning movement of people creating physical locations - maker's clubs - where they can hang out to work on page research paper apa format, hardware and software projects together, or work solo in phd thesis, a cogenial atmosphere. Hackerspaces often collect tools and specialized equipment that would be too expensive or logistically inconvenient for title paper, individuals to own. Hackerspaces are easy to find on the Internet; one may be located near you. When do you have to start? Is it too late for me to learn?

Any age at which you are motivated to start is personal statement a good age. Most people seem to title paper get interested between ages 15 and 20, but I know of essay cs lewis exceptions in for a paper apa format, both directions. How long will it take me to learn to hack? That depends on essay on forgiveness, how talented you are and how hard you work at it. Title Apa Format! Most people who try can acquire a respectable skill set in eighteen months to two years, if they concentrate. Don't think it ends there, though; in hacking (as in many other fields) it takes about ten years to achieve mastery.

And if you are a real hacker, you will spend the development economics phd thesis, rest of title page research paper your life learning and perfecting your craft. Is Visual Basic a good language to start with? If you're asking this question, it almost certainly means you're thinking about trying to hack under Microsoft Windows. This is a bad idea in itself. When I compared trying to learn to hack under Windows to trying to learn to help dance while wearing a body cast, I wasn't kidding. Don't go there. It's ugly, and it never stops being ugly.

There is a specific problem with Visual Basic; mainly that it's not portable. Though there is a prototype open-source implementations of Visual Basic, the applicable ECMA standards don't cover more than a small set of its programming interfaces. Page For A Paper Apa Format! On Windows most of u write its library support is proprietary to a single vendor (Microsoft); if you aren't extremely careful about title page apa format which features you use €” more careful than any newbie is really capable of being €” you'll end up locked into only those platforms Microsoft chooses to support. If you're starting on a Unix, much better languages with better libraries are available. Python, for example. Also, like other Basics, Visual Basic is a poorly-designed language that will teach you bad programming habits.

No, don't ask me to describe them in detail; that explanation would fill a book. Learn a well-designed language instead. One of those bad habits is becoming dependent on a single vendor's libraries, widgets, and development tools. Ucla Personal Statement! In general, any language that isn't fully supported under at title, least Linux or one of the development, BSDs, and/or at least three different vendors' operating systems, is a poor one to learn to hack in. Would you help me to crack a system, or teach me how to crack? No. Anyone who can still ask such a question after reading this FAQ is too stupid to be educable even if I had the time for tutoring. Title Page Paper! Any emailed requests of this kind that I get will be ignored or answered with extreme rudeness. How can I get the password for someone else's account? This is cracking. Go away, idiot.

How can I break into/read/monitor someone else's email? This is cracking. Get lost, moron. How can I steal channel op privileges on IRC? This is on forgiveness cs lewis cracking. Begone, cretin. I've been cracked. Title For A Research Paper! Will you help me fend off further attacks? No. Every time I've been asked this question so far, it's been from some poor sap running Microsoft Windows. It is ucla personal not possible to page for a research paper effectively secure Windows systems against crack attacks; the code and architecture simply have too many flaws, which makes securing Windows like trying to bail out a boat with a sieve.

The only reliable prevention starts with switching to Linux or some other operating system that is designed to at least be capable of security. I'm having problems with my Windows software. Will you help me? Yes. Go to a DOS prompt and type format c:. Any problems you are experiencing will cease within a few minutes. Where can I find some real hackers to talk with?

The best way is to find a Unix or Linux user's group local to writing you and go to their meetings (you can find links to several lists of page for a paper apa format user groups on ucla, the LDP site at ibiblio). (I used to say here that you wouldn't find any real hackers on IRC, but I'm given to understand this is page research paper apa format changing. Development! Apparently some real hacker communities, attached to things like GIMP and page research paper apa format, Perl, have IRC channels now.) Can you recommend useful books about hacking-related subjects? I maintain a Linux Reading List HOWTO that you may find helpful. The Loginataka may also be interesting.

For an introduction to Python, see the tutorial on the Python site. Do I need to be good at math to become a hacker? No. Hacking uses very little formal mathematics or arithmetic. In particular, you won't usually need trigonometry, calculus or analysis (there are exceptions to u write this in a handful of specific application areas like 3-D computer graphics).

Knowing some formal logic and Boolean algebra is good. Some grounding in research paper, finite mathematics (including finite-set theory, combinatorics, and graph theory) can be helpful. Much more importantly: you need to essay cs lewis be able to think logically and follow chains of exact reasoning, the title, way mathematicians do. While the content of most mathematics won't help you, you will need the discipline and intelligence to handle mathematics. If you lack the intelligence, there is little hope for you as a hacker; if you lack the discipline, you'd better grow it. I think a good way to find out if you have what it takes is to pick up a copy of best online creative writing Raymond Smullyan's book What Is The Name Of This Book? . Smullyan's playful logical conundrums are very much in the hacker spirit. Being able to solve them is a good sign; enjoying solving them is an even better one. What language should I learn first?

HTML if you don't already know it. For A Paper! There are a lot of glossy, hype-intensive bad HTML books out there, and distressingly few good ones. Best Creative Writing! The one I like best is title page for a paper apa format HTML: The Definitive Guide . But HTML is not a full programming language. When you're ready to start programming, I would recommend starting with Python. You will hear a lot of people recommending Perl, but it's harder to learn and (in my opinion) less well designed. C is really important, but it's also much more difficult than either Python or Perl.

Don't try to learn it first. Windows users, do not settle for cs lewis, Visual Basic. It will teach you bad habits, and it's not portable off Windows. Avoid. What kind of hardware do I need? It used to be that personal computers were rather underpowered and memory-poor, enough so that they placed artificial limits on title page apa format, a hacker's learning process. This stopped being true in the mid-1990s; any machine from an Intel 486DX50 up is on forgiveness more than powerful enough for development work, X, and Internet communications, and the smallest disks you can buy today are plenty big enough. The important thing in page apa format, choosing a machine on which to cs lewis learn is title for a research paper apa format whether its hardware is Linux-compatible (or BSD-compatible, should you choose to go that route). Again, this will be true for almost all modern machines.

The only really sticky areas are modems and wireless cards; some machines have Windows-specific hardware that won't work with Linux. There's a FAQ on essay, hardware compatibility; the page for a, latest version is ucla personal here. I want to contribute. Paper Apa Format! Can you help me pick a problem to work on? No, because I don't know your talents or interests. You have to be self-motivated or you won't stick, which is why having other people choose your direction almost never works.

Do I need to hate and bash Microsoft? No, you don't. Not that Microsoft isn't loathsome, but there was a hacker culture long before Microsoft and there will still be one long after Microsoft is history. Development Phd Thesis! Any energy you spend hating Microsoft would be better spent on loving your craft. Write good code €” that will bash Microsoft quite sufficiently without polluting your karma. But won't open-source software leave programmers unable to make a living? This seems unlikely €” so far, the open-source software industry seems to be creating jobs rather than taking them away. If having a program written is a net economic gain over page for a research paper, not having it written, a programmer will get paid whether or not the essay of television on children, program is going to for a be open-source after it's done. On Forgiveness Cs Lewis! And, no matter how much free software gets written, there always seems to be more demand for new and customized applications. I've written more about title for a research paper this at the Open Source pages. Where can I get a free Unix?

If you don't have a Unix installed on your machine yet, elsewhere on short essay on influence of television, this page I include pointers to title page research where to get the most commonly used free Unix. To be a hacker you need motivation and initiative and the ability to educate yourself. Start now.