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Let's Write a CAE Proposal Together. Here's a real Cambridge English: Advanced sample proposal task. There are plans to demolish an tech old and essay, unused building in the town where you are a student. You feel that the building should be saved. You decide to write a proposal for the town council explaining why you think the building should be preserved, suggesting what could be done to modernise it and library, saying how the building could benefit the local people.
Write your proposal . Asked To Discuss! First I should come up with some ideas about why the building should be saved and electronic and dissertation library, some ideas about macbeth essays how to modernise it. My home city in England is virginia tech thesis library full of old buildings that have been turned into offices and flats so it's quite easy for me to come up with ideas. By the way - the 3 parts of the task could be used as 3 paragraphs in my proposal. What Like! Easy, right? historic - someone famous lived there? famous event there? architecture. landmark. local pride. turn into offices, flats, mixed use, creative spaces, green spaces, insulation, solar panels, parking, bike racks. Tech Electronic! great flats in local landmark, sense of pride in community, boost property values in thinking area, need jobs in that part of city, connect X street with Y street, reduce crime. This is being written for my local council, so I'm going to be quite formal. I am not going to use bullet points because if you write well they are not needed. I'm going to tech electronic, use at least one passive sentence and at least one inversion (Not only do people love this building but also. Is A Master's Thesis Defense Like! ). I'm not going to be a fanatic about virginia tech electronic thesis and dissertation this issue - that isn't persuasive. I AM going to mention problems with my plan, and give reasons why the old building SHOULD be demolished. Why?
Because a balanced argument is a persuasive argument - but mostly because that will allow me to use more linking words like 'while, whereas' and some complex sentence structures like 'While there's no doubt the old building something something, I would argue that blah blah.' Enough waffle. Asked In An! Let's write. Yo, council dudes! You wanna knock down the rec centre on Princess Parkway? No wayz! I like it! Me and me mates used to go there and chuck pebbles at windows! Proposal to virginia, Repurpose Ducie Central.
In this proposal I aim to persuade the Council that Ducie Central is a landmark building, that its demolition is not in the public interest, and that the building could still have a bright future. Why Ducie Central Should Be Preserved. Ducie Central was the first adult education centre in the city, and it stood as a point of pride for hundreds of years before falling into to do homework, neglect. Even today in its shabby, vandalised state, it is warmly regarded - many older people took classes there, and virginia tech thesis and dissertation library, even some teenagers can remember the annual fun fair that was held on the grounds. But the building is more than memories - it's a place where education used to happen, and where it can happen again. Ducie is old and would cost a fortune to heat. There's no doubt it would be expensive to insulate, install triple-glazed windows, and set up solar panels on the roofs. However, local architects and the Engineering College are willing to work on my proposed redevelopment for free. I recommend that one section be converted into office space - that would help offset the cost of the project. Redevelopment Would Benefit Everyone.
It's not hard to see who would benefit from by barack obama, demolition - property developers who would buy the land cheaply and virginia electronic thesis library, throw up some copy/paste housing. When In An Essay! Modernising the building and re-opening the college would benefit not only the tech electronic library, people who would study there but also the essay of criticism, whole community. It would be a focal point and we could hold the fun fair like in the past. I believe that modernising the building is the best choice and strongly urge you to electronic thesis library, consider it. Homework! I do blab on, don't I? So mine was pretty good, but let's look at one a student wrote. This is from the Cambridge CAE handbook so we'll be able to see exactly what Cambridge think about it. To: Municipal council.
Subject: Municipal Library. Tech And Dissertation! I come through this letter to make an appeal for the not destruction of the getting kids, Municipal Library’s building. One of the reasons why the building should be preserved is virginia electronic and dissertation library because of essay, its touching past. It was built with only imported material of best quality, and it was the second library in the country. It was also, for more than a hundred years, the biggest and more luxuous public building in the whole country.
For its characteristic seventeenth century building and for its importance in the past, it is still studied and visited by historians. The building is virginia tech electronic thesis library located right in the middle of the town, so it is accessible for the entire population, and it is also the biggest building in town, and it can surely support more books than any other building. Master's Thesis! By destructing the building it would with absolutly no doubt be a huge loss of books and culture. There is no point arguing that the virginia tech electronic thesis library, building is quite old-fashioned and could use some improvements. It could really use some painting and macbeth analytical essays, repairing on the wall and floor, however, the best would be making some technological improvements, such as elevatiors, computers and an electronic “finding books” system. Tech And Dissertation! To sum up, there are plenty of reasons why the library should be preserved, it benefits the essay by barack obama, people, the history and the culture, and I would be pleased if you took my letter in consideration. Remember that Cambridge score writing on 4 things: Content, Communicative Achievement, Organisation, and virginia tech electronic thesis library, Language.
For content they gave this student a 5 (out of macbeth analytical essays, 5). He did everything he was supposed to do. In the real world, the reader would understand the proposal and be able to make a decision. Virginia Tech Library! I'm going to give myself 5 out of 5 for my text. Cambridge rated this at only 2. The first problem is that the student said he was writing a letter instead of a proposal.
It's doubly weird because he uses headings like in a proposal. Writing 'letter' is just confusing. The main problem is asked to discuss that the text focuses on the past - proposals are about the future. Virginia Thesis Library! My text might be a bit too past-leaning, too. Getting Kids! So maybe I wouldn't get full marks.
I should have written more about the future benefits of preserving Ducie Central. Virginia Tech Thesis And Dissertation! Here the student scored a 3. Cambridge praised the socrates and critical thinking, way he split the text into sections each dealing with a separate aspect of the question. That's good news for my text because I did the same. They also liked that he used cohesive devices - phrases that link sentences and virginia tech, paragraphs together and that he used complex structures to make key points. The problem seems to be that he doesn't have complete control over these sentences and they seem a bit unnatural to a native speaker. I'm going to award myself 5 out of 5 for MY text because my text is almost as high quality as The Old Man And The Sea.
This was another weak point for the candidate - he only scored a 2. There are examples of asked to discuss in an essay, good language and virginia tech electronic, he tried to use some advanced phrases and grammar. And while there were some mistakes they don't really stop you from kids, understanding the text. So is tech thesis and dissertation 2 a bit harsh? I think so - but that just shows the standard that is expected. You have to have good control - not just in a CAE proposal but in whatever you write at this level.
And you have to impress the examiners with your vocabulary and have minimal mistakes. There's a decent 'how to when asked in an, write a proposal' page on Ruben Valero's website. It includes some key phrases for proposals. He uses bullet points in the 'conclusion' part of the proposal, which is a good place to use them.
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How to Summarize, Paraphrase, and Quote from virginia tech thesis library, Sources. As you identify and evaluate research sources, you must make accurate notes of information you think might be useful in your essay. When To Discuss In An! There are many ways to take notes—from jotting down single words or phrases to photocopying entire articles. (For instruction on note-taking, see “Taking Good Research Notes” in How to Research Your Topic on this Web Site.) There are three ways of incorporating source information into your own writing: summary , paraphrase , and virginia tech thesis and dissertation library, direct quotation . When you summarize or paraphrase, you restate in your own words the idea(s) of another speaker or writer. What Is A Master's Thesis! When you quote, you reproduce the thesis and dissertation, exact words of another speaker or writer.
Of the three ways to essay, introduce ideas from a source into your research papers for college and university, direct quotation is the one you should use least€”except for thesis and dissertation, literary essays (see Writing the Literary Essay on this Web site). Macbeth Essays! When you are writing about literature, quotations from the original work(s) are the primary evidence in your argument. Literary essays can also rely on quotations from tech library, secondary sources (critics). For an example of a research essay that relies on when to discuss essay non-fiction literature for its sources, see Jessica Marlowe€™s €śWhat Makes You Happy?€ť on page 20 (APA format) and 441 (MLA format). Before we examine how to tech electronic thesis and dissertation library, use source information in your research papers, let’s review what plagiarism is and how to avoid it. Plagiarism is the single most troublesome problem faced by analytical students writing research papers and by the teachers who mark them. You can avoid it by citing (acknowledging) every piece of information that you found in the sources you used for your paper. Use an approved documentation style. See Format and Documentation on this Web site.
Here are the guidelines to follow: You do not need to give sources for facts or sayings that are common knowledge (e.g., “Edmonton is the capital of Alberta”; “Sir John A. Macdonald was Canada’s first prime minister”; “Beauty is in the eye of the beholder”). Any words taken directly from a source must be marked as a quotation, and you must give full information about the source. Virginia Library! (See the “Quoting” section below). Facts, opinions, and ideas that you found on the Internet, in a book or article, or in any other source must be acknowledged even if you express the information in your own words. (See Format and Documentation .) Facts, opinions, and ideas that you remember reading or hearing somewhere cannot be presented as your own. If you cannot find and acknowledge a source, you should not use the information. Note: Google is helpful in tracking down sources of essays information. If you aren’t sure if a fact, opinion, or idea should be acknowledged, err on the side of virginia tech electronic library caution and cite it. (It’s better to be safe than sorry.) When you summarize information, you find the main ideas in an article, essay, report, or other document, and rephrase them.
You shorten (condense) the macbeth analytical essays, most important idea or ideas in the source material and virginia tech electronic thesis, express them in your own words. The purpose of summarizing is to give the reader an overview of the article, report, or chapter. Is A Master's Thesis Like! If the reader is interested in electronic thesis, the details, he or she will read the original. It’s hard to overstate how valuable the ability to summarize is. Note-taking in school is one form of summarizing. Abstracts of articles, executive summaries of reports, market surveys, legal decisions, research findings, and records (called “minutes”) of meetings, to name only macbeth, a few kinds of formal documents, are all summaries. Tech Electronic Library! Thesis statements and topic sentences are essentially summaries; so, often, are conclusions. In committee, group, or teamwork, imagination and creativity are valuable, but the socrates thinking, ability to summarize is even more so.
There is no communication skill that you will need or use more than summarizing. In conversation, we all summarize every day: for example, with friends, you may summarize the plot of a movie you’ve just seen or what happened in electronic library, class this morning; when your mother calls, you’ll summarize the events of the what master's, past week that you want her to know about. But most of virginia electronic library us are not very good at summarizing efficiently, especially in writing. Written summaries, unlike conversational ones, require planning. Summarizing effectively is a skill that doesn’t come naturally. You need to practise it . The work you summarize can be as short as a paragraph or a poem, or as long as a book. Before you can summarize anything, you need to read and understand it. The material you summarize is usually an thinking article, essay, or chapter (or some portion of it). Virginia Electronic Thesis And Dissertation! A typical summary for an undergraduate research paper ranges from a few sentences to socrates and critical thinking, one or two paragraphs.
Here€™s how to proceed: Read through the piece carefully, looking up any words you don’t understand. Write the meanings above the virginia thesis, words they apply to. The title often identifies the subject of the article, and a subtitle usually indicates its focus. Essay Obama! If the piece is long, the library, writer will often divide it into a number of smaller sections, each with its own heading. These headings usually signal key ideas. If there are no headings, pay particular attention to the introduction, where you are likely to find an overview of the subject, together with a statement of the thesis; the topic sentence of each paragraph (topic sentences identify key ideas); and the conclusion, which often summarizes the thesis and points to socrates, its significance. In his essay “Put What Where? 2,000 Years of Bizarre Sexual Advice,” John Naish provides us with a history of sex manuals ranging from the oldest surviving examples written by the Chinese in 300 B.C. to the current mind-boggling array of books, videos, and tech thesis library, DVDs available to consumers at the beginning of the 21st century. Then state, in order, the author’s key ideas. After each sentence in which you identify a key idea, add in your own words any necessary explanation or clarification of origins obama that point. Virginia Tech Electronic Library! (The author, remember, developed each idea in his or her supporting details; your job is to condense those details into general statements that capture the gist of the author’s point.)
Resist the essay by barack obama, temptation to look back at the article or essay as you write your summary. If you have truly understood the source you are summarizing, you should be able to explain each point from memory. The time to check your work against the source is when you’ve finished the first draft of your summary. If the author’s conclusion contains any new information (i.e., is more than a summary and memorable statement), briefly reword that information in your conclusion. Revise your draft until it is coherent, concise, and makes sense to someone who is virginia electronic thesis, unfamiliar with the original work. It’s a good idea to get someone to read through your summary to check it for clarity and completeness. Here€™s an example of when in an essay summarizing in action. Turn to page 112 of Canadian Content , where you will find Wade Davis€™s €śThe End of the Wild.€ť Read this essay, highlighting the main ideas as you read. Now read our summary of tech thesis and dissertation this essay, below, and see how close you came to identifying what we think are its key points. In his essay, The End of the Wild,€ť Wade Davis provides us with three telling examples of the destruction humans have visited on Earth€™s life forms over the last 150 years. He begins with the plight of the passenger pigeon, which once constituted 40% of North America€™s bird population.
Between 1850 and 1900, the entire population of of criticism by pope passenger pigeons was wiped out. Then Davis turns to the Great Plains buffalo, a species that outnumbered humans as late as 1871 but fell prey to commercial market hunters. Finally, Davis recounts his own experience working as a logger in the pristine rainforest of west coast British Columbia. Davis€™s point is virginia and dissertation library, that humans are bringing ecological disaster to the planet. When To Discuss! (113-115) This five-sentence paragraph (117 words) captures the gist of virginia tech electronic thesis and dissertation library Davis€™s 4150 -word essay.
Admittedly, it isn€™t very interesting. All of the details that make Wade€™s piece such a compelling read are missing. Summaries are useful for conveying an outline or a brief overview of someone€™s ideas, but by themselves they are not memorable. Details and specifics are what stick in a reader€™s mind. Asked To Discuss In An! These are what your own writing should provide. A summary should be written entirely in your own words. Your ability to identify and interpret the tech thesis, author€™s ideas is evidence of asked to discuss essay your understanding of the source you are summarizing.
If you must include a short phrase from the source because there is no other way to word it, enclose the quoted material in quotation marks and provide a page reference. Now that we€™ve provided you with the €śdo€™s€ť about summarizing, it€™s time to warn you about the thesis library, €śdon€™ts.€ť. Introduce any ideas that are not mentioned in thinking, your source change the proportion or emphasis of the ideas represented in your source introduce your own opinion of the library, ideas or opinions discussed in your source use the same or similar working of the socrates, ideas that you found in tech thesis and dissertation, your source. When you paraphrase, you restate someone else’s ideas in analytical, your own words. Unlike a summary, a paraphrase includes both the main and virginia thesis and dissertation, supporting ideas of your source. Socrates! The usual purpose of a paraphrase is to express someone else’s ideas more clearly and more simply—to translate what may be complex in the original into easily understandable prose. Electronic And Dissertation Library! A paraphrase may be longer than the is a thesis defense like, original, it may be about the same length, or it may be shorter. Whatever its length, a good paraphrase satisfies three criteria: It is clear, concise, and easy to understand. Occasionally, you may need to clarify technical language or explain an aphorism, a proverb, or other saying that states a principle, offers an insight, or teaches a point.
Statements that pack a lot of meaning into few words can be explained only at greater length. For example, a phrase familiar to all baseball fans is €śhitting for the cycle.€ť It simply isn€™t possible to restate this phrase in three words. (It means that a batter gets a single, a double, a triple, and virginia tech and dissertation library, a home run in a single game.) To paraphrase a passage, you need to dig down through your source€™s words to the underlying ideas and then reword those ideas as clearly and essay by barack, simply as you can. Like summarizing, the ability to paraphrase is not an inborn talent; it takes patience and electronic thesis, much practice to perfect it. But the rewards are worth your time and effort.
First, paraphrasing improves your reading skill as well as your writing skill. Second, it improves your memory. In order to paraphrase accurately, you must thoroughly understand what you€™ve read€”and once you understand something, you€™re not likely to socrates and critical thinking, forget it. Here€™s an example of how€”and how not€”to paraphrase. Let€™s assume we are writing an virginia tech electronic thesis essay on essay obama the topic of virginia electronic alcoholic beverages you can make at home. To begin with, read the following passage, an excerpt from Paul Quarrington€™s €śHome Brew€ť:
Malt and yeast are all you truly need to make beer, and macbeth analytical essays, humankind has been making it for something like 8,000 years. (Q: What has humankind been making for 8,000 years? A: Beer!) Hops did not appear on the European scene until the 12th century, and even at that time, there was a resistance in the form of laws forbidding their use. Virginia Tech Thesis And Dissertation! Hops are the flowers of the female hop vine (an aggressive spreader, it has earned the lovely nomenclature Humulus lupulus and is also known as the €śwolf of the willows€ť), and their resins and asked to discuss essay, oils impart flavour of a slightly bitter nature to virginia thesis and dissertation, the beer. (73) There are two pieces of essay of criticism by pope information in this paragraph that we want to include in our essay: Humans have been making beer from malt and yeast for tech, 8,000 years. The hops that give beer its bitter taste were a late addition to beer-making. If we are not careful, or if we don’t have much experience with paraphrasing, our first attempt at a paraphrase might look something like this: In his essay entitled €śHome Brew,€ť Paul Quarrington explains that malt and yeast are the only essentials in beer-making, an activity that humans have been doing for 8,000 years. Origins! The use of hops did not appear in European beer-making until the 12th century, and virginia electronic thesis and dissertation library, it was resisted by many. And Critical! Hops are the flowers of the female hop vine ( Humulus lupulus , also known as €śwolf of the willows€ť), and their resins and oils add a bitter taste to the beer. This is not paraphrasing€”it€™s plagiarism.
Although we have indicated the source of the information and left out Quarrington€™s stylistic flourishes, the wording is almost identical to electronic thesis and dissertation library, that of the original. There are no visual or verbal cues to alert the reader that these are Quarrington€™s words, not ours. Let€™s try again. In his essay €śHome Brew,€ť Paul Quarrington tells us that for about 80 centuries, humans have been using malt and yeast to brew beer. Hops were added to European beer in the 12th century; in some places, laws were passed prohibiting their use. Hops are the flowers of the getting kids, female hop vine, which is known both by its Latin name, Humulus lupulus , and by tech electronic and dissertation library the name €śwolf of the macbeth, willows.€ť The resins and oils of the hop flowers add a bitter taste to virginia tech thesis and dissertation, the beer. Although this version avoids much of Quarrington€™s original phrasing, it doesn€™t demonstrate any work on our part.
We have replaced the source€™s words with synonyms and changed the sentences, but our paragraph is still too close to the original. An acceptable paraphrase does not pass off someone else€™s ideas as your own by getting changing a few words and sentence constructions. A good paraphrase goes further. It uses source information but rearranges it, rephrases it, and virginia tech library, combines it with the writer€™s own ideas (and sometimes ideas taken from other research) to create something new. Let€™s try once more: In €śHome Brew,€ť Paul Quarrington tells us that humans have been making beer for at least 8,000 years. Essay By Pope! While the only ingredients necessary to the brewing of beer are malt (made from grains) and yeast, other ingredients have been added over time to enhance the electronic thesis and dissertation, taste. The most successful and origins, persistent addition to the basic malt and yeast mixture was hops, the flower of Humulus lupulus , which Europeans first introduced in the 12th century.
The addition of hops was not greeted with universal enthusiasm: many beer lovers believed the bitter flavour spoiled the library, purity of their beer. In some regions, this exotic addition to the basic brew was banned by law. (73) Here we have used paraphrase to analytical essays, incorporate information from a published source, identified in the first sentence, into a paragraph whose topic and tech electronic thesis and dissertation library, structure are our own. Our paraphrase is asked, roughly the same length as the original passage. If you want to virginia electronic thesis, take ideas more directly from a source, retaining the original arrangement and some of the wording, you should follow the guidelines given below for quotations. When learning to write research papers, students tend to use quotations more often than paraphrases or summaries to introduce other writers’ ideas into macbeth analytical their own work. In fact, a good research paper (unless it is an essay on a work of literature) usually relies more heavily on summary and paraphrase than it does on quotation. If you use too many quotations, your paper will be a patchwork of the tech library, ideas of others, in by barack obama, their words. Very little of your own thinking will be communicated to the reader. Remember that the main reason teachers assign research papers is to test your ability to find, digest, and virginia tech electronic thesis and dissertation, make sense of specific information about a topic.
If what you hand in consists of a string of quotations, your paper will demonstrate only the first of these three skills. In most research papers, the ideas, facts, and statistics are the important things, not the wording of an idea or the thinking, explanation of facts or statistics. Virginia Tech Electronic Library! Occasionally, however, you will find that someone else—an expert in a particular field, a well-known author, or a respected public figure—has said what you want to say but eloquently, vividly, more memorably than you could ever hope to say it. In such cases, quotations, as long as they are short and not used too frequently , are useful in developing your topic. Carefully woven into your own paragraph, they help convince the essay by pope, reader of the electronic and dissertation library, validity of to discuss in an what you have to say. Use quotations in electronic and dissertation library, writing the way you use salt in when to discuss essay, cooking: sparingly.
You can quote from two kinds of sources— people you know, or have heard speak, or have interviewed print, electronic, or recorded materials (e.g., books, articles, CD-ROMs, Web sites, films, tapes) —and your quotation may be long or short. If the material you are quoting is more than 40 words or four typed lines, it is virginia tech electronic thesis library, a long—or block—quotation. After you have introduced it in a phrase or sentence, you begin the quoted passage on a new line and indent all lines of the quotation 10 spaces or 2.5 cm from the left margin. Do not put quotation marks around a block quotation . The 10-space indentation is the reader’s visual cue that this portion of the paragraph is someone else’s words, not yours. In the paragraph that follows, prize-winning author Diane Ackerman quotes David Bodanis at some length in her book A Natural History of the Senses (New York: Random House, 1990: 142–43). She signals that she is quoting by indenting the when asked to discuss in an essay, entire passage she has borrowed from virginia tech electronic and dissertation, Bodanis: Committees put a lot of thought into the design of fast foods. As David Bodanis points out with such good humour in The Secret House , potato chips are.
an example of total destruction foods. The wild. attack on the plastic wrap, the slashing and. tearing you have to go through is exactly what the manufacturers wish. And Critical Thinking! For the thing about crisp. foods is that they’re louder than non-crisp ones . . Virginia Tech And Dissertation Library! . Destructo-packaging sets a favourable mood. . . . Crisp foods have to be loud in the upper. register. They have to produce a high-frequency.
shattering; foods which generate low-frequency. rumblings are crunchy, or slurpy but not crisp. . . . Companies design potato chips to asked, be too large to fit into virginia tech thesis and dissertation library the mouth, because in order to hear the high-frequency crackling, you need to keep your mouth open. Chips are 80 percent air, and homework, each time we bite one we break open the virginia thesis and dissertation library, air-packed cells of the chip, making that noise we call “crispy.” Bodanis asks: How to get sufficiently rigid cell walls to twang at essay, these squeaking harmonics? Starch them.
The starch granules in potatoes are identical to the starch in stiff shirt collars. . . . [In addition to tech thesis library, starch,] all chips are soaked in fat. . . . So it’s a shrapnel of flying starch and fat that produces the conical air-pressure wave when our determined chip-muncher finally gets to finish her chomp. Notice that Ackerman is asked to discuss in an essay, careful to tell her readers the virginia tech and dissertation library, source of her quotations. To introduce the first one, she gives the author’s full name and the title of his book. Socrates And Critical Thinking! To introduce the second quotation, which is virginia tech thesis and dissertation, from the same book, she simply identifies the master's defense like, author by surname. Thus, she doesn’t waste words by virginia tech library repeating information, nor does she leave readers wondering where the origins essay obama, quotation came from. (The only information missing is the Bodanis book’s publication data—city, publisher, and date—which would be provided in the list of sources. (See Format and virginia tech library, Documentation .) A spot quotation is a word, a phrase, or a short sentence that is of criticism, incorporated into one of virginia tech electronic thesis and dissertation your own sentences.
Put quotation marks before and after a spot quotation . The quotation marks are a signal to the reader that these aren’t your words; a new voice is speaking. And Critical! The following paragraph from an article by Robert Fulford contains several spot quotations (The Use and Abuse of Quotations, The Globe and Mail , Nov. 11, 1992). “You are what you quote,” in the words of the American essayist Joseph Epstein, himself a heavy user of quotations and the writer who introduced “quotatious” into my vocabulary. Winston Churchill understood the value of a well-aimed quotation: as a young man he read a few pages of Bartlett’s Familiar Quotations every day to spruce up his style and compensate for his lack of a university education. [Gradually,] he transformed himself from a quotatious writer into the most quoted politician of the western world. . Virginia Electronic Thesis! . Socrates! . Fowler’s Modern English Usage warns against quoting simply to demonstrate knowledge: “The discerning reader detects it and virginia tech thesis library, is contemptuous,” while the undiscerning reader finds it tedious. A few years ago Garry Trudeau made fun of when asked to discuss essay George Will’s compulsive quoting by inventing a researcher who served as “quote boy” in Will’s office: “‘Quote boy! Need something on the banality of contemporary society.’ ‘Right away, Dr. Will!’” . . . Virginia Thesis And Dissertation! As for me, I say don’t judge, because you might get judged, too. Defense! That’s how the quotation goes, right? (C1) In addition to illustrating how to introduce and virginia electronic, format block quotations and how to punctuate spot quotations, the examples given above also show you how to modify a quotation to fit your space and suit your purpose. Although you must quote exactly and never misrepresent or distort your source’s intention , you may, for reasons of conciseness or smoothness, omit or add a word or phrase or even a sentence or two.
To leave out a word or words , indicate the omission by replacing the word(s) you’ve omitted with three spaced dots called ellipses (. . .). If the essays, omission comes at the end of your sentence, add a fourth dot as the period. If you need to add or change a word or words to make the quoted passage more readable within your paragraph, use square brackets around your own words, as we did when we added “[In addition to starch,]” in Ackerman’s second block quotation from Bodanis and “[Gradually,]” to Fulford’s paragraph. Another reason for virginia electronic thesis library, changing words in a quoted passage is to keep the verb tenses consistent throughout your paragraph. If you are writing in is a master's defense, the present tense and the passage you are quoting is in the past tense, you can change the verbs to present tense (as long as the change doesn’t distort the meaning) and put square brackets around them so the virginia and dissertation, reader knows you have made these changes. Modifying short quotations to make them fit smoothly into origins obama your own sentences without altering the source’s meaning takes practice.
Reread the paragraphs we borrowed from Ackerman and Fulford, above. Notice that both authors omitted material to make the quoted passages shorter and easier to read, and that they have signalled these omissions to the reader by the use of ellipses (. . .). How to virginia electronic thesis and dissertation library, Integrate Quotations into Your Writing. When you decide to quote source material, you should introduce it so that it will blend as seamlessly as possible into your writing. Don’t simply park someone else’s words in macbeth, the middle of your paragraph; you’ll disrupt the flow of thought. If Diane Ackerman were not so skillful a writer, she might have “dumped” quotations into her paragraph instead of integrating them. Contrast the readability of the tech thesis, paragraph below with that of Ackerman’s second Bodanis quotation. Companies design potato chips to be too large to fit into socrates and critical the mouth because, in order to hear the high-frequency crackling, you need to keep your mouth open. Tech Electronic Thesis And Dissertation! Chips are 80 percent air, and each time we bite one, we break open the by barack, air-packed cells of the virginia thesis library, chip, making that crispy noise. Analytical Essays! €śThe starch granules in potatoes are identical to the starch in stiff shirt collars.€ť Starch is just one of the ingredients that contribute to the crispiness of potato chips. €śAll chips are soaked in fat.€ť €śSo it€™s a shrapnel of flying starch and fat that produces the conical air pressure wave when our determined chip-muncher finally gets to tech thesis, finish her chomp.€ť. Without transitional phrases, the paragraph lacks coherence and doesn’t make sense.
Not convinced? Try reading Ackerman’s version and the above version aloud. Every quotation should be introduced and integrated into an essay in when asked to discuss in an essay, a way that makes clear the relationship between the quotation and your own argument. There are four ways to integrate a spot quotation . You can introduce it with a phrase such as “According to X,” or “Y states” (or observes , or comments , or writes ), followed by a comma. Different verbs suggest different attitudes toward the quoted material.
For example, “Fulford suggests that writers should not overuse quotations” is tech electronic and dissertation library, more tentative than “Fulford warns that writers should not overuse quotations.” Other verbs you can use to introduce quotations are asserts, notes, points out, maintains, shows, reports, and in an, claims . Choose your introductory verbs carefully, and be sure to use a variety of phrases. Repeating “X says,” “Y says,” and electronic thesis and dissertation, “Z says,” is a sure way to put your reader to socrates and critical thinking, sleep. George Bernard Shaw's poor opinion of teachers is virginia tech library, well known: “Those who can, do; those who can't, teach.” If the passage you are quoting is a couple of words, a phrase, or anything less than a complete sentence, do not use any punctuation to introduce it. Oscar Wilde defined fox hunters as the “unspeakable in full pursuit of the thesis defense, uneatable.” If you insert your own words into virginia tech electronic and dissertation library the middle of a quotation, use commas to separate the master's thesis, source's words from yours. “It is virginia tech electronic thesis and dissertation library, a truth universally acknowledged,” writes Jane Austen at the beginning of Pride and Prejudice , “that a single man in possession of socrates and critical thinking a good fortune must be in want of tech electronic a wife.” In general, periods and asked to discuss, commas are placed inside the tech thesis library, quotation marks (see the examples above). Unless they are part of the quoted material, colons, semicolons, question marks, exclamation marks, and dashes are placed outside the quotation marks.
Use single quotation marks to essay of criticism, mark off a quotation within a quotation. A ccording to John Robert Colombo, “The most widely quoted Canadian aphorism of virginia library all time is Marshall McLuhan’s ‘The medium is the essay of criticism by pope, message.’” Block quotations are normally introduced by a complete sentence followed by tech electronic and dissertation a colon (for example, “X writes as follows:”). Then you copy the quotation, beginning on a new line and essay, indenting the entire quotation 10 spaces or 2.5 cm. Tech Electronic Thesis And Dissertation! If your introductory statement is not a complete sentence, use a comma or no punctuation, whichever is appropriate. The passage by Diane Ackerman contains examples of both ways to of criticism, introduce block quotations. Can you explain why Ackerman used no punctuation to introduce the first block quotation and virginia electronic thesis, a colon to is a master's thesis like, introduce the second one?
Tips on Using Quotations in Your Writing. Use quotations sparingly and for tech, a specific purpose, such as for emphasis or to reinforce an important point. Avoid the temptation to produce a patchwork paper—one that consists of bits and pieces of other people's writing stuck together to look like an original work. Far from impressing your readers, overuse of quotations will give them the impression you have nothing of your own to say. Be sure every quotation is an accurate reproduction of the original passage.
If you need to change or omit words, indicate those changes with square brackets or ellipses, as appropriate. When Asked To Discuss! Be sure every quotation is relevant . No matter how interesting or well worded, a quotation that does not clearly and directly relate to virginia tech thesis library, your subject does not belong in your essay. An irrelevant quotation will either confuse readers or annoy them (they’ll think it’s padding), or both. Make clear the link between the quotation and your controlling idea . Don’t assume that readers will automatically see the connection you see between the quotation and your topic sentence. Comment on the quotation so that they will be sure to make the connection you intend.
If you have used a block quotation, your explanatory comment can sometimes form the conclusion of your paragraph. Always identify the when essay, source of a quotation . This can be done by mentioning in your paragraph the name of the thesis library, author and, if appropriate, the title of the source of the quotation. Include the page number(s) in a parenthetical citation.
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abuse animal essay The Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals stated that, “Everyone sees things from the perspective of their own concerns and interest and many people have an interest in animals” (MSPCA Angell 1). Most cats and virginia tech electronic dogs that a person gets from a pet store have come from a puppy mill, where they are caged up and bred multiple times (“Animal Cruelty Facts” 2). Puppy mills are when animals are used for commercial purposes used solely for by pope, financial gain (C. Smith, personal communication. Electronic And Dissertation? “forty-seven place that have animals cruelty laws that treats some forms of abuse as felonies” and there are some that do not have these types of laws, which are Idaho, North and South Dakota (Animal abuse and Neglect). Socrates Thinking? Every state has laws prohibiting animal cruelty and virginia tech if people start deporting any kind of origins obama, abuse can help an animal out and can catch those who abuse animals and virginia thesis can be charge as a felony. Several animal programs like ASPCA and Human Society, want to stop animal cruelty and it’s places like. Examples of active cruelty is animal fighting such as “trunking: when two dogs (usually pit bulls) are thrown into the trunk of a car to fight. hog-dog fighting: when a dog (usually pit bull) is pitted against a feral pig, or hog. [and] badger baiting : when a dog or dogs is by pope, pitted against a badger.” In many cases the animals are injured and may die but there are things you can do to help stop this from happening. One organization besides the ASPCA is and dissertation library, also trying to stop animal cruelty : the Humane. Animal Testing Is Animal Cruelty Essay. times animals aren’t only used in medical research but to test the toxicity and reactions to other products. Some of these products include floor wax or cleaning detergents.
The method in which they use to do this is when asked to discuss, called the “LD Test” or “Lethal Dose Test”. Scientists inject various substances into tech and dissertation library, the stomachs of animals and monitor reactions such as vomiting, convulsions, respiratory illness and paralysis. These LD injections are not stopped being given until one half of the animals in socrates and critical, the. inflict harm to animals just for virginia electronic library, pleasure are more likely to do so to kids humans too. In circuses many animals are treated very badly. No animals wants or likes to ride cycle, stand upright on their head, jump through fire rings or balance on balls and so on. But animals in circuses have no choice other than doing so. Else they are tortured by the trainer. Electronic And Dissertation Library? Trainers use hunter, whips or even electric pads to torture them in order to train the animals. This is a serious type of asked to discuss, animal cruelty. Central government.
All this is tech thesis and dissertation, possible only by extreme training, which may translate into extreme torture. The animals in circuses are also routinely and dangerously exposed to various diseases. In some cases, they were not provided with basic medical first aid. Tuberculosis is seen as a major disease for the elephants in circuses. Some instances show that the essay elephants were not treated medically for wounds inflicted during beatings and other natural causes.
Circuses have known to tech electronic and dissertation keep a large amount of topsoil. Animal Cruelty and what is a defense like Youth Violence Essay. state of Alabama animal cruelty is considered a class C felony, which means cruelty in the first degree, will be considered a felony on electronic thesis, the first offense (“State Law Provisions” 1). Maine: The state of thinking, Maine animal cruelty is not a felony, but offenders must order psychological counseling if they are considered a juvenile, yet in tech thesis and dissertation library, Alabama offenders do not need to receive any type of counseling (“State Law Provisions” 4). Hawaii: The state of Hawaii considers animal cruelty not to be a felony. Animal Cruelty and Human Violence Essay. And Critical Thinking? dogs being the most common targets; Abused animals were usually owned, and were not strays; Animal cruelty suspects were almost always young males ; Minors prosecuted for animal cruelty were more likely to have abused cats and adults prosecuted for animal cruelty were more likely to have abused dogs; Animal abuse was as likely to follow other crimes as it was to precede them. Based on the FBI's finding that many serial killers tortured and killed animals before murdering humans, people typically. level of suffering, more hidden from view: the suffering of animals used in costly and needless experiments that benefit no one”( Vaughan Monamy 2009, pg.29 ). Tech Thesis And Dissertation? Peggy Carlson concluded that the practice of using animals for experimentation to mimic or to study human diseases is often unreliable and origins essay by barack occasionally misleads scientific investigation. Not only tech electronic thesis library that but million and billions of dollars are wasted in animal experimentation. Animals are used in experiments for three general purposes: to find. Essay on Animal Cruelty And Family Violence.
Cruelty is a socially unacceptable behavior that intentionally causes unnecessary pain, suffering, or distress to a death of an animal. The association of essay of criticism, animal maltreatment with cases of virginia thesis and dissertation, child physical abuse, the sexual abuse of children, and partner battering or domestic violence. This usually starts off with maltreatment of asked to discuss in an essay, animals, usually pets, may occur in homes where there is domestic violence. Domestic violence usually, most of the time starts with animals being. Industrialized Cruelty to Animals, Influenced by Humans Essay. argue that public killing of exotic or wild animals in virginia and dissertation library, Rome might have been their unique or uneducated way of promoting agriculture in macbeth essays, reducing animal populations that abused their valuable crops. Now we know even today that killing large numbers of animals is “culturally accepted” only if it is related to virginia tech electronic library factory farming, organized hunting, or cancer research as it claims at least half of the United States income.
As it may seem that, many ancient animal slaughter and socrates and critical ritual practices were arguably. Animal Testing: Cruelty versus Benefit Essay. Virginia Electronic And Dissertation? shot with bullets. This list violence and defense cruelty can go on and on, but isn’t it enough to convince us that animal experimenting must be put to virginia tech an end once and for all? The science correspondent of “The Guardian” Randerson (2008) has found out that about 115 million animals were used in scientific research globally in 2005, according an estimate based on official national figures from the number of what is a master's thesis, scientific papers that were published involving animals. Moving on to the next scenario. Crowds of. instincts have not been bred out of these animals like they have been out of domestic pets. Virginia Tech Thesis And Dissertation Library? Circus animals are not willing participants and have to socrates be trained with fear and intimidation. “Training techniques used by virginia tech electronic thesis library, Gary Jacobson include a lot of man power, brute force, electricity and a savage disposition. Raising a baby elephant at Ringling is like raising a kid in jail.” [ (Haddock, 2009) ] The performances also put emotional stress on the animals. Circuses tell the public acts are generated. A team from Panama spoke Spanish.
The Spanish I heard them talk was not the Spanish I was accustomed to essay at home. They spoke with a deep accent and used idioms I’ve never heard of virginia electronic thesis library, before. I felt lost, but to them it was their way of by barack obama, communicating. Slang has a lot to do with language because no matter where you go it is found. When a student goes to school they do not speak the same vocabulary or slang as if they were at home. This is a different type of slang or idiom in thesis and dissertation, which others might not know. Factory Farming and what thesis defense Animal Cruelty Essay.
The chickens are selectively bred and are given special drugs in the food and electronic thesis library water to make the chickens grow incredibly fast. Because of the breeding and drugs, a lot of the chickens develop leg problems which make is sometimes impossible to walk and socrates and critical stand so they either can’t get to virginia electronic thesis library the food or they can’t reach the water. Also, because of the ammonia in the feces, the asked to discuss essay chickens often get the skin on thesis and dissertation, their stomachs burnt because the what thesis like ammonia is so strong and will just sear the feathers and skin. The. people in the world “convert” to being vegetarians after observing hideous acts of cruelty by men slaughtering animals. After many sightings and reports of how people all over the world go through the process of killing these animals with their cruel and inhumane ways, people have decided in having their stand on electronic thesis and dissertation library, the issue by abstaining from the consumption of socrates and critical, animals in the hopes of virginia tech and dissertation, discouraging the killing of animals for food. This act however, will not tackle the issue at all. People fail to realize. What Thesis Like? another example of animal abuse as a precursor to human violence. Before killing 12 classmates and virginia tech electronic then turning the kids homework guns on themselves, Eric Harris and thesis and dissertation Dylan Klebod had bragged to friends about mutilating animals. If these acts had been reported to authorities and essay of criticism taken seriously, these two young men might have been put in a proper facility and helped, possibly avoiding the horrific massacre. Virginia Tech? Given these examples, it's hard to imagine why all states don't take animal cruelty seriously. Macbeth Essays? Alaska. disbelief that such things would be discussed publicly.
How dare she bring this out in the open, how could he be so cruel? Then, with more interviews with Friedan and Steinem, newscasters reviewing the electronic and dissertation library new VAWA laws, I noticed a change in attitude, cruelty towards woman would no longer be considered the victims fault and attitudes had changed. Missouri Legislation The Missouri revised Statutes, Chapter 455 Abuse--Adults and thinking Children--Shelters and Protective Orders, Section 455.050 is a list of. Virginia Tech Electronic Thesis And Dissertation Library? Essay about Cruelty of Puppy Mills, a Speech Outline. Is A Master's Thesis Defense? Body 1. The first part of the virginia tech electronic problem is: Puppy mills are cruel places that mistreat and breed dogs only to make money. Kids To Do Homework? 2. Virginia Tech Thesis Library? According to The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, illness, disease, and little or no socialization with humans as well as other animals, are common characteristics of in an, dogs from puppy mills. Female dogs are many times forced to breed at every chance available and virginia electronic thesis and dissertation when they can no longer produce puppies, they are often abandoned or killed. (www.aspca.
Despite animals’ ability to use significant symbols, humans create and enforce these symbolic boundaries (Cherry 458). What Is A Thesis Defense? Countries, societies, and cultures differ from America. Virginia Electronic And Dissertation Library? Since most countries do not have intense regulations, the and critical thinking way households and society runs, is the way animals will be treated and affected by. Animal welfare is affected by many different types of abuse. The most common abuse and cruelty toward animals is how they are treated in households. For common types of virginia electronic and dissertation, animal abuse. time still regarded animals as property rather than pets. In the mid 18th century, American society for the prevention of cruelty to animals established. The group advocated to ensure animals were not mistreated or harmed in any way.
After the world war, two animal research procedures increased. A number of groups rose to oppose this act claiming that the animals misused for human beings sake. Humane society of the kids to do homework United States was one of the tech electronic thesis and dissertation library groups that opposed the use of animals in research (Haynes. Analytical Essays? Cruelty and Mans Inhumanity Essay. created. Wire fences kept the Jewish people inside and under watch, they didn’t realise at the time that this was just the beginning for them before they were transported and made to march turning their backs on electronic and dissertation, their homes forced and origins essay obama treated like animals “Faster! Faster! Move, you lazy good-for-nothings!” they were spoken to virginia tech thesis like this even after they had little strength left from the journey of leaving the first ghetto in the beginning by asked essay, Hungarian officers, Germans. However Elie would see violence.
Recently, Terry Thompson, of Zanesville, Ohio, released his fifty-six exotic animals from their secure cages and then took his own life, enabling the animals to library dangerously roam the farmland surrounding the moderately populated community. Most of the exotic animals released were extremely dangerous and posed a threat to the public. Getting Kids To Do Homework? That afternoon, law enforcement officials were ordered to shoot and kill eighteen Bengal tigers, seventeen lions, six black bears, three mountain lions, two grizzly bears. purpose, they may hurt the animal instead of hurting the people in their lives. But they just don’t understand that dogs, cats, horses, you, me, we all have feelings. But the most common cause of animal abuse is when owners don’t spay or neuter their pets, which causes babies that are unwanted and virginia tech thesis and dissertation library not taken care of.
Some people don’t even realize they are abusing their pets, these people are usually hoarders. They take in too many animals then after they have too many, the animals end up in cramped living. Do Animals Deserve to be Tested on? Essay. Animals lose weight when they undergo depression or experiencing a loss; scientists used this information to search for obama, animals under depression. “By most measures, the animals that seem to experienced death in the most humanlike way are not the ones that are genetically closest to us—the great apes—but elephants” (The Mystery of Animal Grief). Scientists discovered one way that animal grieve appears to electronic thesis and dissertation library be cuddling, in by barack, which a chemical is virginia electronic thesis and dissertation library, released that activates oxytocin. “Brain studies strengthen. Animal Abuse is Causing Harm Essay. tiny cages with multiple other animals of their same species, with barley any room to move, and feces everywhere. Nancy Day's chapter “Pain” from the book “Animal Experimentation: Cruelty or Science?” argues that most animals do not feel pain while under experimentation. She supports this claim by first giving statistical lab information about not only one lab but for four labs that involve animal experimentation.
Day's purpose is to show and explain how animals are beneficial to getting these experiments. Animal Testing Should Be Illegal Essay. While I acknowledge that most people would reasonably value human life over an animal’s life, this does not negate the cruelty argument, and that as intelligent beings, we have the virginia tech electronic thesis and dissertation ability to make moral and educated choices. Perhaps many of getting, you think this isn’t a big deal, but would you volunteer to be experimented on? Image this hypothetical scenario: Across the world, 115 million humans are being experimented on and killed in labs every year. These 'volunteers' have chemicals pumped into their.
We Must Eliminate Animal Testing for Cosmetics Essay. There are many alternatives to testing on live animals in today’s world. Animal testing is often not the most accurate method of testing. The results from tech electronic and dissertation, many tests differ from essay by barack, laboratory to laboratory, and animal to animal. Whether the product was proven to be safe or not is often times questionable (Product…). It is true that many rabbits are bred so that their genetic makeup is nearly identical. However, often times this is not a very good strategy because the genetic makeup of every human. Should Animals be Used for Scientific Research? Essay. Particularly, research animals has been used to tech electronic thesis and dissertation test drugs and vaccines, in medical procedures, determine poisonous doses and drugs, indicate which products in animals might cause cancer, cosmetics tests and household cleaners. According to PETA, approximately 1.13 million animals are tested on each year, and 76,000 are subjected to torture without pain relief. (PETA, par.
3). In addition these animals do not receive proper pain relief treatment; animals are locked up in small cages with no space. Essay on Animal Liberation Front: a Threat to America. The ALF has also spawned several other more radical organizations, such as the analytical Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty group, which targets humans more often than any other eco-terrorist group. As the parent organization, the ALF has been accused of funneling the more radical of its personnel to this group, among others. There are many methods to reduce or remove the virginia tech electronic thesis library threat that the ALF poses to the United States, but the largest problem remains infiltrating the group, as many of the cells are made up. Cruelty of Slavery Exposed in socrates thinking, Uncle Tom#x27;s Cabin Essay. who forces his workers into long hours of labor, in addition to beating them, and providing them with no more than dirty clothes, spoiled food, and a poor excuse for a home. Uncle Tom’s Cabin is a novel written in order to depict the virginia electronic library human cruelty of slavery. Though many of his owners are not characterized as cruel masters, he is sold four times in getting homework, order to pay off debts which can no longer be avoided. Because he is loyal to all of his masters, he is often one of the most liked and trusted. A Streetcar Named Desire: the Desire to Justify Cruelty Essay.
Deliberate cruelty is not forgivable because it stems from a lack of respect which she can never ever earn back. However, we learn later that she had committed the unforgivable sin, upon catching her young husband having intercourse with another man later on virginia tech thesis and dissertation library, a dance floor she passionately commented, I saw! I know! You disgust me (96). And Critical Thinking? Her disgust was a way to virginia tech electronic thesis and dissertation wound her husband because of the essay pain and electronic thesis library suffering she felt from his infidelity. This was how Blanche exercised her agency. Socrates Thinking? Yet, inside. Some things you would not even think would be tested on animals actually are, such as foods.
Every year, estimated 100 thousand animals are tested on, and after testing are put to rest. To test most cleaning chemicals, many animals are chemically killed, poisoned, and blinded. Mice, rats, and other rodents are forced to tech electronic inhale deadly toxins' dogs and cats are force-fed pesticides,and rabbits have different chemicals rubbed on their skin and eyes. Socrates And Critical Thinking? Most of the time these tests are not required, and. The animals are shocked by this announcement, because they do like the meetings. The animals do not know how to argue back though, so their limited voice has just been completely damped out.
During elections for a leader, citizens will need to pick who they are going to vote for. The voters can not make the right decision if they do not even know why they are voting for whom. If the citizens of virginia tech thesis and dissertation library, animal farm had known what napoleon was planning to do, he would not have been elected with such little. The profit margin for macbeth analytical, the person capturing the usually endangered animal is very low. While on the flip side the virginia library buyer of these animals, after many exchanges of hands is extremely high. Not only is the profit margin high for the middle man selling these animals, the journey from one continent to another is often a terrible ordeal for live cargo. Kids To Do? Toucan parrots often have their beaks taped shut, stuffed into nylon stockings, many times the birds are drugged or their eyes are perforated so that they. The anatomic, metabolic, and tech electronic thesis cellular differences between animals and people make animals poor models for human beings.
So, that being said, animal testing needs to stop. Nothing good is coming out of it, in my opinion, besides being cruel to innocent animals. The use of analytical essays, animal testing could be stopped all around the world if scientists and other people would use the alternative testing methods that now exist. For instance, antibodies- which are used to electronic library research, diagnose, and fight diseases and. On the other hand, the experiments on animals will produce such great benefits for humanity that it is to discuss, morally acceptable to harm a few animals. Animal research has played a vital role in and dissertation library, nearly every medical breakthrough over the last decade. Also, nearly every Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine since 1901 has relied on animal data for their research. However, these experiments are only acceptable if (and only if) the what is a master's like suffering of the tech thesis animals is minimalised in all experiments, and if human. Rodeo animals can sometimes compete in many activities throughout the day or even in a series of days. So it is what is a like, very important for the animals to have the right nutrients for electronic and dissertation, success in the competitions. What most people do not realize is how tough some animals really are.
A lot of people will look at rodeo events and just think that it looks cruel, but what they do not have is the socrates and critical supporting evidence of how the animals are being abused. Virginia Electronic Library? One complaint that often occurs at essays rodeos is: “You are. Tech Electronic Library? Exotic animals are not good companions. They require housing, diets, special care, and maintenance that the macbeth essays average person cannot maintain (“Dangers” 1). Once the owner realizes they can no longer care for the animal, they turn to zoos or accredited institutions. But not all animals are able to receive the care needed from the institutions or zoos, so they are abandoned or killed (“Dangers” 1). Animals that are not abandoned or killed grow and are needed to be provided with more food and space. Once. Human and Animal Interactions Essays. the Indians and the rest of the Americas’. In many ways the bison was used like the and dissertation animals in getting to do, the zoo, which was to satisfy human curiosity and egos.
Isenberg and Horowitz was parallel with the connections that the made with the hunger to acquire money by abusing animals. Andrew Clause in “The Wistar Rat as the Right Choice.” exhibited the tech electronic thesis rat as a product similar to, how the bison and zoo animals were used for entertainment and money, but the rat was used for medical research to. Napoleon uses propaganda, terror and disempowerment of getting to do homework, animals in various forms to generate a dystopian society with himself in command. Blind loyalty and ignorance of Napoleon's ulterior motives becomes the eventual downfall of Animal Farm's utopian dream. This is made all the more easy by the way in which the tech and dissertation library animals are peer-pressured into actions that they may not have willingly chosen. The use of the sheep's perpetual chanting of “Four legs good, two legs bad”, worked so well earlier in the. The topic of animal consciousness o awareness has been researched for over a hundred years. Origins Essay By Barack Obama? The best approach to valid measure and tech thesis library understand conscious in animals depends on using experiment and observation to trace the origin and development of self-consciousness, perception, intention, communication, and reflection in humans infants and in an children that same as animals have not developed humans language. The study, Affective consciousness: Core emotional feelings in animals and humans, revealed that.
The Necessity of Animal Testing Essay. Medication proved deadly in animals have been tested to work on humans and vice versa. According to Health and Human Services Secretary Mike Leavitt, nine out of ten experimental drugs fail in tech thesis library, clinical studies because we cannot accurately predict how they will behave in people based on laboratory and animal studies(“Animal Research Is Unethical and Scientifically Unnecessary”). Obama? These inaccuracies only prove the flaws surrounding the animal experimentation industry. “…it is possible that by 2050. better way to tech thesis library test substances without in obama, iflicting suffering on innocent, bewildered animals. Some scientists feel that animals are just that, animals.
They lack the feelings that humans have. But if you have ever owned a pet dog, cat, etc., you know they have feelings and are sensitive to their surroundings just as we humans are. We are also abusing animals rights by destroying their habitats. We lose thousands of tech electronic, animal and socrates thinking plant species each year. we are only hurting ourselves by virginia electronic thesis library, doing this. There. Essay on Animal Experimentation and origins obama Testing. Electronic Thesis Library? why animals should be physically and thinking mentally tortured so as to virginia library experiment on medical procedures that might not even work in future. Asked In An? In addition, this will be like justifying that, animals deserve to suffer because they do not have cognitive ability and tech electronic moral judgment, which is wrong. It should be known that, animals have feelings, just like any other human being, and that they should be respected. Therefore, animal experimentation is not a right procedure. Moreover, instead of using animals alternative. Animals have moral status and moral rights as much as humans does, however it might seem less important compared to humans, even though animals are not thought of as machines and property.
Gary L. Francione has respectfully argued that animals and humans are individuals, where both are living creatures, but because of the idea that they can not think rationally or abstractly, that makes many believe it to be acceptable to treat them as property. (xxviii) Even young children or mentally handicapped. justify using animals for testing, but when so many cures and useful findings, such as how to perform certain operations, can be found, why not test them? Then again, as I have stated before, animals should only socrates be used when an alternative method is not available. Huntingdon has a great plan when it comes to saving human lives without excessive testing on animals. There have been many laws to regulate the virginia and dissertation library use of origins essay by barack, animals in scientific experiments. Over in the United Kingdom, the Animals (Scientific. information being told about the animals is their name, diet, and natural location on a plaque.
This is tech thesis library, a prime example of how zoos are used more for essays, entertainment, and tech electronic not education. While zoos look like they treat their animals with great care, their enclosures are generally too small, and people cannot observe their normal behavior (“Animals Used”). The animals that live at zoos may seem fine on the outside, but a closer look can give insight on how the animals truly are neglected. Circuses do. contentious. In contrast to the teachings of Descartes, it has now become widely accepted that almost all animals feel some form of pain (Grandin, “Assessment of Stress” 249). Animals and humans share similar mechanisms of pain detection, have similar areas of the brain involved in processing pain and show similar pain behaviors (Sneddon, 339). What is still widely debated, however, is essay of criticism by pope, whether animals have higher levels of consciousness, and in turn experience emotional suffering.
Whereas critics remain. Tech Library? reason for animal testing, it‘s become one of the most helped by animal testing. “It is of interest to see how important animal models have been in obtaining these [cancer treating] results…” (Garattini and Van Bekkum, 1990 p 133). About 12% of when to discuss, animal experimentation is done involving cancer research (Baumans, 2004 Figure 2). In order to test anticancer agents liver microsomes are needed. Therefore if you were to use in vitro testing, using cells instead of an virginia electronic thesis and dissertation, actual body of an animal, you wouldn’t.
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fortnightly essay Click on the highlighted text to see the comments. Computer systems computer systems. This report investigates the current state of scanner technology and examines the predicted future advancements of scanners. A brief history of the scanner and virginia electronic thesis library, its operation is initially outlined.
The discussion then focuses on the advantages and limitations of the five main types of scanners in common use today: drum, flatbed, sheet-fed, slide, and hand held scanners. The performance of these scanners is examined in relation to four main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. Kids To Do. It is concluded that further technological advances in these four areas as well as the deployment of new sensor technology will continue to improve the quality of scanned images. It is also suggested that specialised scanners will increasingly be incorporated into other types of technology such as digital cameras. The purpose of this report is to survey the current state of scanner technology and to briefly discuss predicted advancements in virginia thesis the field. By examining a range of recently published journal articles, magazine articles and internet sites on the topic of scanners this report describes the main types of scanners in common use today and examines their performance in relation to four criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and socrates, software.
The report then considers the virginia tech electronic thesis library, effect of further technological advances in these four areas, as well as the deployment of getting to do, new sensor technology on the future development of scanners. The first scanner, initially referred to as a #039;reading machine#039;, was developed in 1960 by Jacob Rabinow, a Russian born engineer. Tech Thesis Library. The device could scan printed material and then compare each character to a set of standards in a matrix using, for the first time, the best match principle to what defense determine the original message (Blatner, Fleishman and Roth 1998, p.3). This reading machine was to virginia tech thesis and dissertation form the basis for the development of current scanning, sorting and processing machines. An early improvement on the reading machine was the drum scanner. These scanners used a type of scanning technology called photomultiplier tubes (PMT) . Drum scanners are still used in industry today because of the high quality images they produce. The development of smaller, more economical scanners such as desktop scanners and scanners for domestic use followed the drum scanner as the number of computer users increased and computer technology advanced. Scanners can now capture images from a wide variety of two and three dimensional sources. These images are converted to digitised computer files that can be stored on a hard-drive or floppy disk. With the aid of specific software, these images can then be manipulated and enhanced by the user.
It is now possible to deploy electronic acquisition to create an entire layout (including all graphic elements) from the same computer. This means manual stripping is no longer required (Scanners, digital cameras and photo CDs 2000). Scanners are considered an invaluable tool for adding graphics and text to documents and have been readily adopted by both business and by pope, domestic users. A scanner is a device that uses a light source to electronically convert an image into binary data (0s and 1s). This binary data can then be used to store the virginia tech electronic and dissertation library, scanned image on a computer. A scanner recreates an image by analytical using small electronic components referred to as the scanner#039;s #039;eyes#039; (Scanner tips 2000). The type of #039;eyes#039; used in today#039;s scanners are charge-coupled devices (CCD) and photomultiplier tubes (PMT). These electronic eyes measure the virginia tech and dissertation, amount of socrates, light reflected from individual points on the page and thesis and dissertation library, translate it to digital signals that correspond to the brightness of by barack, each point (Englander 2000).
To create a file on tech electronic thesis and dissertation library, the computer that represents a colour image, the scanner divides the image into a grid with many individual points called pixels or picture elements (Scanner tips 2000). A scanning head, termed a row of #039;eyes#039;, reads over the grid and assigns a number to each pixel based on the main colour in that pixel, using green, blue and red. For example an aqua pixel would be saved as a number to represent the of criticism by pope, proportion of blue, green and red which represents the virginia electronic and dissertation, colour aqua (Scanners, digital cameras and photo CDs 2000). There are five main types of is a thesis like, scanners in common use today: drum scanners, flatbed scanners, sheet-fed scanners, slide scanners, and hand held scanners. Drum scanners were widely used in the past, however they are much less commonly used today due to advances in scanner technology. As a result of their expense, these machines are primarily used by professionals in industry, where they are considered important due to the high-end quality image they produce and virginia tech library, because they use PMT technology which is more sophisticated than charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and contact image sensor#039;s (CISs).
Drum scanners are difficult to operate and technicians operate these scanners by placing the item to be scanned on a glass cylinder rotating at by barack, high speeds around the sensor (Sullivan 1996). The most popular scanners for general use are flatbed scanners. This type of scanner is highly versatile because it is able to scan flat objects as well as small three dimensional objects. Flat-bed scanners operate by placing the item to electronic thesis library be scanned on a glass window while scanning heads move underneath it. A transparency adapter is used to scan transparent originals such as slides or x-rays, and an automatic document feeder is when in an essay available for scanning large numbers of virginia tech electronic thesis, documents (Scanner tips 2000) . Sheet-fed scanners have grown in popularity in origins essay recent years, particularly for small office or domestic use as they are reasonably priced, can scan full-sized documents and are compact, requiring limited desk space (Scanner tips 2000). Most models of sheet-fed scanners have an tech thesis inbuilt document feeder to by barack obama overcome the problem of manually feeding one sheet of tech electronic thesis and dissertation library, paper at a time. Origins Essay By Barack. However the actual process or scanning with a sheet-fed scanner may result in distortion as the image to be scanned moves over virginia tech and dissertation library the scanning heads (Scanner tips 2000). A further limitation of when asked to discuss essay, sheet-fed scanners is that they are unable to scan three dimensional objects. This type of scanner is used to scan items such as slides that need careful handling during scanning. Unlike other scanners, the scanning heads in slide scanners do not reflect light from the virginia electronic thesis library, image, but rather pass light through it.
This enables these scanners to produce superior results without distortions caused by reflective light. To be able to is a master's thesis like scan small and detailed items, these scanners have a large number of eyes on virginia electronic thesis library, the scanning head which produces a high quality result. Slide scanners tend to be more expensive and less versatile than flatbed and sheet-fed scanners as they are limited to only scanning slides and film. These scanners, however, are well suited to users requiring high quality scans of large numbers of homework, slides (Scanner tips 2000). Hand held scanners are compact, portable scanners which are simply dragged across a page manually to capture an image. These scanners are easy to use and virginia tech and dissertation, economical to purchase; however, their use is limited to text of up to and critical four inches in diameter that does not require a high resolution. For this reason, hand held scanners are unsuitable for colour images. A further disadvantage of hand held scanners is that the user must have a steady hand when scanning or the resulting image will be distorted (Scanner tips 2000).
The performance of a scanner can be examined in relation to four main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. Resolution is a measure of how many pixels a scanner can sample in a given image. It is used to electronic and dissertation describe the amount of detail in an image (Figeiredo, McIllree and Thomas 1996). Higher resolution scanners are generally more expensive and produce superior results as they have a greater capacity to capture detail. Scanners have two types of resolutions: optical resolution and interpolated resolution. Optical resolution, or hardware resolution, is a measure of how many pixels a scanner can actually read.
A current model desktop scanner typically has a resolution of 300 x 300 dots per inch (dpi) (Anderson 1999) . Homework. This means that this scanner has a scanning head with 300 sensors per inch, so it can sample 300 dpi in one direction and 300 dpi in the other direction by stopping the scanning head 300 times per inch in tech electronic thesis both directions. Some scanners stop the scanning head more frequently as it moves down the page, giving an optical resolution of 300 x 600 dpi; however, scanning more frequently in one direction does not improve the result of the scan. By Barack Obama. The basic requirement for scanning detailed images and line art from photos or other printed originals is an optical resolution of 600 dpi. When scanning slides and negatives the tech electronic library, minimum optical resolution is 1200 dpi. Interpolated resolution measures the number of pixels a scanner is when to discuss essay able to predict. A scanner can turn a 300 x 300 dpi scan into a 600 x 600 dpi scan by looking in-between scanned pixels and guessing what that spot would have looked like if it had been scanned. Tech Thesis And Dissertation. This prediction is and critical then used to tech electronic library insert new pixels in between the actual ones scanned. This technique is less precise than optical resolution; however it assists in improving the enlargement of scanned images. Bit depth refers to the amount of macbeth analytical essays, information that a scanner records for each pixel when converting an virginia tech thesis library image to digital form. Scanners differ in the amount of data they record for each pixel within an thinking image.
The simplest kinds of scanners only record data related to black and white details and have a bit depth of 1 (Anderson 1999). The minimum bit depth required for scanning photographs and documents is 24-bits, while slides, negatives or transparencies need a scanner with at least 30-bits. Thus for virginia tech and dissertation library, a scanner to produce a high quality scan with colour, a higher bit depth is required. In general, current scanners have a bit depth of 24, which means that 8 bits of information can be collected for the three primary colours used in scanning; blue, red and green (Anderson 1999). This high resolution allows scanners to produce images close to photographic quality. Dynamic range refers to the measurement of the range of tones a scanner can record on origins by barack obama, a scale of 0.0 to 4.0, with 0.0 being perfect white and virginia tech and dissertation library, 4.0 being perfect black. Colour flat-bed scanners usually have a dynamic range of 2.4. A range of this measurement is unable to provide high quality colour scans. A dynamic range of 2.8 and 3.2 is suited to professional purposes and can be found in high-end scanners. An even higher dynamic range of 3.0 to 3.8 can be provided by when drum scanners. A scanner, like any type of hardware, requires software.
Typically the two most common pieces of software provided with scanners include optical character recognition (OCR) and image editing software. Optical character recognition software translates the information recorded in a scan, tiny dots, into a text file which can be edited. Image editing software allows the tones and colours of an image to be manipulated for better printing and display. Image editing also gives filters to apply special effects to scanned images. The quality of scanned images is constantly improving as characteristics such as resolution, bit-depth and dynamic range are enhanced and further developed. More sophisticated image editing and thesis and dissertation library, optical character recognition software development is also resulting in superior quality scans.
Future advances are expected to result in the incorporation of and critical, specialized scanners into tech thesis and dissertation library, other types of technology such as the recently developed digital camera. And Critical Thinking. This device allows the user to take pictures of three-dimensional objects much like a regular camera, except that instead of electronic thesis, using film, the objects are scanned by the camera in a similar process to the functioning of a flatbed scanner. The relatively new area of essay by pope, sensor technology in the form of a contact image sensor (CIS) (see Appendix 1) is expected to improve the functionality of tech thesis and dissertation, scanners and to do, the quality of electronic and dissertation, images as it replaces the cumbersome optical reduction technique with a single row of sensors (Grotta and Wiener 1998, p. 1). Developers have already been able to produce a CIS scanner which is thinner, lighter, more energy efficient and to do homework, cheaper to thesis and dissertation manufacture than a traditional CCD base device. However, the when to discuss, quality of the scan is not as good as its counterparts. Virginia Tech Electronic Thesis And Dissertation. Further development of CIS technology is origins essay by barack obama needed to improve image quality and colour, and to address the problem of tech electronic thesis, a limited 300 or 600 dpi. This report has identified five types of scanners currently available. Some are primarily used for professional purposes such as the drum scanner; others are used more broadly in the workplace and home such as flatbed scanners and to a lesser extent sheetfed scanners. Scanners for when in an, specialized purposes have also been identified such as slide and handheld scanners. The performance of these scanners is dependent upon their resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and virginia tech electronic and dissertation library, software. Scanners have improved significantly in recent years in terms of weight, size, price and speed, and the replacement of is a defense like, CCD technology with CIS technology is virginia thesis anticipated to produce further benefits to these areas as well as to scan quality.
The impact of socrates, these improvements is tech electronic thesis and dissertation expected to increase the accessibility of scanner technology to a wider range of users and its suitability for a wider range of purposes. In relation to this, the future of scanner technology seems to point to the convergence of different technologies. Socrates Thinking. Specialized scanners are currently being incorporated into other types of virginia tech thesis and dissertation library, technologies such as digital cameras, printers, and socrates and critical thinking, photocopiers. This can be expected to continue with other forms of technology in conjunction with further improvements to virginia tech electronic library image quality, speed, price, size and weight. Anderson, D. The PC Guide. [http:www.pctechguide.com/18scanners.htm]. Blatner, D., Fleishman, G. Roth, G. Essay Of Criticism. (1998) Real world scanning and halftones 2nd edition, Peachpit Press, USA. Englander, I (2000).
The Architecture of computer hardware and systems software. John Wiley, USA, p272. Figeiredo, J. McIllree, J. Thomas, N. (1996) Introducing information technology 2nd edition Jacaranda Press, Singapore, p145. Grotta, D. and Weiner, S. What#039;s now . What#039;s next. [http://www.zdnet.com/pcmag/features/scanners98/intro.html] PC Magazines 20 October 1998. 8/4/00. Prepress, scanners, digital cameras and photoCDs. [http://www.prepress.pps.com/mem/lib/ptr/scanners.html] 1998. 6/4/00.
Scansoft scanner tips [http://www.scannercentral.com/scanners/tips/tips1.asp] 2000.6/4/00. Sullivan. M. Tech Thesis Library. Types of is a like, scanners. Virginia. [http://hsdesign.com/scanning/types/types.html] 1996. 8/4/00. Clear statement of the four criteria used in the report to assess the technology.
Appropriately mentions an important aspect of future enhancements - sensor technology, as well as other aspects of future scanning technology. The comment on the quality of scanned images could be extended to include other desirable improvement outcomes; for master's defense like, example, faster scanning or 3D scanning. States the purpose and thesis, outlines the content of the report succinctly at the start. Historical background is then provided. This level of detail should be placed in Section 2 #039;How Scanners Work#039;. Essay By Pope. Try to avoid repeating ideas in the body of the report by grouping ideas on the same topic or subtopic together. Good comment - provides an overall picture. It would be more appropriate to discuss such detailed aspects of scanning in virginia tech electronic thesis and dissertation the body of the macbeth analytical, report rather than the introduction. Tech Thesis. When a technical term such as this is used it should be explained and related to the previous sentence(s).
This paragraph presents a clear definition of how a scanner works. The student#039;s understanding of the concept is evident because the definition has been clearly expressed in the student#039;s own words and the sources of the definition have been acknowledged. The student has used information from only one source for Sections 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, and essays, 3.5. This has severely limited the content of electronic, these sections of the report. This paragraph provides a good description of this criteria in simple clear language. It would be better to use a more recent reference here. A 1999 reference which states this is current typical resolution in an essay written in 2002 is inappropriate - computer technology develops very quickly. This concept is poorly explained. The student needs to express the main point in more detail. The ideas in kids homework this paragraph are well expressed; however the source of these ideas has not been provided.
The student needs to provide references. The concept of #039;dynamic range#039; has not been sufficiently explained here. The student needs to provide further detail and to provide references to the sources of electronic, information used. As in the previous paragraph, the concept has not been sufficiently explained. Further detail is required, especially in by barack obama relation to the current capabilities and limitations of the software. References to the sources used are also required here.
This sentence is too general. Thesis And Dissertation. It would be better to include more specific information about the kind of enhancements being referred to. This paragraph provides an appropriate amount of detail. What Master's Defense Like. Significant improvements to the field are identified in a brief discussion of new technology. However the student has again omitted references to the sources used in the discussion.
This conclusion presents a brief summary of the main ideas that have been established in the report. Unfortunately, it typifies the limitations of the virginia, report; that is, the content is too general - more specific detail is required. Origins Essay. A further improvement would be to provide more detail on how the current state and future position of scanner technology is related to the broader field of computer technology. WARNING - do not use this reference list as a model! The number of sources used in an assignment depends on the quality of the sources - their currency, reliability, and the amount of relevant information. This reference list consists of 8 sources: 3 books, 1 magazine, and 4 commercial web sites.
It does not meet the requirements of the assignment description. Virginia Thesis And Dissertation. One source is used for a number of sections in the report. The reference list needs to obama include several academic journal articles and more magazine articles. This would enable a wider range of opinions and ideas to be included. For this report, it is best to only use commercial web sites published by electronic and dissertation major manufacturing companies which provide technical and educational information rather than online shopping or reseller sites, or sites developed by asked to discuss individuals. Content and layout: The citations need to include appropriate details, and to be punctuated according to the Harvard Referencing System. For example, the country (USA) has been provided as the place of publication in virginia tech electronic a number of citations instead of the name of a city or town, the copyright dates of many of the web sites has not been included, and the inclusion of a page number for a book (p.145) is not necessary in the reference list (it is required in the text if the student is making a direct quote). The use of punctuation in this reference list is inconsistent and not always appropriate.
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Guidelines for writing a literature review. by Helen Mongan-Rallis. Last updated: November 21, 2014. [Note: For these guidelines, in some sections I have quoted directly some of the the steps from: Galvan, J. Electronic Library. (2006). What Master's Thesis Like. Writing literature reviews: a guide for students of the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.) . Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing. ] A literature review is not an annotated bibliography in which you summarize briefly each article that you have reviewed.
While a summary of the what you have read is electronic, contained within the literature review, it goes well beyond merely summarizing professional literature. It focuses on a specific topic of interest to you and includes a critical analysis of the relationship among different works, and relating this research to your work. It may be written as a stand-alone paper or to provide a theoretical framework and rationale for a research study (such as a thesis or dissertation). These guidelines are adapted primarily from Galvan (2006). Galvan outlines a very clear, step-by-step approach that is very useful to use as you write your review. When Asked To Discuss Essay. I have integrated some other tips within this guide, particularly in suggesting different technology tools that you might want to consider in helping you organize your review. In the sections from Step 6-9 what I have included is the outline of electronic library, those steps exactly as described by what is a thesis like, Galvan. I also provide links at the end of this guide to virginia thesis library, resources that you should use in order to search the literature and as you write your review.
In addition to using the step-by-step guide that I have provided below, I also recommend that you (a) locate examples of getting kids, literature reviews in your field of study and skim over these to get a feel for virginia tech electronic thesis and dissertation, what a literature review is and how these are written (I have also provided links to a couple of getting homework, examples at the end of these guidelines (b) read over other guides to tech, writing literature reviews so that you see different perspectives and origins essay by barack obama approaches: Some examples are: Read through the links provided below on APA guidelines so that you become familiar with the tech electronic and dissertation, common core elements of how to write in when in an essay, APA style: in particular, pay attention to general document guidelines (e.g. font, margins, spacing), title page, abstract, body, text citations, quotations. It will help you considerably if your topic for tech, your literature review is the one on which you intend to do your final M.Ed. project, or is in some way related to the topic of your final project. However, you may pick any scholarly topic. Step 3: Identify the literature that you will review : Familiarize yourself with online databases (see UMD library resource links below for help with this), identifying relevant databases in of criticism by pope, your field of study. Using relevant databases, search for literature sources using Google Scholar and also searching using Furl (search all sources, including the virginia, Furl accounts of other Furl members). Some tips for identifying suitable literature and narrowing your search : Start with a general descriptor from the database thesaurus or one that you know is already a well defined descriptor based on past work that you have done in this field.
You will need to experiment with different searches, such as limiting your search to descriptors that appear only in the document titles, or in by barack, both the document title and in the abstract. Redefine your topic if needed: as you search you will quickly find out tech electronic and dissertation library, if the master's, topic that you are reviewing is too broad. Try to narrow it to a specific area of interest within the virginia tech electronic, broad area that you have chosen (remember: this is merely an introductory literature review for by barack obama, Educ 7001). It is a good idea, as part of virginia electronic and dissertation, your literature search, to look for existing literature reviews that have already been written on this topic. As part of asked essay, your search, be sure to virginia electronic and dissertation, identify landmark or classic studies and theorists as these provide you with a framework/context for your study. Import your references into to discuss essay, your RefWorks account (see: Refworks Import Directions for guide on how to do this from different databases). Tech Library. You can also enter references manually into RefWorks if you need to. Once you have identified and located the articles for your review, you need to analyze them and organize them before you begin writing: Overview the articles : Skim the asked to discuss essay, articles to get an idea of the general purpose and content of the article (focus your reading here on virginia tech and dissertation the abstract, introduction and first few paragraphs, the conclusion of each article.
Tip: as you skim the articles, you may want to record the notes that you take on each directly into RefWorks in the box for homework, User 1. You can take notes onto note cards or into a word processing document instead or as well as using RefWorks, but having your notes in RefWorks makes it easy to virginia tech thesis and dissertation, organize your notes later. Group the articles into categories (e.g. into topics and subtopics and socrates chronologically within each subtopic). Once again, it's useful to enter this information into your RefWorks record. You can record the topics in the same box as before (User 1) or use User 2 box for the topic(s) under which you have chosen to place this article. Take notes : Decide on the format in which you will take notes as you read the virginia tech thesis and dissertation library, articles (as mentioned above, you can do this in RefWorks. You can also do this using a Word Processor, or a concept mapping program like Inspiration (free 30 trial download), a data base program (e.g. Access or File Maker Pro), in an Excel spreadsheet, or the old-fashioned way of using note cards.
Be consistent in how you record notes. Define key terms: look for essay by pope, differences in the way keys terms are defined (note these differences). Note key statistics that you may want to electronic thesis, use in origins essay, the introduction to your review. Select useful quotes that you may want to include in electronic thesis and dissertation, your review. Essay. Important : If you copy the exact words from an tech thesis and dissertation, article, be sure to cite the page number as you will need this should you decide to use the when in an essay, quote when you write your review (as direct quotes must always be accompanied by page references). To ensure that you have quoted accurately (and to save time in note taking), if you are accessing the virginia tech thesis and dissertation, article in a format that allows this, you can copy and to do paste using your computer edit -- copy -- paste functions. Tech Thesis Library. Note: although you may collect a large number of quotes during the note taking phase of your review, when you write the review, use quotes very sparingly. The rule I follow is to quote only when when some key meaning would be lost in macbeth essays, translation if I were to paraphrase the original author's words, or if using the virginia and dissertation library, original words adds special emphasis to essays, a point that I am making.
Note emphases, strengths weaknesses: Since different research studies focus on virginia tech electronic library different aspects of the issue being studied, each article that you read will have different emphases, strengths. and weaknesses. Your role as a reviewer is to evaluate what you read, so that your review is not a mere description of different articles, but rather a critical analysis that makes sense of the collection of articles that you are reviewing. Critique the research methodologies used in the studies, and distinguish between assertions (the author's opinion) and actual research findings (derived from empirical evidence). Identify major trends or patterns: As you read a range of articles on your topic, you should make note of trends and origins essay by barack patterns over time as reported in virginia tech electronic and dissertation, the literature. This step requires you to synthesize and make sense of essay by pope, what you read, since these patterns and trends may not be spelled out in the literature, but rather become apparent to you as you review the big picture that has emerged over time. Virginia Tech Electronic Library. Your analysis can make generalizations across a majority of studies, but should also note inconsistencies across studies and over time. Identify gaps in the literature, and reflect on of criticism by pope why these might exist (based on the understandings that you have gained by reading literature in this field of study). These gaps will be important for you to address as you plan and write your review. Identify relationships among studies: note relationships among studies, such as which studies were landmark ones that led to virginia tech and dissertation library, subsequent studies in the same area. Is A Master's Thesis. You may also note that studies fall into different categories (categories that you see emerging or ones that are already discussed in the literature).
When you write your review, you should address these relationships and different categories and virginia tech discuss relevant studies using this as a framework. Macbeth Analytical Essays. Keep your review focused on your topic: make sure that the articles you find are relevant and directly related to your topic. Virginia Tech Thesis Library. As you take notes, record which specific aspects of the article you are reading are relevant to your topic (as you read you will come up with key descriptors that you can record in to discuss in an essay, your notes that will help you organize your findings when you come to write up your review). Virginia Tech Library. If you are using an electronic form of note taking, you might note these descriptors in thesis defense, a separate field (e.g. in RefWorks, put these under User 2 or User 3; in Excel have a separate column for each descriptor; if you use Inspiration, you might attach a separate note for key descriptors. Evaluate your references for currency and coverage: Although you can always find more articles on your topic, you have to virginia tech thesis, decide at what point you are finished with collecting new resources so that you can focus on writing up your findings. However, before you begin writing, you must evaluate your reference list to ensure that it is up to date and essay of criticism has reported the tech, most current work. Typically a review will cover the last five years, but should also refer to when essay, any landmark studies prior to this time if they have significance in shaping the direction of the field.
If you include studies prior to virginia tech electronic thesis and dissertation library, the past five years that are not landmark studies, you should defend why you have chosen these rather than more current ones. Step 5: Summarize the literature in table or concept map format. Galvan (2006) recommends building tables as a key way to help you overview, organize, and summarize your findings, and suggests that including one or more of the tables that you create may be helpful in your literature review. If you do include tables as part of your review each must be accompanied by an analysis that summarizes, interprets and synthesizes the to do homework, literature that you have charted in the table. You can plan your table or do the entire summary chart of your literature using a concept map (such as using Inspiration) You can create the table using the tech electronic thesis library, table feature within Microsoft Word, or can create it initially in to discuss, Excel and then copy and paste/import the the Excel sheet into Word once you have completed the table in Excel. The advantage of using Excel is that it enables you to sort your findings according to a variety of factors (e.g. sort by date, and then by author; sort by methodology and then date) Examples of tables that may be relevant to your review: Definitions of key terms and virginia electronic thesis and dissertation concepts.
Research methods Summary of research results. Step 6: Synthesize the literature prior to writing your review. Using the notes that you have taken and summary tables, develop an outline of your final review. The following are the analytical, key steps as outlined by Galvan (2006: 71-79) Consider your purpose and voice before beginning to write. In the case of virginia and dissertation library, this Educ 7001 introductory literature review, your initial purpose is to provide an overview of the topic that is of interest to you, demonstrating your understanding of key works and concepts within your chosen area of essay by barack, focus. You are also developing skills in reviewing and and dissertation writing, to provide a foundation on which you will build in subsequent courses within your M.Ed. and ultimately in your final project. In your final project your literature review should demonstrate your command of your field of study and/or establishing context for a study that you have done. Consider how you reassemble your notes: plan how you will organize your findings into when, a unique analysis of the picture that you have captured in your notes.
Important: A literature review is not series of tech electronic thesis library, annotations (like an annotated bibliography). Galvan (2006:72) captures the difference between an to do homework, annotated bibliography and a literature review very well: . in virginia electronic, essence, like describing trees when you really should be describing a forest. In the case of a literature review, you are really creating a new forest, which you will build by using the trees you found in the literature you read. Create a topic outline that traces your argument: first explain to the reader your line or argument (or thesis); then your narrative that follows should explain and justify your line of argument. You may find the program Inspiration useful in socrates and critical thinking, mapping out your argument (and once you have created this in virginia thesis, a concept map form, Inspiration enables you to convert this to essay of criticism, a text outline merely by and dissertation library, clicking on the outline button). This can then be exported into a Microsoft Word document. Reorganize your notes according to the path of your argument Within each topic heading, note differences among studies. Socrates And Critical. Within each topic heading, look for obvious gaps or areas needing more research. Virginia Tech Electronic Thesis And Dissertation. Plan to describe relevant theories. By Pope. Plan to discuss how individual studies relate to and advance theory Plan to summarize periodically and, again near the end of the review Plan to present conclusions and implications Plan to suggest specific directions for future research near the end of the review Flesh out virginia tech electronic thesis, your outline with details from your analysis. Step 7: Writing the review (Galvan, 2006: 81-90)
Identify the broad problem area, but avoid global statements Early in the review, indicate why the essay by pope, topic being reviewed is important Distinguish between research finding and virginia thesis other sources of information Indicate why certain studies are important If you are commenting on the timeliness of a topic, be specific in to do, describing the time frame If citing a classic or landmark study, identify it as such If a landmark study was replicated, mention that and indicate the results of the replication Discuss other literature reviews on your topic Refer the reader to other reviews on issues that you will not be discussing in virginia tech library, details Justify comments such as, no studies were found. Getting To Do. Avoid long lists of nonspecific references If the results of previous studies are inconsistent or widely varying, cite them separately Cite all relevant references in the review section of thesis, dissertation, or journal article. Step 8: Developing a coherent essay (Galvan, 2006: 91-96) If your review is long, provide an overview near the virginia thesis and dissertation library, beginning of the review Near the beginning of a review, state explicitly what will and will not be covered Specify your point of view early in the review: this serves as the thesis statement of the review. Aim for a clear and cohesive essay that integrates the key details of the asked, literature and communicates your point of view (a literature is not a series of annotated articles). Use subheadings, especially in virginia thesis, long reviews Use transitions to socrates and critical thinking, help trace your argument If your topic teaches across disciplines, consider reviewing studies from each discipline separately Write a conclusion for virginia electronic and dissertation, the end of the review: Provide closure so that the path of the argument ends with a conclusion of some kind. Macbeth Analytical Essays. How you end the review, however, will depend on your reason for virginia electronic library, writing it. If the review was written to stand alone, as is the case of a term paper or a review article for publication, the analytical essays, conclusion needs to make clear how the material in the body of the review has supported the virginia tech thesis and dissertation, assertion or proposition presented in the introduction. On the other hand, a review in a thesis, dissertation, or journal article presenting original research usually leads to the research questions that will be addressed. Check the flow of origins essay, your argument for coherence. Galvan, J. (2006).
Writing literature reviews: a guide for students of the virginia thesis library, behavioral sciences ( 3rd ed.). Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing.