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Hamlet at the Metropolitan Opera - The New York Times
Burmese Pythons in the Everglades. They followed their ears to a duel between an hamlet alligator and a huge Burmese Python. The alligator clamped his jaws around the snake. The snake wrapped its body around the alligator. The tourists wasted no time in whipping out their camera phones or video cameras, and fall essay within days the video was viral. Millions were enthralled by metropolitan the odd match-up, but to scientists, it was a sign of what could be a very serious problem.
The fight between an American alligator and training a Burmese Python is unusual, and pretty intriguing, because the Burmese Python is not native to Florida. We will write a custom essay sample. on Burmese Pythons in the Everglades or any similar. topic specifically for you. In fact, people barely noticed they were there until the early 1990s. The accidental introduction of an metropolitan dessay invasive species to an ecosystem can be absolutely devastating. Fall Essay Introduction. They can wipe out other species, destroy habitats, and throw the whole system out of whack. We’ve seen it before. The introduction of the Brown treesnake to Guam, for example, caused major ecological and socioeconomic problems since its introduction to Guam shortly after World War II.
The tree snakes clearly thrived in the environment of Guam over that of metropolitan hamlet dessay, Australia; Specimens from explatory essay Guam were significantly larger, Dobson 2 nd reproduced year round, as compared to those found living in Australia, which reproduce seasonally. As the dessay snakes thrived in a new home, the island could not quite handle them as their native lands could. Help Phd Proposal. The brown treesnake caused a severe decline in native forest bird species, the loss of two lizard species, and declines in the Marianna fruit bat. It is metropolitan hamlet, now recognized as a public health threat, as well as a substantial drain on among young people essay, Guam’s economy. Hamlet Dessay. What has happened to Guam at the hand of explatory essay, a foreign, invasive species which should never have been introduced could easily happen to Florida too. If we allow the Burmese Python to take over and deplete the diverse everglades, there is no telling what could be the metropolitan hamlet dessay long term effect. Like the psychotherapy Brown Treesnake to Guam, the Burmese Python survives better in the Everglades than its own natural environment. In Southeast Asia, the pythons may beprey to jackals, monitor lizards, parasites, and diseases. Metropolitan. “By the time they reach two years old, not much can eat them in the Everglades” says USGS biologist Kristen Hart, quoted by Michael Tennessen (6). Help. These animals are large: up to 20 feet long, and 200 pounds heavy. Page 2 Burmese Pythons in the Everglades Essay. They aresneaky: they’re often underground, in trees, underwater, or just blending into their surroundings with their brown and green-ish markings.
They’re fast: “Relocated Pythons have demonstrated a homing ability, returning up to metropolitan hamlet 48 miles from where they were captured. ” (Tennessen, 5) Most native species of the Everglades don’t stand a chance against these monsters. Some experts estimate that there are tens of thousands of Burmese Pythons living free in Florida today. Some eighteen hundred specimens have been removed and abuse among essay recorded in and around the Everglades since 2005. Their numbers have risen dramatically. Two Burmese Dobson 3 Pythons were captured in the Everglades in 2000. In 2008, the number captured hit 343 (Tennesen, 3). Long ago, water from the Kissimmee River was free to flow to Lake Okeechobee and dessay southward, over the lowlands of Biscayne Bay, the Ten Thousand Islands, and Florida Bay. It was a shallow layer of water moving slowly across nearly 11,000 square miles. Fall Of Rome Essay Introduction. It created the swamps, sloughs, ponds, marshes and forests which now make up the remaining wilderness of southern Florida.
Many of metropolitan dessay, those species are native, but many have been introduced to the environment, usually as stowaways on of rome essay introduction, other imports, or pets that have been released. The Burmese Python is one of the most invasive of these non-native species. The snakes originate from Southeast Asia, so they thrive in Florida’s similar environment. The Everglades became sort of a paradise to the pythons, since their introduction in the early 1990’s. Metropolitan Hamlet Dessay. A female Burmese Python will lay up to 207 eggs at once. Inside her nest, she will coil her body around the eggs to maintain a temperature of about ninety degrees Fahrenheit. Incubation takes around two months. The python has only just recently been observed engaging in shivering thermo genesis for the first time outside of captivity. This is the psychosynthesis training production of body heat through muscle contractions.
The mother snake does this to raise the temperature of her nest and eggs- the warmer the incubation, the quicker they will hatch, and slither free throughout the forest, carrying on its destructive path. Hamlet. With this sort of reproduction, it’s no wonder they’re so easily taking over the Everglades. Problem Work. Dobson 4 One of the first big releases of the dessay Burmese Python in mba application Florida took place in 1992. Hurricane Andrew, a category 5 hurricane, took down a large snake importer’s warehouse, as well as causing many billions of dollars of damage. Each year, Miami receives 12,000 exotic pet shipments, many of which are the Burmese Python. A person who takes in a 20-inch baby python might be understandably surprised when it becomes a 12-foot, 200 pound beast within a couple years, and metropolitan many will end up releasing it into drug and alcohol abuse young, the wild. Most likely they are unaware that the reptile is about to wreak havoc on the ecosystem, gobbling native small to medium-sized species of all kinds, if they are unlucky enough to fall into its path. A Burmese Python will eat anything from birds and rodents to bobcats and deer- it will even swallow one of dessay, Florida’s iconic American Alligators like the one the tourists captured. Psychosynthesis Training. Scientists who are worried about conservation of The Everglade’s native species have been recording numbers of medium-sized animal sightings and comparing them to numbers taken during 1996 and 1997. The recordings for most species were down by close to 99 percent!
Obviously there are other factors that have surely had an effect on the animals, like climate change, pollution, hurricanes, and metropolitan hamlet whatever else, but there is a pretty definite link between the mba application time of hamlet, introduction of the Bermuda Python to wild Florida, and the sharp decrease in phd proposal sightings of native species. The solution for such an issue is hamlet dessay, a tricky debate. How do you get rid of such a large population entirely? It may not seem especially “eco-friendly” or humane to run around capturing and killing as many Burmese Pythons as we can get our hands on, but neither is. Dobson 5 allowing these creatures that humans are responsible for bringing to mba application Southern Florida, deplete the natural ecosystem and force native species into endangerment or extinction. So far nobody has thought up a good alternative, and permits to catch/kill Burmese Pythons found in and around the Everglades are now distributed. Metropolitan. In 2003, the Task Force established an explatory essay interagency team (FIATT) that will focus its efforts on non-native species. Their goal is to metropolitan dessay figure out how to assess and control the numbers of these threatening species (National Resource Council, 53).
The largest subtropical wilderness here in mba application failure essay the United States has also been designated as a World Heritage Site, an International Biosphere Reserve, and Wetland of International Importance. It is naturally home to a wide spectrum of species, some which cannot even be found anywhere else. Needless to say, the preservation of this landmark is hugely important. Besides the Pythons there are Nile Monitor Lizards, African Sacred Ibis, Old World Climbing Ferns, and god knows what else threatening a fragile ecosystem. There is no quick or easy way of stopping the Burmese Python from dessay destroying the Everglades. We will have to work tirelessly and with dedication, because this problem will not take care of itself.
One by one, each Burmese python will have to be captured and dealt with by explatory essay relocation, or extermination. Metropolitan Hamlet. In all of essay introduction, my research, I found no alternative solution proposed, besides killing off most of the snakes. Maybe, more humanely, we could arrange some sort of python sanctuary in which Burmese Pythons are captured, sterilized, and cared for until their natural deaths.
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Hamlet at the Metropolitan Opera - The New York Times
From 1971: Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists? A banner for Women’s Lib could be Artemisia Gentileschi’s Judith Beheading Holofernes , one of this Roman painter’s favorite subject. Metropolitan Hamlet! This version dates ca. 1614–20, shortly after the scandal of her alleged promiscuous relations with her teacher. A version of this story originally appeared in the January 1971 issue of ARTnews. W hile the recent upsurge of feminist activity in this country has indeed been a liberating one, its force has been chiefly emotional—personal, psychological and subjective—centered, like the other radical movements to which it is related, on the present and its immediate needs, rather than on historical analysis of the basic intellectual issues which the feminist attack on the status quo automatically raises. And Alcohol People Essay! 1 Like any revolution, however, the feminist one ultimately must come to grips with the metropolitan hamlet dessay intellectual and ideological basis of the various intellectual or scholarly disciplines—history, philosophy, sociology, psychology, etc.—in the same way that it questions the ideologies of present social institutions.
If, as John Stuart Mill suggested, we tend to accept whatever is as natural, this is phd proposal, just as true in the realm of academic investigation as it is in our social arrangements. In the former, too, “natural” assumptions must be questioned and the mythic basis of much so-called “fact” brought to light. Dessay! And it is here that the very position of woman as an acknowledged outsider, the maverick “she” instead of the presumably neutral “one”—in reality the help phd proposal white-male-position-accepted-as-natural, or the hidden “he” as the subject of hamlet all scholarly predicates—is a decided advantage, rather than merely a hindrance of a subjective distortion. In the field of art history, the fall of rome white Western male viewpoint, unconsciously accepted as the viewpoint of the art historian, may—and does—prove to be inadequate not merely on moral and ethical grounds, or because it is metropolitan hamlet dessay, elitist, but on purely intellectual ones. In revealing the failure of much academic art history, and problem work backwards a great deal of history in general, to take account of the unacknowledged value system, the very presence of an intruding subject in metropolitan historical investigation, the feminist critique at the same time lays bare its conceptual smugness, its meta-historical naivete. At a moment when all disciplines are becoming more self-conscious, more aware of the nature of their presuppositions as exhibited in the very languages and structures of the various fields of scholarship, such uncritical acceptance of “what is” as “natural” may be intellectually fatal. Just as Mill saw male domination as one of a long series of social injustices that had to be overcome if a truly just social order were to be created, so we may see the unstated domination of white male subjectivity as one in a series of explatory essay intellectual distortions which must be corrected in order to achieve a more adequate and accurate view of historical situations. It is the engaged feminist intellect (like John Stuart Mill’s) that can pierce through the cultural-ideological limitations of the time and its specific “professionalism” to metropolitan reveal biases and inadequacies not merely in the dealing with the question of women, but in the very way of formulating the crucial questions of the phd proposal discipline as a whole.
Thus, the so-called woman question, far from being a minor, peripheral and metropolitan laughably provincial sub-issue grafted on to a serious, established discipline, can become a catalyst, an intellectual instrument, probing basic and “natural” assumptions, providing a paradigm for other kinds of internal questioning, and in young essay turn providing links with paradigms established by radical approaches in other fields. Even a simple question like “Why have there been no great women artists?” can, if answered adequately, create a sort of chain reaction, expanding not merely to encompass the accepted assumptions of the metropolitan hamlet dessay single field, but outward to embrace history and the social sciences, or even psychology and literature, and explatory essay thereby, from the outset, to challenge the assumption that the traditional divisions of intellectual inquiry are still adequate to deal with the meaningful questions of our time, rather than the merely convenient or self-generated ones. Let us, for example, examine the implications of hamlet that perennial question (one can, of course, substitute almost any field of human endeavor, with appropriate changes in phrasing): “Well, if women really are equal to men, why have there never been any great women artists (or composers, or mathematicians, or philosophers, or so few of the same)?” “Why have there been no great women artists?” The question tolls reproachfully in the background of most discussions of the solving work backwards so-called woman problem. But like so many other so-called questions involved in the feminist “controversy,” it falsifies the nature of the issue at the same time that it insidiously supplies its own answer: “There are no. great women artists because women are incapable of dessay greatness.” The assumptions behind such a question are varied in range and sophistication, running anywhere from “scientifically proven” demonstrations of the inability of human beings with wombs rather than penises to phd proposal create anything significant, to relatively open-minded wonderment that women, despite so many years of dessay near-equality—and after all, a lot of men have had their disadvantages too—have still not achieved anything of exceptional significance in the visual arts. The feminist’s first reaction is to swallow the explatory essay bait, hook, line and metropolitan hamlet dessay sinker, and to attempt to answer the question as it is put: i.e., to dig up examples of worthy or insufficiently appreciated women artists throughout history; to rehabilitate rather modest, if interesting and productive careers; to “re-discover” forgotten flower-painters or David-followers and make out a case for them; to demonstrate that Berthe Morisot was really less dependent upon Manet than one had been led to think—in other words, to engage in the normal activity of the specialist scholar who makes a case for solving the importance of his very own neglected or minor master. Such attempts, whether undertaken from a feminist point of view, like the ambitious article on metropolitan hamlet women artists which appeared in the 1858 Westminster Review , 2 or more recent scholarly studies on psychosynthesis psychotherapy such artists as Angelica Kauffmann and Artemisia Gentileschi, 3 are certainly worth the effort, both in dessay adding to our knowledge of help women’s achievement and of art history generally.
But they do nothing to question the assumptions lying behind the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” On the metropolitan dessay contrary, by attempting to answer it, they tacitly reinforce its negative implications. The Swiss-born Angelica Kauffman, most of whose prolific career was spent in Italy, combines allegory with portraiture in help Angelica Hesitating between Music and Painting , 1791. Another attempt to answer the question involves shifting the ground slightly and asserting, as some contemporary feminists do, that there is a different kind of “greatness” for women’s art than for men’s, thereby postulating the dessay existence of a distinctive and recognizable feminine style, different both in its formal and its expressive qualities and based on the special character of mba application failure women’s situation and experience. This, on the surface of it, seems reasonable enough: in general, women’s experience and situation in society, and hence as artists, is different from men’s, and metropolitan hamlet certainly the art produced by a group of psychotherapy consciously united and purposefully articulate women intent on bodying forth a group consciousness of feminine experience might indeed be stylistically identifiable as feminist, if not feminine, art. Unfortunately, though this remains within the realm of possibility it has so far not occurred. While the members of the hamlet Danube School, the followers of essay Caravaggio, the painters gathered around Gauguin at Pont-Aven, the Blue Rider, or the Cubists may be recognized by certain clearly defined stylistic or expressive qualities, no such common qualities of “femininity” would seem to link the styles of women artists generally, any more than such qualities can be said to link women writers, a case brilliantly argued, against metropolitan hamlet the most devastating, and drug and alcohol abuse among people essay mutually contradictory, masculine critical cliches, by Mary Ellmann in her Thinking about Women . 4 No subtle essence of femininity would seem to link the work of Artemesia Gentileschi, Mme. Vigee-Lebrun, Angelica Kauffmann, Rosa Bonheur, Berthe Morisot, Suzanne Valadon , Kaethe Kollwitz, Barbara Hepworth, Georgia O’Keeffe, Sophie Taeuber-Arp, Helen Frankenthaler, Bridget Riley, Lee Bontecou or Louise Nevelson, any more than that of Sappho, Marie de France, Jane Austen, Emily Bronte, George Sand, George Eliot, Virginia Woolf, Gertrude Stein, Anais Nin, Emily Dickinson, Sylvia Plath and dessay Susan Sontag. In every instance, women artists and writers would seem to be closer to other artists and writers of their own period and help phd proposal outlook than they are to each other. W omen artists are more inward-looking, more delicate and nuanced in their treatment of their medium, it may be asserted. Hamlet! But which of the women artists cited above is more inward-turning than Redon, more subtle and nuanced in the handling of pigment than Corot? Is Fragonard more or less feminine than Mme.
Vigee-Lebrun? Or is it not more a question of the whole Rococo style of 18th-century France being “feminine,” if judged in phd proposal terms of a two-valued scale of “masculinity” vs. Metropolitan Hamlet Dessay! “femininity”? Certainly though, if daintiness, delicacy and preciousness are to be counted as earmarks of a feminine style, there is nothing fragile about solving work backwards, Rosa Bonheur’s Horse Fair , nor dainty and introverted about Helen Frankenthaler’s giant canvases. Metropolitan Dessay! If women have turned to scenes of domestiC life, or of mba application failure children, so did Jan Steen, Chardin and the Impressionists—Renoir and Monet as well as Morisot and Cassatt. Metropolitan! In any case, the mere choice of a certain realm of subject matter, or the restriction to certain subjects, is not to be equated with a style, much less with some sort of quintessentially feminine style. The problem lies not so much with the feminists’ concept of what femininity is, but rather with their misconception—shared with the public at large—of what art is: with the naive idea that art is the direct, personal expression of individual emotional experience, a translation of personal life into visual terms. Art is almost never that, great art never is. The making of art involves a self-consistent language of form, more or less dependent upon, or free from, given temporally-defined conventions, schemata or systems of notation, which have to be learned or worked out, either through teaching, apprenticeship or a long period of individual experimentation.
The language of art is, more materially, embodied in paint and line on canvas or paper, in stone or clay or plastic or metal—it is neither a sob-story nor a confidential whisper. The fact of the matter is that there have been no supremely great women artists, as far as we know, although there have been many interesting and very good ones who remain insufficiently investigated or appreciated; nor have there been any great Lithuanian jazz pianists, nor Eskimo tennis players, no matter how much we might wish there had been. Fall Of Rome Essay! That this should be the case is metropolitan hamlet, regrettable, but no amount of phd proposal manipulating the historical or critical evidence will alter the situation; nor will accusations of male-chauvinist distortion of metropolitan dessay history. The fact, dear sisters, is explatory essay, that there are no women equivalents for Michelangelo or Rembrandt, Delacroix or Cezanne, Picasso or Matisse, or even, in very recent times, for de Kooning or Warhol, any more than there are Black American equivalents for the same. If there actually were large numbers of “hidden” great women artists, or if there really should be different standards for women’s art as opposed to men’s—and one can’t have it both ways—then what are the feminists fighting for? If women have in fact achieved the same status as men in the arts, then the status quo is fine as it is.
Judith Leyster’s The Jolly Toper was called a Frans Hal until the discovery of her typical signature, “J,” and the date 1629, in upper right center. But in actuality, as we all know, things as they are and as they have been, in the arts as in a hundred other areas, are stultifying, oppressive and discouraging to dessay all those, women among them, who did not have the good fortune to be born white, preferably middle class and, above all, male. The fault, dear brothers, lies not in our stars, our hormones, our menstrual cycles or our empty internal spaces, but in work our institutions and our education—education understood to include everything that happens to us from the moment we enter this world of meaningful symbols, signs and signals. The miracle is, in metropolitan fact, that given the overwhelming odds against women, or blacks, that so many of both have managed to achieve so much sheer excellence, in those bailiwicks of white masculine prerogative like science, politics or the arts. It is when one really starts thinking about the implications of essay introduction “Why have there been no great women artists?” that one begins to realize to what extent our consciousness of how things are in the world has been conditioned—and often falsified—by the way the most important questions are posed. We tend to take it for granted that there really is an metropolitan dessay East Asian Problem, a Poverty Problem, a Black Problem—and a Woman Problem. But first we must ask ourselves who is formulating these “questions,” and then, what purposes such formulations may serve. (We may, of and alcohol abuse young people essay course, refresh our memories with the connotations of the Nazi’s “Jewish Problem.”) Indeed, in our time of instant communication, “problems” are rapidly formulated to rationalize the metropolitan dessay bad conscience of psychosynthesis psychotherapy those with power: thus the problem posed by Americans in Vietnam and Cambodia is referred to hamlet by Americans as “the East Asian Problem,” whereas East Asians may view it, more realistically, as “the American Problem”; the so-called Poverty Problem might more directly be viewed as the “Wealth Problem” by denizens of urban ghettos or rural wastelands; the same irony twists the White Problem into its opposite: a Black Problem; and the same inverse logic turns up in the formulation of problem solving work our own present state of affairs as the “Woman Problem.” Now the “Woman Problem,” like all human problems, so-called (and the very idea of calling anything to do with human beings a “problem” is, of metropolitan hamlet course, a fairly recent one) is not amenable to “solution” at all, since what human problems involve is re-interpretation of the nature of the problem solving work situation, or a radical alteration of stance or program on the part of the “problems” themselves . Thus women and their situation in metropolitan hamlet dessay the arts, as in other realms of endeavor, are not a “problem” to be viewed through the work eyes of the dominant male power elite. Instead, women must conceive of themselves as potentially, if not actually, equal subjects, and must be willing to dessay look the facts of their situation full in problem solving the face, without self-pity, or cop-outs; at metropolitan the same time they must view their situation with that high degree of drug among young people essay emotional and intellectual commitment necessary to hamlet dessay create a world in which equal achievement will be not only made possible but actively encouraged by social institutions. It is certainly not realistic to hope that a majority of men, in the arts, or in phd proposal any other field, will soon see the metropolitan light and find that it is in their own self-interest to grant complete equality to women, as some feminists optimistically assert, or to problem solving work backwards maintain that men themselves will soon realize that they are diminished by denying themselves access to hamlet traditionally “feminine” realms and emotional reactions. Essay! After all, there are few areas that are really “denied” to men, if the level of operations demanded be transcendent, responsible or rewarding enough: men who have a need for “feminine” involvement with babies or children gain status as pediatricians or child psychologists, with a nurse (female) to do the more routine work; those who feel the urge for kitchen creativity may gain fame as master chefs; and, of course, men who yearn to fulfill themselves through what are often termed “feminine” artistic interests can find themselves as painters or sculptors, rather than as volunteer museum aides or part time ceramists, as their female counterparts so often end up doing; as far as scholarship is hamlet, concerned, how many men would be willing to change their jobs as teachers and researchers for those of unpaid, part-time research assistants and typists as well as full-time nannies and domestic workers?
Those who have privileges inevitably hold on to them, and hold tight, no matter how marginal the advantage involved, until compelled to bow to drug young essay superior power of one sort or another. Thus the question of metropolitan dessay women’s equality—in art as in any other realm—devolves not upon drug abuse, the relative benevolence or ill-will of individual men, nor the self-confidence or abjectness of individual women, but rather on the very nature of our institutional structures themselves and the view of reality which they impose on the human beings who are part of them. Metropolitan! As John Stuart Mill pointed out more than a century ago: “Everything which is usual appears natural. The subjection of women to men being a universal custom, any departure from it quite naturally appears unnatural.” 5 Most men, despite lip-service to equality, are reluctant to give up this “natural” order of phd proposal things in which their advantages are so great; for women, the case is further complicated by the fact that, as Mill astutely pointed out, unlike other oppressed groups or castes, men demand of her not only submission but unqualified affection as well; thus women are often weakened by the internalized demands of the metropolitan dessay male-dominated society itself, as well as by a plethora of material goods and comforts: the failure middle-class woman has a great deal more to lose than her chains. At Thomas Eakins’ life-class at dessay the Pennsylvania Academy around 1855, a cow, instead of a nude man, served as a model for the women students. COURTESY PENNSYLVANIA ACADEMY OF THE FINE ARTS/CHARLES BREGLER’S THOMAS EAKINS COLLECTION, PURCHASED WITH THE PARTIAL SUPPORT OF THE PEW MEMORIAL TRUST. The question “Why have there been no great women artists?” is simply the top tenth of an iceberg of among essay misinterpretation and hamlet dessay misconception; beneath lies a vast dark bulk of shaky idees recues about the fall nature of art and its situational concomitants, about the nature of human abilities in general and of human excellence in particular, and dessay the role that the social order plays in all of psychotherapy this. While the “woman problem” as such may be a pseudo-issue, the misconceptions involved in the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” points to major areas of intellectual obfuscation beyond the specific political and ideological issues involved in the subjection of women. Basic to metropolitan the question are many naive, distorted, uncritical assumptions about the making of art in mba application general, as well as the making of great art.
These assumptions, conscious or unconscious, link together such unlikely superstars as Michelangelo and van Gogh, Raphael and Jackson Pollock under the rubric of “Great”—an honorific attested to metropolitan hamlet by the number of scholarly monographs devoted to the artist in question—and the Great Artist is, of course, conceived of as one who has “Genius”; Genius, in of rome introduction turn, is thought of as an atemporal and mysterious power somehow embedded in the person of the Great Artist. 6 Such ideas are related to unquestioned, often unconscious, meta-historical premises that make Hippolyte Taine’s race-milieu-moment formulation of the dimensions of historical thought seem a model of sophistication. But these assumptions are intrinsic to a great deal of art-historical writing. It is no accident that the metropolitan dessay crucial question of the conditions generally productive of fall great art has so rarely been investigated, or that attempts to metropolitan investigate such general problems have, until fairly recently, been dismissed as unscholarly, too broad, or the province of some other discipline, like sociology. To encourage a dispassionate, impersonal, sociological and institutionally-oriented approach would reveal the entire romantic, elitist, individual-glorifying and monograph-producing substructure upon which the profession of art history is based, and which has only recently been called in to question by a group of younger dissidents. Underlying the question about woman as artist, then, we find the myth of the Great Artist—subject of of rome a hundred monographs, unique, godlike—bearing within his person since birth a mysterious essence, rather like the hamlet golden nugget in Mrs. Grass’s chicken soup, called Genius or Talent, which, like murder, must always out, no matter how unlikely or unpromising the of rome essay introduction circumstances. The magical aura surrounding the representational arts and their creators has, of course, given birth to myths since the earliest times.
Interestingly enough, the same magical abilities attributed by metropolitan dessay Pliny to the Greek sculptor Lysippos in antiquity—the mysterious inner call in early youth, the among young people essay lack of any teacher but Nature herself—is repeated as late as the 19th century by Max Buchon in his biography of Courbet. Dessay! The supernatural powers of the artist as imitator, his control of strong, possibly dangerous powers, have functioned historically to set him off from others as a godlike creator, one who creates Being out of nothing. The fairy tale of the Boy Wonder, discovered by an older artist or discerning patron, usually in the guise of a lowly shepherd boy, has been a stock-in-trade of artistic mythology ever since Vasari immortalized the young Giotto, discovered by the great Cimabue while the phd proposal lad was guarding his flocks, drawing sheep on hamlet a stone; Cimabue, overcome with admiration by the realism of the drawing, immediately invited the humble youth to essay be his pupil. 7 Through some mysterious coincidence, later artists including Beccafumi, Andrea Sansovino, Andrea del Castagno, Mantegna, Zurbaran and Goya were all discovered in similar pastoral circumstances. Even when the young Great Artist was not fortunate enough to come equipped with a flock of sheep, his talent always seems to have manifested itself very early, and independent of any external encouragement: Filippo Lippi and dessay Poussin, Courbet and drug and alcohol among Monet are all reported to have drawn caricatures in the margins of their schoolbooks instead of studying the required subjects—we never, of course, hear about the youths who neglected their studies and hamlet scribbled in the margins of their notebooks without ever becoming anything more elevated than department-store clerks or shoe salesmen. The great Michelangelo himself, according to his biographer and training pupil, Vasari, did more drawing than studying as a child. So pronounced was his talent, reports Vasari, that when his master, Ghirlandaio, absented himself momentarily from his work in Santa Maria Novella, and the young art student took the opportunity to draw “the scaffolding, trestles, pots of hamlet paint, brushes and the apprentices at their tasks” in this brief absence, he did it so skillfully that upon his return the master exclaimed: “This boy knows more than I do.” Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun’s immense following at the French court was largely due to the patronage of Marie-Antoinette, whom she has been credited with making sympathetic to posterity through her portraits of the queen. Marie-Antoinette de Lorraine-Habsbourg, Queen of France, and her children , 1781.
As is so often the case, such stories, which probably have some truth in them, tend both to reflect and perpetuate the attitudes they subsume. Despite any basis in fact of these myths about the early manifestations of Genius, the tenor of the tales is misleading. It is psychotherapy training, no doubt true, for metropolitan hamlet example, that the young Picasso passed all the help phd proposal examinations for entrance to the Barcelona, and hamlet dessay later to the Madrid, Academy of Art at help phd proposal the age of metropolitan 15 in but a single day, a feat of such difficulty that most candidates required a month of preparation. But one would like to find out more about similar precocious qualifiers for art academies who then went on to achieve nothing but mediocrity or failure—in whom, of course, art historians are uninterested—or to study in greater detail the role played by Picasso’s art-professor father in help the pictorial precocity of his son. What if Picasso had been born a girl? Would Senor Ruiz have paid as much attention or stimulated as much ambition for achievement in a little Pablita? What is metropolitan hamlet, stressed in all these stories is the phd proposal apparently miraculous, non-determined and metropolitan dessay a-social nature of artistic achievement; this semi-religious conception of the artist’s role is elevated to hagiography in the 19th-century, when both art historians, critics and, not least, some of the mba application artists themselves tended to elevate the making of art into a substitute religion, the last bulwark of Higher Values in a materialistic world. The artist, in the 19th-century Saints’ Legend, struggles against hamlet the most determined parental and social opposition, suffering the slings and arrows of social opprobrium like any Christian martyr, and ultimately succeeds against all odds—generally, alas, after his death—because from deep within himself radiates that mysterious, holy effulgence: Genius. Fall Essay! Here we have the mad van Gogh, spinning out sunflowers despite epileptic seizures and near-starvation; Cezanne, braving paternal rejection and public scorn in order to revolutionize painting; Gauguin throwing away respectability and financial security with a single existential gesture to pursue his Calling in the tropics, or Toulouse-Lautrec, dwarfed, crippled and hamlet dessay alchoholic [ sic ], sacrificing his aristocratic birthright in phd proposal favor of the squalid surroundings that provided him with inspiration, etc. Now no serious contemporary art historian takes such obvious fairy tales at their face value.
Yet it is this sort of mythology about artistic achievement and its concomitants which forms the unconscious or unquestioned assumptions of scholars, no matter how many crumbs are thrown to social influences, ideas of the metropolitan times, economic crises and so on. Behind the most sophisticated investigations of great artists—more specifically, the art-historical monograph, which accepts the notion of the Great Artist as primary, and the social and institutional structures within which he lived and worked as mere secondary “influences” or “background”—lurks the golden-nugget theory of genius and the free-enterprise conception of individual achievement. On this basis, women’s lack of major achievement in art may be formulated as a syllogism: If women had the help golden nugget of artistic genius then it would reveal itself. But it has never revealed itself. Hamlet! Q.E.D. Women do not have the problem solving golden nugget of artistic genius. If Giotto, the obscure shepherd boy, and van Gogh with his fits could make it, why not women? Berthe Morisot was a close friend of Manet and later married his brother.
Eugene Manet on the Isle of metropolitan hamlet dessay Wight , 1875. Yet as soon as one leaves behind the fall of rome world of fairy-tale and self-fulfilling prophecy and, instead, casts a dispassionate eye on the actual situations in which important art production has existed, in the total range of its social and hamlet institutional structures throughout history, one finds that the very questions which are fruitful or relevant for abuse people essay the historian to ask shape up rather differently. One would like to ask, for instance, from what social classes artists were most likely to metropolitan hamlet dessay come at different periods of art history, from help what castes and sub-group. What proportion of painters and sculptors, or more specifically, of major painters and sculptors, came from families in which their fathers or other close relatives were painters and sculptors or engaged in related professions? As Nikolaus Pevsner points out in his discussion of the French Academy in the 17th and 18th centuries, the metropolitan hamlet dessay transmission of the artistic profession from father to son was considered a matter of course (as it was with the Coypels, the Coustous, the and alcohol people essay Van Loos, etc); indeed, sons of academicians were exempted from the customary fees for lessons.
8 Despite the noteworthy and dramatically satisfying cases of the great father-rejecting revoltes of the 19th century, one might be forced to admit that a large proportion of artists, great and not-so-great, in the days when it was normal for sons to follow in hamlet dessay their fathers’ footsteps, had artist fathers. In the rank of major artists, the names of explatory essay Holbein and Durer, Raphael and Bernini, immediately spring to mind; even in dessay our own times, one can cite the names of Picasso, Calder, Giacometti and Wyeth as members of artist-families. As far as the relationship of artistic occupation and of rome introduction social class is hamlet dessay, concerned, an interesting paradigm for the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” might well be provided by trying to answer the question: “Why have there been no great artists from the help aristocracy?” One can scarcely think, before the anti-traditional 19th century at metropolitan dessay least, of any artist who sprang from the ranks of any more elevated class than the upper bourgeoisie; even in the 19th century, Degas came from the lower nobility—more like the haute bourgeoisie, in fact—and only Toulouse-Lautrec, metamorphosed into mba application failure essay the ranks of the marginal by accidental deformity, could be said to have come from the metropolitan dessay loftier reaches of the upper classes. While the aristocracy has always provided the lion’s share of the patronage and the audience for art—as, indeed, the aristocracy of wealth does even in our more democratic days—it has contributed little beyond amateurish efforts to the creation of drug young essay art itself, despite the fact that aristocrats (like many women) have had more than their share of educational advantages, plenty of leisure and, indeed, like women, were often encouraged to dabble in metropolitan hamlet the arts and even develop into introduction respectable amateurs, like Napoleon III’s cousin, the Princess Mathilde, who exhibited at the official Salons, or Queen Victoria, who, with Prince Albert, studied art with no less a figure than Landseer himself. Metropolitan Dessay! Could, it be that the little golden nugget—Genius—is missing from the aristocratic make-up in the same way that it is from the feminine psyche? Or rather, is it not, that the kinds of demands and expectations placed before both aristocrats and women—the amount of time necessarily devoted to social functions, the very kinds of activities demanded—simply made total devotion to professional art production out help, of the question, indeed unthinkable, both for upper-class males and for women generally, rather than its being a question of genius and hamlet dessay talent? When the right questions are asked about the conditions for producing art, of which the production of great art is a sub-topic, there will no doubt have to be some discussion of the situational concomitants of intelligence and failure talent generally, not merely of artistic genius. Piaget and others have stressed in their genetic epistemology that in the development of hamlet dessay reason and in the unfolding of imagination in young children, intelligence—or, by implication, what we choose to call genius—is a dynamic activity rather than a static essence, and phd proposal an activity of a subject in metropolitan hamlet dessay a situation . As further investigations in the field of child development imply, these abilities, or this intelligence, are built up minutely, step by step, from infancy onward, and the patterns of adaptation-accommodation may be established so early within the phd proposal subject-in-an-environment that they may indeed appear to hamlet dessay be innate to problem solving work the unsophisticated observer. Such investigations imply that, even aside from hamlet dessay meta-historical reasons, scholars will have to help abandon the notion, consciously articulated or not, of individual genius as innate, and as primary to the creation of art. 9.
The question “Why have there been no great women artists?” has led us to the conclusion, so far, that art is not a free, autonomous activity of dessay a super-endowed individual, “influenced” by previous artists, and, more vaguely and superficially, by “social forces,” but rather, that the total situation of art making, both in terms of the development of the art maker and in the nature and quality of the work of psychotherapy training art itself, occur in a social situation, are integral elements of this social structure, and are mediated and determined by specific and metropolitan hamlet dessay definable social institutions, be they art academies, systems of patronage, mythologies of the divine creator, artist as he-man or social outcast. The Question of the psychosynthesis psychotherapy Nude. We can now approach our question from a more reasonable standpoint, since it seems probable that the dessay answer to why there have been no great women artists lies not in the nature of individual genius or the and alcohol abuse among people lack of it, but in the nature of given social institutions and metropolitan hamlet what they forbid or encourage in various classes or groups of individuals. Let us first examine such a simple, but critical, issue as availability of the nude model to aspiring women artists, in the period extending from the Renaissance until near the end of the 19th century, a period in mba application failure essay which careful and prolonged study of the hamlet nude model was essential to the training of every young artist, to the production of any work with pretentions to grandeur, and to the very essence of History Painting, generally accepted as the mba application failure essay highest category of art: indeed, it was argued by defenders of traditional painting in the 19th century that there could be no great painting with clothed figures, since costume inevitably destroyed both the temporal universality and the classical idealization required by great art. Needless to say, central to the training programs of the metropolitan hamlet academies since their inception late in the 16th and early in the 17th centuries, was life drawing from the nude, generally male, model. In addition, groups of artists and explatory essay their pupils often met privately for hamlet life drawing sessions from the and alcohol abuse young people nude model in their studios. Metropolitan Hamlet! In general, it might be added, while individual artists and private academies employed the essay female model extensively, the female nude was forbidden in almost all public art schools as late as 1850 and after—a state of hamlet affairs which Pevsner rightly designates as “hardly believable.” 10 Far more believable, unfortunately, was the complete unavailability to the aspiring woman artist of any nude models at all, male or female.
As late as 1893, “lady” students were not admitted to life drawing at the Royal Academy in London, and drug among essay even when they were, after that date, the model had to be “partially draped.” 11. A brief survey of representations of life-drawing sessions reveals: an hamlet all male clientele drawing from the female nude in Rembrandt’s studio; men working from fall essay male nudes in 18th-century representations of academic instruction in The Hague and Vienna; men working from the seated male nude in Bailly’s charming painting of the interior of Houdon’s studio at the beginning of the 19th century; Mathieu Cochereau’s scrupulously veristic Interior of David’s Studio , exhibited in the Salon of 1814, reveals a group of hamlet young men diligently drawing or painting from of rome introduction a male nude model, whose discarded shoes may be seen before the models’ stand. The very plethora of surviving “Academies”—detailed, painstaking studies from the nude studio model—in the youthful oeuvre of artists down through the time of Seurat and well into metropolitan hamlet the 20th century, attests to the central importance of this branch of study in the pedagogy and development of the drug abuse among young people essay talented beginner. The formal academic program itself normally proceeded, as a matter of course, from copying from drawings and dessay engravings, to drawing from casts of famous works of sculpture, to drawing from the living model. Failure! To be deprived of this ultimate stage of training meant, in effect, to be deprived of the metropolitan possibility of explatory essay creating major art works, unless one were a very ingenious lady indeed, or simply, as most of the women aspiring to be painters ultimately did, to restrict oneself to the “minor” fields of portraiture, genre, landscape or still-life. It is rather as though a medical student were denied the metropolitan dessay opportunity to drug and alcohol abuse dissect or even examine the metropolitan dessay naked human body. In Zoffany’s painting of the life-class at the Royal Academy, 1772, all the members are present except for Angelica Kauffmann, who for reasons of problem solving work propriety has a stand-in—her portrait on the wall.
There exist, to metropolitan dessay my knowledge, no representations of artists drawing from the nude model which include women in any role but that of the nude model itself, an interesting commentary on rules of propriety: i.e., it is all right for a (“low,” of course) woman to fall of rome essay introduction reveal herself naked-as-an-object for metropolitan hamlet a group of essay men, but forbidden to a woman to hamlet participate in the active study and recording of naked-man-as-an-object, or even of a fellow woman. An amusing example of this taboo on confronting a dressed lady with a naked man is embodied in a group portrait of the members of the Royal Academy in London in 1772, represented by Zoffany as gathered in the life room before two nude male models: all the distinguished members are present with but one noteworthy exception—the single female member, the renowned Angelica Kauffmann, who, for propriety’s sake, is merely present in essay effigy, in the form of a portrait hanging on the wall. A slightly earlier drawing of Ladies in the Studio by the Polish artist Daniel Chodowiecki, shows the ladies portraying a modestly dressed member of their sex. Metropolitan Hamlet Dessay! In a lithograph dating from the drug and alcohol abuse among young relatively liberated epoch following the French Revolution, the lithographer Marlet has represented some women sketchers in a group of students working from the male model, but the model himself has been chastely provided with what appears to be a pair of bathing trunks, a garment hardly conducive to a sense of classical elevation: no doubt such license was considered daring in dessay its day, and the young ladies in question suspected of doubtful morals, but even this liberated state of affairs seems to have lasted only a short while. In an English stereoscopic color view of the interior of a studio of about 1865, the essay introduction standing, bearded male model is so heavily draped that not an hamlet dessay iota of his anatomy escapes from the discreet toga, save for a single bare shoulder and arm: even so, he obviously had the grace to avert his eyes in the presence of the crinoline-clad young sketchers. The women in the Women’s Modeling Class at the Pennsylvania Academy were evidently not allowed even this modest privilege. Work! A photograph by Thomas Eakins of about 1885 reveals these students modeling from metropolitan hamlet dessay a cow (bull? ox? the nether regions are obscure in essay the photograph), a naked cow to be sure, perhaps a daring liberty when one considers that even piano legs might be concealed beneath pantalettes during this era (the idea of introducing a bovine model into the artist’s studio stems from Courbet, who brought a bull into his short-lived studio academy in the 1860s). Only at the very end of the 19th century, in the relatively liberated and open atmosphere of Repin’s studio and circle in Russia, do we find representations of women art students working uninhibitedly from the nude—the female model, to be sure—in the company of men. Even in this case, it must be noted that certain photographs represent a private sketch group meeting in one of the women artists’ homes; in the other, the model is draped; and the large group portrait, a co-operative effort by two men and dessay two women students of Repin’s, is an imaginary gathering together of all of the Russian realist’s pupils, past and present, rather than a realistic studio view.
I have gone into the question of the availability of the nude model, a single aspect of the automatic, institutionally-maintained discrimination against women, in such detail simply to demonstrate both the universality of the discrimination against explatory essay women and its consequences, as well as the institutional rather than individual nature of metropolitan but one facet of the necessary preparation for achieving mere proficiency, much less greatness, in the realm of art during a long stretch of time. One could equally well examine other dimensions of the situation, such as the apprenticeship system, the academic educational pattern which, in France especially, was almost the only key to success and which had a regular progression and set competitions, crowned by help the Prix de Rome which enabled the young winner to work in the French Academy in that city—unthinkable for dessay women, of course—and for which women were unable to psychotherapy training compete until the end of the 19th century, by which time, in fact, the whole academic system had lost its importance anyway. It seems clear, to take France in the 19th century as an example, a country which probably had a larger proportion of women artists than any other—that is to say, in terms of their percentage in the total number of metropolitan hamlet artists exhibiting in. the Salon—that “women were not accepted as professional painters.” 12 In the middle of the century, there were only a third as many women as men artists, but even this mildly encouraging statistic is deceptive when we discover that out of essay this relatively meager number, none had attended that major stepping stone to artistic success, the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, only 7 percent had received any official commission or had held any official office—and these might include the most menial sort of work—only 7 percent had ever received any Salon medal, and metropolitan hamlet none had ever received the Legion of Honor. Psychotherapy! 13 Deprived of metropolitan dessay encouragements, educational facilities and rewards, it is almost incredible that a certain percentage of women did persevere and seek a profession in the arts. It also becomes apparent why women were able to compete on far more equal terms with men—and even become innovators—in literature. Solving! While art-making traditionally has demanded the learning of specific techniques and skills, in a certain sequence, in an institutional setting outside the home, as well as becoming familiar with a specific vocabulary of metropolitan iconography and motifs, the same is by no means true for the poet or novelist. Psychosynthesis Psychotherapy Training! Anyone, even a women, has to learn the language, can learn to dessay read and psychosynthesis psychotherapy write, and can commit personal experiences to paper in the privacy of dessay one’s room. Naturally this oversimplifies the real difficulties and psychotherapy complexities involved in creating good or great literature, whether by man or woman, but it still gives a clue as to the possibility of the existence of metropolitan hamlet dessay Emily Bronte or an psychotherapy Emily Dickinson, and the lack of their counterparts, at least until quite recently, in the visual arts. Of course we have not gone into the “fringe” requirements for major artists, which would have been, for the most part, both psychically and socially closed to women, even if hypothetically they could have achieved the requisite grandeur in the performance of metropolitan hamlet their craft: in the Renaissance and after, the great artist, aside from participating in failure the affairs of an academy, might well be intimate.
with members of humanist circles with whom he could exchange ideas, establish suitable relationships with patrons, travel widely and freely, perhaps politic and intrigue; nor have we mentioned the hamlet sheer organizational acumen and work ability involved in running a major studio-factory, like that of Rubens. An enormous amount of dessay self-confidence and worldly knowledgeability, as well as a natural sense of well-earned dominance and power, was needed by the great chef d’ecole , both in the running of the production end of painting, and in the control and instruction of the numerous students and assistants. In contrast to help phd proposal the single-mindedness and commitment demanded of a chef d’ecole , we might set the image of the “lady painter” established by 19th-century etiquette books and reinforced by the literature of the times. Dessay! It is precisely the insistence upon a modest, proficient, self-demeaning level of amateurism as a “suitable accomplishment” for the well-brought up young woman, who naturally would want to explatory essay direct her major attention to the welfare of others—family and husband—that militated, and still militates, against any real accomplishment on the part of women. It is this emphasis which transforms serious commitment to frivolous self-indulgence, busy work or occupational therapy, and hamlet dessay today, more than ever, in suburban bastions of the feminine mystique, tends to distort the whole notion of what art is and what kind of social role it plays. Failure Essay! In Mrs. Metropolitan Hamlet! Ellis’ widely read The Family Monitor and Domestic Guide , published before the middle of the 19th century, a book of drug and alcohol abuse among young people advice popular both in the United States and in dessay England, women were warned against the snare of trying too hard to excel in any one thing: It must not be supposed that the explatory essay writer is one who would advocate, as essential to woman, any very extraordinary degree of intellectual attainment, especially if confined to one particular branch of metropolitan dessay study. “I should like to phd proposal excel in something” is a frequent and, to some extent, laudable expression; but in hamlet what does it originate, and to drug what does it tend? To be able to do a great many things tolerably well, is of infinitely more value to a woman, than to be able to metropolitan hamlet excel in any one. By the former, she may render herself generally useful: by the latter, she may dazzle for an hour. Of Rome Essay! By being apt, and tolerably well skilled in everything, she may fall into any situation in life with dignity and ease—by devoting her time to excellence in one, she may remain incapable of metropolitan hamlet dessay every other.
So far as cleverness, learning, and knowledge are conducive to woman’s moral excellence, they are therefore desirable, and no further. All that would occupy her mind to the exclusion of better things, all that would involve her in the mazes of flattery and admiration, all that would tend to draw away her thoughts from others and fix them on problem work backwards herself, ought to be avoided as an evil to her, however brilliant or attractive it may be in itself. 14. Lest we are tempted to laugh, we may refresh ourselves with more recent samples of exactly the dessay same message cited in Betty Friedan’s Feminine Mystique , or in the pages of recent issues of popular women’s magazines. This advice has a familiar ring, of course: propped up by a bit of Freudianism and some tag-lines from the social sciences about the well-rounded personality, preparation for woman’s chief career, marriage, and the unfemininity of deep involvement with work rather than sex, it is still the mainstay of the Feminine Mystique. Such an outlook helps guard man from unwanted competition in his “serious” professional activities and assures him of “well-rounded” assistance on training the home front, so that he may have sex and family in addition to the fulfillment of his own specialized talent and excellence at the same time.
As far as painting specifically is concerned, Mrs. Ellis finds that it has one immediate advantage for the young lady over its rival branch of artistic activity, music—it is metropolitan hamlet dessay, quiet and disturbs no one (this negative virtue, of course, would not be true of sculpture, but accomplishment with the drug and alcohol young people hammer and chisel simply never occurs as a suitable accomplishment for the weaker sex); in addition, says Mrs. Ellis, “it [drawing] is an employment which beguiles the mind of many cares…Drawing is, of metropolitan all other occupations, the one most calculated to keep the mind from brooding upon self, and to maintain. that general cheerfulness which is a part of social and domestic duty…It can also,” she adds, “be laid down and resumed, as circumstance or inclination may direct, and that without any serious loss.” 15 Again, lest we feel that we have made a great deal of progress in this area in the past 100 years, I might bring up the psychosynthesis remark of a bright young doctor who, when the conversation turned to his wife and dessay her friends “dabbling” in the arts, snorted: “Well, at least it keeps them out of trouble!” Now as in the 19th century, amateurism and lack of explatory essay real commitment as well as snobbery and emphasis on chic on the part of metropolitan women in their artistic “hobbies,” feeds the drug and alcohol abuse among essay contempt of the successful, professionally committed man who is engaged in “real” work and metropolitan can, with a certain justice, point to his wife’s lack of drug people essay seriousness in her artistic activities. For such men, the “real” work of women is only that which directly or indirectly serves the family; any other commitment falls under the rubric of diversion, selfishness, egomania or, at the unspoken extreme, castration. The circle is a vicious one, in which philistinism and frivolity mutually re-enforce each other. In literature, as in life, even if the woman’s commitment to art was a serious one, she was expected to drop her career and give up this commitment at the behest of love and marriage: this lesson is, today as in the 19th century, still inculcated in young girls, directly or indirectly, from the moment they are born. Even the determined and dessay successful heroine of Mrs. Craik’s mid-19th-century novel about feminine artistic success, Olive , a young woman who lives alone, strives for fame and mba application essay independence and actually supports herself through her art—such unfeminine behavior is at least partly excused by the fact that she is a cripple and automatically considers that marriage is denied to her—even Olive ultimately succumbs to dessay the blandishments of love and marriage. To paraphrase the words of Patricia Thomson in drug among young The Victorian Heroine , Mrs.
Craik, having shot her bolt in the course of her novel, is hamlet dessay, content, finally, to drug among young people let her heroine, whose ultimate greatness the metropolitan reader has never been able to and alcohol abuse among people doubt, sink gently into dessay matrimony. Failure Essay! “Of Olive, Mrs. Craik comments imperturbably that her husband’s influence is to deprive the Scottish Academy of dessay ‘no one knew how many grand pictures.’ ” 16 Then as now, despite men’s greater “tolerance,” the choice for failure women seems always to dessay be marriage or a career, i.e., solitude as the explatory essay price of success or sex and metropolitan dessay companionship at problem work the price of metropolitan hamlet dessay professional renunciation. That achievement in the arts, as in any field of endeavor, demands struggle and sacrifice, no one would deny; that this has certainly been true after the middle of the 19th century, when the traditional institutions of artistic support and patronage no longer fulfilled their customary obligations, is undeniable: one has only to think of mba application failure Delacroix, Courbet, Degas, van Gogh and Toulouse-Lautrec as examples of great artists who gave up the distractions and obligations of hamlet family life, at least in part, so that they could pursue their artistic careers more singlemindedly. Yet none of them was automatically denied the pleasures of work backwards sex or companionship on account of this choice. Nor did they ever conceive that they had sacrificed their manhood or their sexual role on account of their singleness and singlemindedness in metropolitan hamlet dessay order to problem achieve professional fulfillment. Metropolitan Hamlet Dessay! But if the artist in question happens to be a woman, 1,000 years of guilt, self-doubt and objecthood have been added to the undeniable difficulties of work being an artist in the modern world. The unconscious aura of titillation that arises from a visual representation of an aspiring woman artist in the mid-19th century, Emily Mary Osborne’s heartfelt painting, Nameless and metropolitan hamlet dessay Friendless , 1857, a canvas representing a poor but lovely and respectable young girl at a London art dealer, nervously awaiting the verdict of the pompous proprietor about the worth of help her canvases while two ogling “art lovers” look on, is really not too different in dessay its underlying assumptions from an overtly salacious work like Bompard’s Debut of the Model . The theme in both is innocence, delicious feminine innocence, exposed to the world. It is the charming vulnerability of the young woman artist, like that of the hesitating model, which is really the subject of Miss Osborne’s painting, not the problem backwards value of the young woman’s work or her pride in it: the issue here is, as usual, sexual rather than serious. Metropolitan Dessay! Always a model but never an artist might well have served as the motto of the seriously aspiring young woman in the arts of the 19th century.
The monumental figures of The Church and The Synagogue from the South Portal of the Cathedral of Strasbourg, ca. Mba Application Failure! 1225, are attributed to Sabina von Steinbach, daughter of the master-sculptor of the cathedral, who died before the completion of the work. But what of the small band of heroic women, who, throughout the hamlet dessay ages, despite obstacles, have achieved pre-eminence, if not the pinnacles of grandeur of a Michelangelo, a Rembrandt or a Picasso? Are there any qualities that may be said to have characterized them as a group and as individuals? While we cannot go into such an investigation in depth in this article, we can point to a few striking characteristics of women artists generally: they all, almost without exception, were either the daughters of explatory essay artist fathers, or, generally later, in the 19th and 20th centuries, had a close personal connection with a stronger or more dominant male artistic personality.
Neither of these characteristics is, of course, unusual for men artists, either, as we have indicated above in the case of artist fathers and sons: it is simply true almost without exception for their feminine counterparts, at least until quite recently. From the legendary sculptor, Sabina von Steinbach, in the 13th century, who, according to local tradition, was responsible for South Portal groups on the Cathedral of Strasbourg, down to Rosa Bonheur, the most renowned animal painter of the 19th century, and including such eminent women artists as Marietta Robusti, daughter of Tintoretto, Lavinia Fontana, Artemisia Gentileschi, Elizabeth Cheron, Mme. Vigee-Lebrun and Angelica Kauffmann—all, without exception, were the daughters of artists; in the 19th century, Berthe Morisot was closely associated with Manet, later marrying his brother, and Mary Cassatt based a good deal of her work on metropolitan dessay the style of her close friend Degas. Drug And Alcohol Abuse Among Essay! Precisely the same breaking of hamlet dessay traditional bonds and discarding of time-honored practices that permitted men artists to strike out in directions quite different from those of backwards their fathers in the second half of the 19th century enabled women, with additional difficulties, to be sure, to strike out on their own as well. Many of our more recent women artists, like Suzanne Valadon, Paula Modersohn-Becker, Kaethe Kollwitz or Louise Nevelson, have come from dessay non-artistic backgrounds, although many contemporary and near-contemporary women artists have married fellow artists. It would be interesting to investigate the role of backwards benign, if not outright encouraging, fathers in the formation of hamlet dessay women professionals: both Kaethe Kollwitz and help Barbara Hepworth, for metropolitan dessay example, recall. the influence of unusually sympathetic and supportive fathers on their artistic pursuits. Phd Proposal! In the absence of any thoroughgoing investigation, one can only gather impressionistic data about the presence or absence of rebellion against parental authority in women artists, and whether there may be more or less rebellion on the part of women artists than is true in the case of metropolitan hamlet dessay men or vice versa.
One thing however is clear: for a woman to opt for help a career at all, much less for a career in art, has required a certain amount of unconventionality, both in the past and at present; whether or not the woman artist rebels against or finds strength in the attitude of her family, she must in metropolitan hamlet any case have a good strong streak of rebellion in her to make her way in the world of art at all, rather than submitting to the socially approved role of wife and problem solving backwards mother, the only role to which every social institution consigns her automatically. It is only by adopting, however covertly, the “masculine” attributes of singlemindedness, concentration, tenaciousness and absorption in ideas and craftsmanship for their own sake, that women have succeeded, and metropolitan dessay continue to succeed, in drug abuse young people the world of art. It is instructive to examine in greater detail one of the most successful and accomplished women painters of metropolitan hamlet all time, Rosa Bonheur (1822-1899), whose work, despite the ravages wrought upon its estimation by changes of taste and a certain admitted lack of of rome essay variety, still stands as an impressive achievement to dessay anyone interested in the art of the 19th century and in the history of taste generally. Rosa Bonheur is a woman artist in whom, partly because of the magnitude of her reputation, all the various conflicts, all the explatory essay internal and external contradictions and struggles typical of hamlet her sex and profession, stand out in sharp relief. Like Constant Troyon, Bonheur aimed at an epical, “heroic” interpretation of animals which became extremely popular. The Horse Fair , ca. 1852–55. The success of Rosa Bonheur firmly establishes the role of institutions, and institutional change, as a necessary, if not a sufficient cause of achievement in art.
We might say that Bonheur picked a fortunate time to become an artist if she was, at the same time, to have the disadvantage of being a woman: she came into phd proposal her own in the middle of the 19th century, a time in which the struggle between traditional History Painting as opposed to metropolitan dessay the less pretentious and more free-wheeling genre painting, landscape and still-life was won by failure essay the latter group hands down. Metropolitan Hamlet! A major change in the social and fall essay institutional support for art itself was well under way: with the rise of the metropolitan hamlet dessay bourgeoisie and the fall of the cultivated aristocracy, smaller paintings, generally of every-day subjects, rather than grandiose mythological or religious scenes were much in demand. To cite the Whites: “Three hundred provincial museums there might be, government commissions for help phd proposal public works there might be, but the only possible paid destinations for t he rising flood of canvases were the homes of the bourgeoisie. History painting had not and never would rest comfortably in the middle-class parlor. ‘Lesser’ forms of image art—genre, landscape, still-life—did.” 17 In mid-century France, as in 17th-century Holland, there was a tendency for artists to attempt to achieve some sort of metropolitan hamlet security in mba application essay a shaky market situation by specializing, by making a career out of a specific subject: animal painting was a very popular field, as the Whites point out, and Rosa Bonheur was no doubt its most accomplished and metropolitan hamlet dessay successful practitioner, followed in popularity only by the Barbizon painter Troyon (who at one time was so pressed for his paintings of cows that he hired another artist to brush in the backgrounds). Rosa Bonheur’s rise to fame accompanied that of the Barbizon landscapists, supported by those canny dealers, the Durand-Ruels, who later moved on to the Impressionists. The. Durand-Ruels were among the first dealers to tap the expanding market in phd proposal movable decoration for the middle classes, to use the Whites’ terminology. Dessay! Rosa Bonheur’s naturalism and ability to capture the individuality—even the “soul”—of each of her animal subjects coincided with bourgeois taste at the time.
The same combination, of qualities, with a much stronger dose of sentimentality and pathetic fallacy to be sure, likewise assured the success of her animalier contemporary, Landseer, in England. Daughter of an essay introduction impoverished drawing master, Rosa Bonheur quite naturally showed her interest in art early; at the same time, she exhibited an independence of spirit and liberty of manner which immediately earned her the label of tomboy. Metropolitan Hamlet Dessay! According to abuse among people essay her own later accounts, her “masculine protest” established itself early; to what extent any show of persistence, stubbornness and vigor would be counted as “masculine” in the first half of the 19th century is conjectural. Metropolitan Hamlet Dessay! Rosa Bonheur’s attitude towards her father is somewhat ambiguous: while realizing that he had been influential in directing her towards her life’s work, there is no doubt that she resented his thoughtless treatment of her beloved mother, and in her reminiscences, she half affectionately makes fun of his bizarre form of mba application social idealism. Raimond Bonheur had been an active member of the short-lived Saint-Simonian community, established in the third decade of the 19th century by hamlet dessay “Le Pere” Enfantin at Menilmontant. Although in her later years Rosa Bonheur might have made fun of some of the more far-fetched eccentricities of the members of the community, and disapproved of the mba application additional strain which her father’s apostolate placed on her overburdened mother, it is hamlet dessay, obvious that the Saint-Simonian ideal of equality for women—they disapproved of help phd proposal marriage, their trousered feminine costume was a token of hamlet emancipation, and their spiritual leader, Le Pere Enfantin, made extraordinary efforts to find a Woman Messiah to share his reign—made a strong impression on her as a child, and may well have influenced her future course of behavior.
“Why shouldn’t I be proud to be a woman?” she exclaimed to explatory essay an interviewer. “My father, that enthusiastic apostle of dessay humanity, many times reiterated to explatory essay me that woman’s mission was to elevate the human race, that she was the Messiah of hamlet dessay future centuries. It is to his doctrines that I owe the great, noble ambition I have conceived for the sex which I proudly affirm to be mine, and whose independence I will support to training my dying day…” 18 When she was hardly more than a child, he instilled in her the ambition to surpass Mme. Vigee-Lebrun certainly the most eminent model she could be expected to follow, and he gave her early efforts every possible encouragement. At the metropolitan hamlet same time, the spectacle of her uncomplaining mother’s slow decline from problem backwards sheer overwork and poverty might have been an metropolitan even more realistic influence on her decision to control her own destiny and failure never to become the slave of metropolitan a husband and children. Psychotherapy! What is particularly interesting from the modern feminist viewpoint is Rosa Bonheur’s ability to combine the most vigorous and hamlet unapologetic masculine protest with unabashedly self-contradictory assertions of “basic” femininity. In those refreshingly straightforward pre-Freudian days, Rosa Bonheur could explain to her biographer that she had never wanted to marry for fear of losing her independence—too many young girls let themselves be led to essay the altar like lambs to the sacrifice, she maintained. Yet at the same time that she rejected marriage for herself and implied an metropolitan hamlet dessay inevitable loss of selfhood for any woman who engaged in it, she, unlike the Saint-Simonians, considered marriage “a sacrament indispensable to the organization of society.” While remaining cool to offers of marriage, she joined in a seemingly cloudless, lifelong and apparently Platonic union with a fellow woman artist, Nathalie Micas, who evidently provided her with the companionship and drug people emotional warmth which she needed. Obviously the presence of this sympathetic friend did not seem to demand the same sacrifice of genuine commitment to her profession which marriage would have entailed: in metropolitan hamlet any case, the advantages of such an arrangement for women who wished to psychosynthesis psychotherapy avoid the distraction of children in the days before reliable contraception are obvious.
Yet at the same time that she frankly rejected the conventional feminine role of her times, Rosa Bonheur still was drawn into what Betty Friedan has called the metropolitan dessay “frilly blouse syndrome,” that innocuous version of the feminine protest which even today compels successful women psychiatrists or professors to adopt some ultra-feminine item of clothing or insist on proving their prowess as pie-bakers. 19 Despite the fact that she had early cropped her hair and adopted men’s clothes as her habitual attire, following the example of George Sand, whose rural Romanticism exerted a powerful influence over her imagination, to her biographer she insisted, and no doubt sincerely believed, that she did so only of rome essay introduction, because of the specific demands of her profession. Indignantly denying rumors to metropolitan the effect that she had run about the streets of among Paris dressed as a boy in her youth, she proudly provided her biographer with a daguerreotype of herself at 16 years, dressed in perfectly conventional feminine fashion, except for her shorn head, which she excused as a practical measure taken after the death of her mother; “who would have taken care of my curls?” she demanded. 20. As far as the question of masculine dress was concerned, she was quick to reject her interlocutor’s suggestion that her trousers were a symbol of emancipation. “I strongly blame women who renounce their customary attire in hamlet the desire to make themselves pass for men,” she affirmed. Of Rome Introduction! “If I had found that trousers suited my sex, I would have completely gotten rid of my skirts, but this is not the. case, nor have I ever advised my sisters of the palette to wear men’s clothes in the ordinary course of life.
If, then, you see me dressed as I am, it is metropolitan hamlet, not at all with the aim of making myself interesting, as all too many women have tried, but simply in order to facilitate my work. Remember that at a certain period I spent whole days in the slaughterhouses. Indeed, you have to love your art in training order to live in pools of blood…I was also fascinated with horses, and where better can one study these animals than at the fairs…? I had no alternative but to realize that the garments of my own sex were a total nuisance. That is why I decided to ask the Prefect of metropolitan hamlet Police for the authorization to wear masculine clothing. 21 But the costume I am wearing is my working outfit, nothing else.
The remarks of fools have never bothered me. Nathalie [her companion] makes fun of them as I do. It doesn’t bother her at all to see me dressed as a man, but if you are even the slightest bit put off, I am completely prepared to put on a skirt, especially since all I have to do is to open a closet to drug abuse among young find a whole assortment of feminine outfits.” 22. Yet at the same time Rosa Bonheur is forced to admit: “My trousers have been my great protectors…Many times I have congratulated myself for having dared to break with traditions which would have forced me to abstain from certain kinds of work, due to the obligation to drag my skirts everywhere…” Yet the famous artist again feels obliged to metropolitan hamlet dessay qualify her honest admission with an essay ill-assumed “femininity”: “Despite my metamorphoses of costume, there is not a daughter of Eve who appreciates the hamlet niceties more than I do; my brusque and even slightly unsociable nature has never prevented my heart from of rome essay introduction remaining completely feminine.” 23. It is somewhat pathetic that this highly successful artist, unsparing of herself in the painstaking study of animal anatomy, diligently pursuing her bovine or equine subjects in the most unpleasant surroundings, industriously producing popular canvases throughout the course of a lengthy career, firm, assured and incontrovertably masculine in her style, winner of metropolitan hamlet dessay a first medal in of rome introduction the Paris Salon, Officer of the Legion of Honor, Commander of the Order of metropolitan Isabella the Catholic and the Order of Leopold of Belgium, friend of Queen Victoria—that this world-renowned artist should feel compelled late in life to justify and qualify her perfectly reasonable assumption of masculine ways, for any reason whatsoever, and to feel compelled to attack her less modest trouser-wearing sisters at the same time, in order to satisfy the mba application essay demands of her own conscience.
For her conscience, despite her supportive father, her unconventional behavior and the accolade of worldly success, still condemned her for not being a “feminine” woman. The difficulties imposed by such demands on the woman artist continue to add to her already difficult enterprise even today. Compare, for example, the noted contemporary, Louise Nevelson, with her combination of utter, “unfeminine” dedication to her work and her conspicuously “feminine” false eyelashes; her admission that she got married at 17 despite her certainty that she couldn’t live without creating because “the world said you should get married.” 24 Even in hamlet dessay the case of these two outstanding artists—and whether we like The Horsefair or not, we still must admire Rosa Bonheur’s achievement—the voice of the feminine mystique with its potpourri of and alcohol abuse young essay ambivalent narcissism and guilt, internalized, subtly dilutes and subverts that total inner confidence, that absolute certitude and self-determination, moral and esthetic, demanded by metropolitan hamlet dessay the highest and most innovative work in art. We have tried to deal with one of the perennial questions used to challenge women’s demand for true, rather than token, equality, by fall examining the dessay whole erroneous intellectual substructure upon drug and alcohol people essay, which. the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” is based; by questioning the validity of the formulation of so-called “problems” in general and the “problem” of women specifically; and then, by probing some of the limitations of the discipline of hamlet dessay art history itself.
Hopefully, by drug and alcohol abuse young people essay stressing the institutional —i.e. the public—rather than the individual , or private, pre-conditions for achievement or the lack of metropolitan dessay it in the arts, we have provided a paradigm for the investigation of explatory essay other areas in the field. Metropolitan Hamlet! By examining in some detail a single instance of deprivation or disadvantage—the unavailability of nude models to women art students—we have suggested that it was indeed institutionally made impossible for women to achieve artistic excellence, or success, on the same footing as men, no matter what the explatory essay potency of their so-called talent, or genius. The existence of a tiny band of successful, if not great, women artists throughout history does nothing to gainsay this fact, any more than does the existence of a few superstars or token achievers among the members of metropolitan hamlet any minority groups. And while great achievement is rare and difficult at best, it is explatory essay, still rarer and more difficult if, while you work, you must at metropolitan dessay the same time wrestle with inner demons of self-doubt and essay guilt and outer monsters of ridicule or patronizing encouragement, neither of which have any specific connection with the quality of the art work as such. What is important is that women face up to the reality of their history and dessay of their present situation, without making excuses or puffing mediocrity. Disadvantage may indeed be an excuse; it is not, however, an intellectual position. Rather, using as a vantage point their situation as underdogs in the realm of grandeur, and outsiders in that of work backwards ideology, women can reveal institutional and intellectual weaknesses in general, and, at the same time that they destroy false consciousness, take part in the creation of institutions in which clear thought—and true greatness—are challenges open to anyone, man or woman, courageous enough to hamlet dessay take the necessary risk, the leap into the unknown. 1. Kate Millett’s Sexual Politics , New York, 1970, and Mary Ellman’s Thinking About Women , New York, 1968 provide notable exceptions. 2. “Women Artists.” Review of work Die Frauen in die Kunstgeschichte by Ernst Guhl in The Westminster Review (American Edition), LXX, July, 1958, 91–104. I am grateful to Elaine Showalter for having brought this review to metropolitan dessay my attention. 3. See, for example, Peter S. Walch’s excellent studies of Angelica Kauffmann or his unpublished doctoral dissertation, Angelica Kauffmann , Princeton, 1968, on the subject; for Artemisia Gentileschi, see R. Ward Bissell, “Artemisia Gentileschi—A New Documented Chronology,” Art Bulletin , L (June), 1968, 153–168.
4. New York, 1968. 5. John Stuart Mill, The Subjection of Women (1869) in Three Essays by John Stuart Miff, World’s Classics Series, London, 1966, p. 441. 6. Failure! For the relatively recent genesis of the emphasis on the artist as the nexus of esthetic experience, see M. Dessay! H. Abrams, The Mirror and the Lamp: Romantic Theory and the Critical Tradition , New York, 1953, and Maurice Z. Abuse Among Essay! Shrader, Icarus: The Image of the hamlet dessay Artist in and alcohol abuse among young French. Romanticism , Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1961. 7. A comparison with the hamlet dessay parallel myth for women, the Cinderella Story, is revealing: Cinderella gains higher status on the basis of a passive, “sex-object” attribute—small feet—whereas the Boy Wonder always proves himself through active accomplishment. For a thorough study of myths about artists, see Ernst Kris and Otto Kurz, Die Legende vom Kunstler: Ein Geschichtlicher Versuch , Vienna, 1934. 8. Psychosynthesis Psychotherapy! Nikolaus Pevsner, Academies of metropolitan hamlet Art, Past and Present , Cambridge, 1940, p. 96f. 9. Contemporary directions—earthworks, conceptual art, art as information, etc.—certainly point away from emphasis on the individual genius and psychotherapy his salable products; in art history, Harrison C. and Cynthia A. White’s Canvases and Careers: Institutional Change in metropolitan hamlet the French Painting World , New York, 1965, opens up a fruitful new direction of investigation, as did Nikolaus Pevsner’s pioneering Academies of Art . Ernst Gombrich and Pierre Francastel, in their very different ways, always have tended to view art and the artist as part of a total situation rather than in lofty isolation. 10.
Female models were introduced in the life-class in Berlin in 1875, in Stockholm in 1839, in Naples in 1870, at help the Royal College of Art in London, after 1875. Hamlet Dessay! Pevsner, op. cit. , p. 231. Female models at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts wore masks to hide their identity. as late as about abuse young people essay, 1866—as attested to metropolitan in a charcoal drawing by Thomas Eakins—if not later. 12. H. C. and C. A. Help! White, op. cit. , p. 51. 14. Mrs. Ellis, The Daughters of England: Their Position in Society, Character, and Responsibilities (1844) in hamlet The Family Monitor , New York, 1844, p. 35.
16. Patricia Thomson, The Victorian Heroine: A Changing Ideal , London, 1956, p. Fall Of Rome Essay! 77. 17. H. C. an d C . A. White, op. cit. , p. 91 . 18. Metropolitan! Anna Klumpke, Rosa Bonheur: Sa Vie, son oeuvre, Paris, 1908, p. 311.
19. Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique , New York, 1963, p. 158. 20. A. Klumpke, op. cit. , p. 166. 21. Fall Of Rome Introduction! Paris, like many cities even today, had laws against hamlet dessay impersonation on its books. 22. A. Klumpke, op. cit. , pp. Explatory Essay! 308–309. 24. Cited in Elizabeth Fisher, “The Woman as Artist, Louise Nevelson,” Aphra , I (Spring), 1970, p. 32.
Author: Linda Nochlin is professor of hamlet art history at Vassar. Her book on help Realism (Penguin) will come out this winter. This article is based on a section of the hamlet anthology Woman in Sexist Society: Studies in Power and Powerlessness , to be published by Basic Books in April. A version of this story originally appeared in psychosynthesis the January 1971 issue of ARTnews on page 22 under the title “Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?” Linda Nochlin on Feminism Then and Now. Retrospective: Eight Artists Reply. Copyright 2017, Art Media ARTNEWS, llc. 110 Greene Street, 2nd Fl., New York, N.Y. 10012. All rights reserved.
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100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. Metropolitan Hamlet Dessay. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in help helping people write essays faster and easier. For your paper, you will pick an issue to research. You will need to be sure that this is an arguable issue, which means it is one that people hold different views about. As you read through information on metropolitan hamlet this issue, you should be narrowing your topic into a single statement which states your position. Problem Solving. This could be a claim of fact, definition, cause, value, or policy. Note: Some teachers use the term argument essay and others call it a position essay.
These terms mean the metropolitan hamlet same thing and are used interchangeably in fall of rome essay this article. Is there a way to reduce abortions without legislation? (policy) Does a police officer's racial background make a difference in how they do their job? (value) Should the racial make-up of a police department be the same as the community they serve? (definition) How can pro-life and pro-choice groups work together? (values) Should Barbie be banned? (value) Should reality T.V. Hamlet. shows have regulations? (policy) What is true beauty? (definition) Is video gaming good or bad? (value) Are beauty contests a positive thing for young girls? (value) Are participation trophies in athletics a good idea? (policy) Are overbearing sports parents helpful or harmful? (definition) Should young children be pushed to compete at of rome essay introduction athletics? (policy) Should children have scheduled activities or be left more time for free play? (value) What is the dessay cause of the increase in child obesity? (cause) How can we encourage children to be more active? (policy) Should people on welfare be required to submit to failure essay drug testing? (policy) Why do so many celebrities have terrible life problems? (cause) Should media coverage be regulated? (policy) What is the effect of metropolitan hamlet dessay media coverage on elections? (fact) What is solving work backwards human trafficking? (definition) How can human trafficking be stopped? (policy) How do elected female officials differ from dessay, elected males? (fact) How important is mba application essay it to have equal representation of genders and races in political office? (value) How can we support the metropolitan hamlet election of more females to explatory essay political offices? (policy) How can we get more minorities to hamlet become police officers? (policy) How can the rights of artists and psychosynthesis psychotherapy, writers be protected on hamlet dessay the Internet? (policy) Why should you pay for your music? (value) Does religious persecution exist? (fact) Should people be allowed to make designer babies? (value) What can be done to reduce unemployment among young African American men? (policy) Should the minimum wage be raised or lowered? (policy) This essay argues that sometimes, a nursing home can be the best choice. Poor Across Oceans. Fall Essay Introduction. This essay argues that we need to care more for people in developing countries. Hunger Hurts.
How can we solve the problem of hunger? Should we have a national high school exam? (policy) Is private school tuition (elementary, high school, or college) really worth it? (value) Does statewide testing (like the TAKS/STAAR test in Texas) really increase student knowledge? (cause) Should colleges abolish reliance on SAT and ACT scores in admissions? (policy) How should the country's school system be reformed? (policy) Should the U.S. adopt an dessay educational system like Europe's? (policy) What causes students to graduate from high school without basic skills? (cause) How do American students compare with students from other countries? (fact) What role should technology play in education? (value) What is the value of a liberal arts education? (value) Should students be required to take foreign language courses (or any other type of specific course)? Does adding days to the school year really improve learning? (fact) Should schools continue to spend money on failure essay fine arts? (value) How should students whose first language is not English be taught in public schools? (policy) Should college athletes be paid? (policy) Cell phones control our relationships. (definition) Computers are changing the way humans think. Metropolitan Hamlet Dessay. (fact) Texting and cell phone use has caused young people to backwards be less able to concentrate and focus (or you can do the reverse—has caused them to metropolitan be able to handle multi-tasking more effectively and efficiently). Solving Work. (cause) Cell phones have changed the metropolitan way we relate to each other in positive ways. (value) Cell phones, texts, and drug abuse essay, emails are not as good as talking face-to-face. (value) Textbooks should be replaced by i-Pads and online resources. (policy) How are online technologies changing the way we live? (policy) How is technology changing our definition of what it means to be human? (value) What laws should we have about cell phone use in cars? (policy) How is metropolitan hamlet social media changing family relationships? (definition) Should parents limit teenagers' use of social media? (policy) What privacy policies should be upheld by social media companies? (policy) What should (and should not) be posted on Facebook by college students? (value) Should scientists be allowed to experiment on abuse young human embryos? (value) What is nanotechnology? What are its applications and hamlet dessay, possible uses in the future? (definition) Which kind of topic are you most interested in? Is China the Next Superpower? (Fact) How should we respond to psychosynthesis training the global problem of illegal immigration? (policy) Would a border fence solve the immigration problem in the U.S.? (fact) What is the relationship between immigration and nationality? (definition) What causes people to immigrate illegally? (cause) Should the U.S. have a visitor work program? (policy) How has immigration affected the history of the dessay U.S.? (definition) Should all states have laws giving policemen the right to require people to psychosynthesis prove their legal status? (policy) How can legal immigration be streamlined? (policy) Who should be allowed to immigrate? Who should not? (value) How many illegal immigrants live in the U.S.? Who are they and where do they live? (fact) Toilet Video Games?
Have We Gone Too Far? Is war inevitable? How does war become integral to society? (definition) How do people justify war? (value) What might help establish peace? (policy) Should the U.S. continue to act as a policeman for other countries? (value) How should the metropolitan dessay United States defend itself against terrorism? (policy) Is drone warfare ethical? (value) How is cyber warfare becoming more important? (fact) Is the of rome introduction U.S. engaging in cyber attacks on hamlet dessay other countries? (fact) How did 9/11 change the way Americans feel about themselves as a world power? (definition) Should military spending in the U.S. Explatory Essay. increase or decrease? (policy) How important is race to American identity? (fact) To what extent does individual identity depend on ethnic affiliation? (definition) How does immigration from Latin America affect the culture of hamlet dessay America? (fact) Why do Americans think in terms of a person having one race when so many Americans have a mixed racial, cultural, and/or ethnic background? (value) Is it a good idea for people to adopt children from another ethnic group? (value) What is culture? (definition) What is the value of knowing your racial and cultural heritage? (value) Should schools be required to teach multiculturalism? (policy) Should churches work harder to be multi-racial? (value) How can parents help raise their children to be appreciative of essay other cultures? (policy) Is global warming a problem and hamlet, if so, what can we do about essay, it? (fact) How can we resolve the economy versus environment debate? (policy) How can we be sure to metropolitan dessay provide clean water for everyone? (policy) What responsibility do Americans have for providing clean water to other nations? (value) How will the worldwide population increase affect our planet? (fact) What can be done to solving work backwards stop poaching of endangered species? (policy) Is hunting good for metropolitan dessay the environment? (definition/fact) How can citizens be responsible for their local environment? (policy) What can manufacturers do to help clean up the earth? (fact) What is the importance of clean water? (fact) What is the relationship between health and pollution? (fact) How does the current trend of species extinction compare to the past? (fact) What can Americans do to stop global pollution? (policy) How can we encourage people to recycle more? (value) How does global warming increase the phd proposal dangers of metropolitan hamlet disease in the U.S.? (fact) Sometimes, it can help to look through your textbook to find essays to spark ideas. In my class, we use a book by Nancy Wood called Perspectives on solving Argument . In the back of hamlet dessay this book is a list of suggested issues and articles related to those issues. Usually, these articles are just a start for looking for a topic. You can take an abuse among young idea from the article you like and metropolitan dessay, then research it to find out and alcohol among young, what different people think about metropolitan dessay, that issue. Mba Application Failure Essay. Still having trouble finding a topic? Try looking up an issue you are interested in on YouTube. You might get some good ideas just browsing around. Sometimes the hamlet title of a video can give you a main idea and title. Especially look for ideas that can be turned into questions that you can argue pro work backwards, or con.
Whether you go online or look at a paper copy, you can use the news to give you an idea of what to write about. Just remember that if you are doing a research paper that you will need to cite any sources that you use, so make sure you keep a copy. Metropolitan Hamlet Dessay. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. 100 Expository Essay Topic Ideas, Writing Tips, and problem work, Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 22. How to Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 15. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 56. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. Dessay. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States.
Hi Rosie--You have a good topic and an interesting personal connection. I'd suggest that you do a frame story introduction and conclusion. Start with your situation and then stop part-way through and ask the question: should you call CPS? Then do your answer and tell why or why not. Mba Application Failure. Finish with telling the metropolitan hamlet dessay end of your story. See my articles on How to drug abuse among young write an argument paper and How to write a position paper for metropolitan dessay full instructions. Wondering how to write a position essay. Topic should you call Child Protective Services. In my personal life we are going through a situation where we called the essay child protective services but much is not being done. Was thinking if I choose this topic I could write some of our family's frustration about the metropolitan hamlet dessay situation, don't know how to mba application go about writing this essay. Virginia Kearney 5 weeks ago from United States.
Khen--You can find help if you look for my articles about metropolitan hamlet, how to and alcohol among write different kinds of metropolitan position or argument papers. Mba Application Failure Essay. I have several different articles that can lead you step by step through the metropolitan dessay process. Can you please help me in my position paper? Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from United States. Explatory Essay. Roami, You have an hamlet dessay interesting idea. I think one way for you to get some good information to essay start your paper is to hamlet research why local languages are not included in the instruction first.
Next, you might want to psychosynthesis psychotherapy training interview some people to find out their positions and to get some quotes on this topic. Finally, you might want to get some research articles which show whether or not using a local or home language of a student helps them to metropolitan learn better. Help. In the United States, research has shown that students who receive some instruction in their own language at least at metropolitan dessay first often do better in the long run than a child who is fully immersed in English. In my own experience as a teacher, I discovered that children who came to psychosynthesis psychotherapy training an all-English classroom before grade 2 or 3, generally was very competent in metropolitan hamlet that language by and alcohol abuse among people essay, age 12. However, if they entered an hamlet all English school later, they were often not able to catch up. However, that only works if the child is in a school where no one else speaks their native language (as is often true in the U.S. but not true in a school where all the explatory essay children speak their local language together). You have a wonderful topic and one that is metropolitan hamlet dessay very important for your country to consider. Mba Application. I wish you great success in your paper. pls, i need u to look into this position topic for me. Should local languages be made as compulsory as religious languages in schools. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States.
Hi Sam, you might want to try my article about Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas, or else do the negative of dessay any idea here or in one of my many other argument essays. In a devil's advocate paper, you want to go against what most people think. Here are a few ideas just to get you thinking: Why Trump will be regarded as one of our top 5 presidents. Why we should leave ISIS alone. Help. Why race is less a problem in America than Europe. Metropolitan Hamlet Dessay. Why the leader of North Korea isn't really crazy. I have this assignment of playing the failure essay role of devil's advocate and I can't think of a good topic! ( I personally prefer a political related topic).
Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Aidyn-You add a very interesting position topic. I had not thought about metropolitan dessay, schools making rules against fasting but it certainly could hurt a child's performance in school if they were fasting for a longer period than a day or two. Backwards. That could cause a school to be concerned. Thanks for your comment and idea. Aidyn Krikorian 6 months ago. I greatly appreciate your website, and hamlet dessay, I have a suggestion for a topic. Should we allow fasting or other religious acts in schools? This topic facsinates me and I do hope you will consider it. I have chosen a topic to use for a paper from this webpage and will be returning. And Alcohol People. Thank you, Aidyn.
Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from metropolitan dessay, United States. Rose--You did not mention what aspect of culture you are writing about mba application essay, which makes it hard to help you. However, for metropolitan example, if you are writing a paper arguing to people that only like modern music that classical music is worth listening to, you could start by talking about what you agree with about help, modern music and dessay, acknowledge why people of your generation might prefer to listen to it. Then you could explain why they would actually enjoy classical music if they gave it a try or explain how they could grow to appreciate that kind of music. I need help on my regerian Argument eassy on culture. I dont now how to start it, Does anyone knows how.thanks.
Preston Heard 8 months ago. These are great topics for the upcoming research essays. I will definitely be using one of them. Thank you for this resource! Aaron Gibson 8 months ago.
Excited for your class this semester! Matt Hartman 8 months ago. This article along with many of the other articles you have written will be very helpful this semester! I'm looking forward to your class! Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Look for help phd proposal my articles about dessay, how to write argument or position essays for lots of ideas on how to introduce essays and find sources. Luckily, Google Scholar has lots of excellent peer-reviewed essays that are good sources, but you can also find many good sources that come from failure essay, government, Universities or published journals that post online (look for .gov, .edu or a journal that also appears in print). One easy way to hamlet dessay start your introduction is to tell a story about a student who is generally shy (or maybe bullied) but gets excited (and more included by fall essay introduction, others) when they are able to dessay share about work backwards, their own culture during a multiculturalism unit. I am doing an Apa essay on should schools be required to teach multiculturalism any idea on how I should start my intro and what sources I should use?
Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from metropolitan hamlet dessay, United States. Bebe--You don't tell me whether your paper is a research paper or not, but I've written many articles on drug and alcohol how to write different sorts of essays. You can use the dessay search engine on HubPages to help phd proposal find them, or look at the links that usually appear when you pull up one of my articles. Dessay. Search Argument essays or How to explatory essay Write a Position Essay or just type in VirginiaLynne. To start a paper on your topic, I think I would use a story in hamlet the introduction showing a miscommunication when people don't talk face to face. Hey . Can you please help me in my position paper . I dont how to start . My topic is cellphone,texts and explatory essay, emails are not as good as talking face to face . It is from yours sample :) thank you. I think that is video gaming good or bad is a great topic to choose. Virginia Kearney 19 months ago from United States.
Yes Alsaifl, I think that What is beauty? could be a topic. You are right that your answer would be a definition claim. Metropolitan. Jumanah Alsaif 19 months ago. Is the topics What is true beauty? (definition) a good topic for a position paper? I was thinking of writing how the introduction definition of hamlet beauty is different for each individual. Brittany Adams 14 2 years ago. Problem Solving Work. Thank you so much for posting! This helps a lot with my writing! Tariq Ali Khan 2 years ago. Excellent work buddy!
Thank you so much ! Kristen Howe 2 years ago from Northeast Ohio. Great topics for a variety of essays for everyone who needs to be inspired. Voted up for useful! That Tom Hanks video is hilarious. These ideas are very thought-provoking and inspiring! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Cindy A. So glad I was able to give you some good information!
Unbelievable. You have helped me enormously. Thank you so much. Thank you for these great topics. Dessay. VJG 2 years ago from among young people, Texas. This would be an interesting article for school students.
They always seem to struggle for essay ideas. Dessay. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Hi Safa--Here are the main steps: 1. Choose a question you are going to write about. Then think about what your answer to the question is going to be. 2. Decide what you want your reader to think, do or believe after they read your essay. That is your thesis (the answer to your question).
3. Decide who you want to persuade to believe this (that is your reader or audience). Think about what that reader already knows and believes about your topic. That will help you develop your arguments. Among Young People Essay. The reader should not be someone who already believes what you do. Metropolitan Dessay. If they do, you aren't really arguing are you? 4. Think of at least 3 reasons why your reader should believe your thesis. Those reasons will be the main body part of phd proposal your essay. 5. Hamlet Dessay. Think of examples or evidence which supports each of those reasons.
That is of rome what you will use to support those three reasons. 6. What objections will your reader have? Write those out and also your answers to those objections. Hamlet Dessay. This will be a paragraph after your reasons. 7. For your conclusion think of explatory essay what good will come if your reader believes you. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Hi katha- if you look at the bottom right blue box I have the links to metropolitan sample essays. These are student essays so they are published by my students under their own names here on hubpages.
Maybe I should move these up on the page so you can find them more easily. Mba Application. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Samarah--Yes I think that vaccinating children is a very good topic. You can also narrow that to metropolitan hamlet particular types of backwards vaccinations that are new like the chickenpox vaccine or the hamlet dessay HPV. Another possible argument on solving this topic is hamlet dessay whether or not it is true that vaccines are the main reason for better health in people today than in the past. Is the right to vaccinate children a good topic? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. I think you can do something related to obesity or how different types of food are good or bad for help phd proposal your health.
Or you can talk about GMO foods or organic or locally grown produce. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Xstatic--I love the fact that you do have a position on everything--I like to dessay look at all sides of psychosynthesis training things and that is great as an instructor teaching positions, because I can play the devils advocate, but sometimes I do need to just nail down my own point of view! Jim Higgins 5 years ago from Eugene, Oregon. A great how to dessay for position papers. I have not written one for years, though I have a position on almost everything. Useful Hub and well done as usual. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. People. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.
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Hamlet at the Metropolitan Opera - The New York Times
Cars Should Be Banned From City Centres. In this debate, we focus on facilitating the metropolitan efficiency of commerce in city centre, mostly Central Business District, and on reducing the urban pollution from its root, by not harming the basic necessity of the people, who are working and living in psychotherapy the city centre, about transportation. Please cast your vote after you've read the arguments. You can also add to the debate by leaving a comment at the end of the page. On avoiding the inefficiency of commerce as the basic function of metropolitan City Centre.
Before we proposition start our debate, we find it necessary to clear up some definition of words. Firstly, we only discuss private vehicle here. Secondly, the City Centre we are to psychosynthesis training discuss means Central Business District, CBD. We believe that cars greatly damage the efficiency of commerce which is the basic function of CBD, because it creates traffic jams. We ban cars to force people use great public transportation provided there and to reinsure the efficiency of commerce. The use of metropolitan cars is the reason why traffic jams happen everyday in CBD. Those who works there mostly car afford to live there, so cars is unnecessary for of rome essay introduction them. For those who are not living in there, they can go there with buses and metros, because once authority set up a CBD, they already provide CBD most lines of dessay buses and metros. However, people rather use cars since they believe that using a car is problem work a symbol of wealth, even if it's unnecessary like we proved. And the widespread of this psychology bring more and metropolitan dessay more cars in the street, so traffic jam occurs. Traffic jam harms the of rome essay introduction basic function of CBD, which is to facilitate the efficiency of commerce.
The nature of dessay CBD is an area where people could have business more conveniently as all the big companies and financial organs can be found there. So they can enjoy efficiency of trading, which businessman can gain profits with lower cost of time. However, when there are traffic jams, people take more times on the road rather than in the company. The efficiency of trade is psychotherapy training greatly harmed. That's why we need to ban cars to reinsure that CBD can be functional.
Our action against traffic jam is justified since the function of CBD is of the benefits of the hamlet dessay city as a whole. In this case, people cannot fulfill full liberty to use their property because the city is solving work backwards providing them with great facilities to gain profits, so they shall maintain CBD to function. Metropolitan Hamlet Dessay. That's the justification of our action. With a clear justification, we are proud to propose. Propositon advocates for commerce, yet they want to help affect a major mean of transportation, how is that logical? We will prove it is counter-productive. The main objective for metropolitan hamlet the PROP side is just to avoid traffic jams, with the reason for that being that, somehow (we still didn't understand the logic behind that how, though), the fact that people lose time while in traffic makes them inefficient.
Even if that was logical, the work backwards truth is metropolitan that people that work in those commercial and financial districts obviously take the fact that there is certain traffic into consideration when working in those centers however the important fact is that in order to continue to be employed they have to work all of their hours and do their job effectively, otherwise they would be fired from the company, for as simplistic this is, it is failure essay logical and real unlike an metropolitan dessay assumption of inefficiency. Secondly, the fact that there is explatory essay traffic in those centers actually doesn't affect commerce or transportation significantly because the objective of hamlet dessay those CBDs are built that way is so that major financial institutions and corporations are all close together to facilitate commerce and so in that way it takes minutes to phd proposal go from any place of that CBD to another one walking or even by car with traffic. For example, Frankfurt's Innenstadt is just .6 square miles while the World's largest CBD (in New York) is 7.82 and Chicago's is the only other CBD in USA that passes the 3 square miles[[demographia.com/db-cbd2000.pdf]]. What does that mean? That traffic is not a real obstacle at CBDs. Prop says that they believe on not giving people full liberty to use their property in order to metropolitan dessay maintain a CBD functioning yet as we have said, its function is not affected at all and we will explain in one of our arguments below how it is wrong to deny someone to problem work backwards use their well-earned car as a means of transport. We will also talk about how we don't oppose public transportation however cars are needed in this system.
Car uses at CBD is a quintessential example of rational irrationality that takes a toll on the entire society. Using cars at hamlet dessay CBD demonstrates the rational irrationality that ultimately undermines the interests of every rational individual. Explatory Essay. Driving cars could be fast, and therefore I should drive a car. This is the rationale for an individual. And it surely makes sense. But when millions of people in town all think the same and dessay consequently acting the same, we get problems. Cars are everywhere, making driving a short distance take a long long time: people get stuck in among people cars, wasting fuels, polluting the environment (for just for waiting!). No body can travel around at all. Yes, we love to realize people's full liberty's to drive cars and listen to car radios, but that liberty comes with a cost, a cost too big for the society to function, a cost that severely undermines everybody's liberty in metropolitan hamlet dessay this regard.
Because when people adheres perfect rationally to their preference, sometime they also act without regard to the irrationality of the decisions cost-benefit analysis in the bigger picture. Solving. And the total traffic turmoil is the bigger picture that people forget to take into account. As a result, no one wins. No one get to effectively move at all. Sometimes we need to limit some freedom in order to metropolitan hamlet people to enjoy more freedom in the same way we ban hate speech, we ban racially discriminatory contents. In order for every one to mba application essay be able to MOVE in hamlet dessay CBD, we ban cars here. PROP has taken a line of upholding certain liberties in order to avoid certain harm, in this case traffic. Mba Application Essay. We say that apparent harm is not really a harm but something natural of the cities but that even if it was a harm, it is not enough to withhold a liberty, and even if it was, in practical terms they will do more harm by hamlet dessay, creating a heart attack on a city whose main artery will be blocked. First it was claimed that the reason why people use cars to show wealth, and after our rebuttal now it is that people may think it is quicker but it's not. Well, in reality we cannot know what are the routes or thoughts of the explatory essay people but we cannot generalize for either way, because sometimes the distances can be covered quicker by using a car (specially through roads that aren't as packed or at certain hours where there is less traffic) and those people will be affected with such a bad policy like this one.
Yet, in the cases where actually public transportation could be quicker than car (because of the places where they live, routes they should take or whatever), we don't believe the metropolitan dessay reason for mba application failure essay people using cars is not stupidity but it may be for more factors such as comfort or security and for that they are willing to maybe take an metropolitan hamlet dessay extra hour at essay introduction the traffic creating a traffic that affects someone else that also has the choice of public transportation but still prefers their cars (for whatever reason) and so, it is just plain bad to try to reduce an apparent harm that the people are actually willing to take and prefer to have! If they didn't they could use public transportation (as PROP has assumed it is quicker)! The other problem that PROP addresses is hamlet dessay pollution but then that can be said about almost everything we do (eating meat and using computers are terrible for global warming, for example) yet the solving work backwards solution is metropolitan not prohibiting everything but try to mitigate the damage, such as the policies of some cars not circulating certain days or using alternative energy sources. The policy will help the transformation of CBD. The ideal CBD is a place that makes people enjoy the combination of work and life, therefore making the atmosphere more conducive for increasing productivity and and alcohol abuse young essay employee satisfaction. Yet the status quo is quite the opposite: people are trapped in their cars--agitated by the non-moving traffic; blocked by the window to actually strike a nice conversation like passengers do in the public transportation system; in the mean time your car is pumping into air toxic gases and wastes simply for the waiting. It creates a hostile environment from the start of the hamlet day! It reinforces the already thin humanly communication that a healthy employee needs; It turns all of us into the robot-like lives that reside in machines. Sufficient scientific data has shown the lack of explatory essay communication is more likely to lead to metropolitan dessay mental illness. The cold facade of CBD may not start from using cars, but it needs to be broken, starting from banning cars. By banning cars at CBD, we are not only providing people to have more access to talk to each other (which is more likely to happen in the proposed scenario than, say a iron-clad isolated vehicle), we are contributing to the human interaction, the self-actualization, and the satisfaction that eventually comes with socializing in people: we can be heartened by a conversation with a stranger on of rome essay introduction, the bus; or we can breath the crispy air and finally feel alive.
All of these can barely happen if we are trapped in metropolitan hamlet dessay a over-air-coned car and complaining about the traffic! In the mean time, by having the introduction ban, we become more environmental frjendly by both saving the energy and cutting cost. Last but not the least, less cars, and less demand for funding roads. Then there will be more money for metropolitan hamlet dessay improving public utilities. By removing cars from the CBD streets, we create opportunities for psychosynthesis training people to hamlet dessay interact; we save more spaces for public utility; and we save the environment; And we get a more habitable CBD.
Really? Meeting people is the problem? Prop is basing this argument in 2 assumptions: 1st, that all people are extremely socially active as to have the necessity of talking to mba application essay strangers in hamlet dessay the streets. 2nd, that workers do not interact with others at explatory essay all. Into the first one: A clarification of metropolitan hamlet prop’s priorities is help needed, if they pretend to defend efficiency then why should workers be meeting new friends in the streets of Polanco instead of heading straight to work (remember that now they take longer, as they have to travel by public transport), I thought that was what Fridays and parties were for. The other thing is that fortunately most of them have it clear that they’ve got a responsibility with their jobs and thanks to this and to hamlet dessay the typical behavior of people they don’t tend to be searching conversations anywhere, it could also be dangerous. Second assumption. Actually CBD workers do not have their job stations at psychosynthesis training bunkers, they have colleagues and partners to whom they can talk to and relax during lunch or other moments. Metropolitan Dessay. Also companies are conscious about the rhythm of life in cities and this is why they implement activities like picnics and balls for fall introduction they employees, meaning that they don’t really have a necessity nor an incentive for increasing their friends in metropolitan dessay Facebook. If Prop is so worried about the traffic, then the real transformation should involve something that deals with this problem without affecting others.
And as evidence supports public transportation is losing devotes [[http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2003/02/public-transit-a-bad-product-at-a-bad-price]], the real change comes along with the improvement of the existing vehicle infrastructure, taking the best out of what we have. Problem Work Backwards. Ideas like the development of superstreets by the NCSU [[http://news.ncsu.edu/releases/wmshummersuperstreets/]] may prove to be the answer to what this debate is looking for. Obviously, the first step towards transformation is metropolitan hamlet dessay opposing to this motio. The World's most important Chief Executive Officers pushing their ways in the subway! People should not be denied to use the means of transportation that they want, and less if it is of rome one of dessay their property, such as a well-earned car, or at least not for the reasons provided by the proposition. PROP mentioned that the reason why people use cars is just to show their wealth.
We don't just say that is false (for example, in Caracas almost every car has blackened windows so the other people cannot see who is in the car) but we also say that there are many powerful reasons why anyone, and specially those that work in CBDs, would decide to use their cars as best option for transportation (yet again, not opposing public transportation). A good reason for that is security. Someone like a CEO of explatory essay a big transnational or the director of a financial institution becomes a vulnerable target when going on public transportation. It is just an metropolitan hamlet absurd idea to think that those men (who may well be some of the most powerful men in the World) would decide to go in explatory essay an overcrowded metro or bus instead of going with their cars, which are probably surrounded by other 4 with bodyguards. We believe these people need to go to their work in private cars because in any other case they would be an easy target for kidnappings or heavy assaults. If that's not the metropolitan dessay case then picture them with ten bodyguards around pushing everyone to fall of rome essay get into the metro wagon, which right now is already overcrowded in any city you can tell me, and dessay now adding in mba application failure basically almost everyone that works in CBDs.
Yeah, picture the hamlet dessay CEO of the biggest transnational you can think about getting into the bus. Now imagine the reporters and general people stalking them. OPP can't. People have that right over their own cars and help phd proposal they should use them if they want to avoid pushing and being targets for robberies and dessay go comfortable in their cars as well. Whoever doesn't want to have traffic should use public transportation, however if you are willing to wake up an hour earlier but listening your car's music, go for it. The Opp's entire case is based on one assumption: the traffic at CBD is fine, and therefore no need to change. However, they miss the central point of this debate which is CBDs are indeed crammed as hell. Otherwise we won't be having this at all. If they are truly as logical as they claimed, they should at least tell us how the solving all jammed-up CBD where everyone can't effectively transport is better than our proposed transportation which asks everyone especially the sedentary ones to move their chubby buttocks. Opp talks about efficiency and how cars are efficient.
Yes, cars are pretty efficient, but not at hamlet CBD! What a real picture is problem work backwards hundreds of thousands of cars all swarm in metropolitan the business center roads, car honking, people complaining yet no one is actually moving! There is a joke about the CBD of Beijing: with the majority of fall essay introduction 750'000 registered cars pouring in, the CBD roads are now called the giant car parking lot. How is metropolitan dessay that efficient? How does businesses' profit not hurt when you virtually spend the explatory essay better part of your day stuck in dessay your car; when the mail delivery vehicles get jammed and consequently delay delivery? When it actually takes longer time to drive than to walk?
And it is not just in Beijing, in drug and alcohol young people essay Mexican city too, with more than 3 million registered vehicles, Mexico City is difficult to navigate. Hamlet. Major roads are nearly always congested..And the CBD which the Opp recognizes as the Axis of Transportation is going to take the hardest blow since all cars go to mba application failure essay CBD, and traffic jam there will amount to the degree of metropolitan hamlet dessay unbearable. Increased traffic as a result of the prohibition of cars. One of the predominant characteristics among CBDs is fall their privileged geographical location within the cities in which they are located. It is a general norm that this prominent zones must be accessible for the entire city and that they need to be greatly connected in terms of its proximity with transportation centrals and governmental institutions. This is the reason why much of the urban growth has its epicenter in metropolitan dessay Financial Districts, meaning that at the they will be the axis of the of rome essay introduction city or at least one of hamlet most transited areas of it (that’s why they are built for, isn’t it?); it is the case of Polanco in Mexico, Innenstadt in drug abuse Germany, the Yuzhong District in metropolitan dessay China and of many other CBDs in the world being connected with important avenues and districts. Because of this particular feature banning the presence of cars does not only directly impact City Centres, people who would usually transit through this channels while heading to phd proposal their destinations in the terminus of the city or that were simply encouraged to metropolitan hamlet dessay cross this areas would find their most convenient route closed. As if digging an enormous hole in the middle of the city, people would now need to muddle through the peripheries of the city in order to get to psychosynthesis psychotherapy where they need. It would also result into fewer highways and the concomitant traffic jams generated. In the end this won’t only impact the schedules of all of the citizens, but it would also be reflected in the economy as the routes of the cities’ industrial transportation become slower and companies invest more time in moving their products.
Contrary to what the proposition established, there is no economic incentive here and hamlet a greater affection for explatory essay the lesser good. The Opp also tells us that because many CBDs are small and they provide us with many statistics, therefore cars don't hurt the traffic. Again, their evidence just further undercut their case. If CBD is generally quite small, with millions of cars wouldn't it be crammed to the point of explosion (like it is now!) and that helps facilitate traffic? The answer is NO. More importantly If they are small, then businesses are just within walking distance, several subway or bus stops away, would that be easier for people to run between meeting than get stuck in the car. Also on security issues, taking a subway or bus makes you more likely to hamlet face security issues such as robbery, and theft.
In order to psychotherapy training make this point at least stand, the Opp should tell us how driving a car makes you less likely to be robbed and stole from. And the metropolitan hamlet dessay evidence can point to mba application essay the other direction: you can have your car stolen while you are at hamlet work; you can have the robber hiding in your car and attack you or just smashing your window which is more likely to psychosynthesis psychotherapy training make you hurt. And in the subway or bus, at least you can get help from other passengers! On personal safety of the hamlet dessay privileged people, the Opp's argument goes, they are likely to be stalked on psychosynthesis, public transport system. Well please heed the dessay definition, if these people are privileged to hire body guards, then the explatory essay vehicle they are using is not a private car because there are organizations who have vested interested in sending their car for the privileged ones to use in order to make them better protected. A second problem derived from the policy concerns the labor force of the hamlet CBDs. While it is true that a “car free zone” may actually help to reduce traffic within the psychosynthesis psychotherapy training area, it wouldn't ease the metropolitan transportation requirements of help its population. As noted by the affirmative team residents of CBDs could take advantage of this policy, but Business Districts are not intended to serve as residential zones. In his book Commercial Structure and Commercial Blight, Brian Berry explains why land value is higher in CBDs than in any other place , and given the high cost of the land the population of this areas is reduced and living there is metropolitan affordable exclusively for problem backwards executives and top directors.
But we most keep an eye in the rest of the labor force of the big companies, the majority, as all of these other employees come from other zones in the cities or even from different cities just for the labor journey. Forcing all of these persons to metropolitan hamlet dessay travel by public transportation from among young, their far away residences to the Financial Districts would take a really efficient system -fast, cheap, secure, clean, and always accessible- for making the measure successful. Truth is that there are not too many countries that can claim to have one of those. In the everyday experiences people face with crowded buses, dirty installations and a lot of irregularities that make it much more easier for them to travel by car, this with the normal amount of passengers, now if we add all of the people that are going to change their means of metropolitan hamlet transportation then those anemic systems would collapse. In order for the policy to succeed then we need to problem backwards restructure not only the CBDs transport, but the whole city’s transportation system!
It is of course a titanic effort that takes lots of investment and resources which would make the situation difficult to come true, the initiative would just turn into a daily headache for workers. Sedentary! The Opp talks about sedentary: business people who are sedentary need to move fast. Two responses: First, they can move faster by public transportation; Second. isn't it that being sedentary gives them all the more reason to move their chubby buttocks? More often than not, people take cars just because they are too LAZY to use their foot. And more importantly, this creeping mentality that all the privileged people get to use cars make the hamlet dessay CBD snobs all the more willing to of rome essay cram up in hamlet dessay the cars, the millions of which are destroying the functioning transportation in the CBD! But at some point we have the courtesy to concede, public transportation is not perfect. It asks you to explatory essay walk a few steps; sometimes it gets too crowded, too stingy, too noisy.
But that is not public transportation is inherently about. It is not that all pleasant at the present is metropolitan that it is so underfunded! In the case of D.C. metro system, About $50 billion in backlog repairs is needed for rail transit systems, but just $5.6 billion was spent in 2006. The governments are so obsessive with building more roads to accommodate cars (which doesn't quite solve the problem because it extends to size of the city, making people travel more distance and takes away the public space which otherwise could be a park to explatory essay rest in, a museum to immerse in; or a library to contemplate in), thereby making the hamlet funding available for public system barely meet the needs. If we ban cars in the CBD, the training funding need for more roads will be reduced, and more money will be available for a comfortable and spacious subway and bus system. What commerce in CBDs is metropolitan really like. In times of a massively interconnected economy, with sales rising or falling for unimaginable events in distant parts of the world, the importance of this districts relays not in heavy industrial processes but in the service sector. The similarity among the firms located in CBDs reside in that almost all of the establishments there are dedicated to administrative and financial labors, not mattering if the enterprise sells cars or if it is an important telecommunication firm. We will find executives, managing directors, officers and employees which jobs are far from being the sedentary tasks of staying in abuse people an office 8 hours a day. No, this class of workers requires jumping from meeting to meeting, they may need to dessay travel themselves to supervise the correct fulfillment of a project in one of the enterprise’s facilities, or they’ll need to problem backwards take care from an international client who has come to close a deal.
Given the conditions of their jobs they may also require to dessay carry themselves valuable and ostentatious objects as cell phones or laptops, a change of clothes, documents and things which are difficult to be controlled by just two hands in one same moment. Viewed from any of the perspectives it is clear that having a car is not a luxury for them, it is a requirement for their jobs and it is the reason why many companies take the initiative to provide their employees with a vehicle so that they can always be in explatory essay time for their appointments, with the metropolitan hamlet dessay necessary equipment and backwards without incidents. As simple as it sounds. Substituting their transportation means may mean a decrease in efficiency, because no matter how good a public transport is, it will always take more time than traveling by your own in your car. Even if the dessay delay is minimum, let’s say 20 minutes more than a car journey per essay, trip, a person who needs to metropolitan hamlet dessay attend to 4 different meetings in a single day will require more than an hour more than if he had travelled by car. Quite an mba application elevated price to pay. Status Quo is way better for the problem they try to solve. If you block an artery of a human body the consequence of it will be a heart attack. Metropolitan Hamlet Dessay. Same applies with the main roads of a city, and that is what the Proposition tries to implement. As we have already said, through the CBDs transit many cars, not only those of the people that work there, but also people that live around and want to go to any other place, or people that cross the city.
Actually there is more people that transit those streets than those that actually go to CBDs that, as we have raised, are small. And yes, we stand on our point that the traffic is not bad within CBDs because people don't take cars to travel 200 meters (the majority of the World's CBDs are less than a kilometer long). Does the proposition really think that people use cars when they can just arrive in help phd proposal one or two minutes walking? That's not the case, the traffic is metropolitan caused by everyone that transits around the city and needs to phd proposal go through the center (from east to west, north to south. Dessay. ). Now picture all the psychosynthesis training people that want to move within the metropolitan hamlet city blocked! The only result will be total chaos of help phd proposal a city! The people will need to look for hamlet alternative routes (that will be even more jam packed, since they are not built to receive traffic, unlike those that pass in CBDs) and solving work backwards if there are none, then the government will need to dessay build other roads (which is almost impossible) just to avoid those 600 meters that are the explatory essay main artery of the metropolitan hamlet city. It will just be a ridiculous policy.
Now, on the point of security, we don't say cars are perfectly safe (so of course the Proposition can raise hundredths of work hypothetical crimes committed against car drivers) however in public transportation you are exposed and metropolitan hamlet vulnerable, unlike cars, where you can go unnoticed and less of a target (specially in those traffic roads without traffic lights), and in training cases of high profile people, they may need bodyguard cars that ARE NOT public as the Proposition tries to metropolitan dessay say, since those services are not provided by the state. We say banning private cars in abuse among people essay CBD instead of letting those cars stuck in the traffic jams is hamlet really important. Because it severely damage the efficiency of young people CBD, for example CBD of Beijing. Besides the metropolitan hamlet dessay choice of abuse among young public transportation, you can walk if the distance is not too far, and this how financial elites working in Wall Street do. Also, it is not difficult to see city mayer go to metropolitan hamlet his office by essay, public transportation. The concern of metropolitan hamlet being a target of terrorist in this case is far less harmful than living in a fixed habitation and working in a fixed location. It is much easier to know someones living place or working place, which makes them so easy to be targeted. Having a car is not a luxury. So that’s why so many people can buy it.
However, overuse of cars in CBD have CBD fail to function or function less. Psychosynthesis Psychotherapy Training. The traffic jams caused by hamlet, heavy traffic burdens requires a solution. OPP should not just talk about the benefit of owning a car without facing the explatory essay situation we have. The solution of removing heavy traffic burdens is not about broad avenues or more highways, as we witness a lot of hamlet cities in China with super broad and super complicated transportation systems still cannot find a way to ease the burden of overuse of private cars, especially in the CBD areas where most of the mba application essay cars are heading in or out. An example from dessay, CBD of Seoul, Korea, a high way constructed in the super busy CBD, removed and replaced by an artificial river. Consequently, the former traffic burden in that region has been removed and make the place nicer and much more efficient in transportation. But problem here today is the over psychosynthesis training use of cars in metropolitan hamlet CBD region, which makes the region not as efficient as it is expected. Then we need to phd proposal change, to perfect it with banning private cars used here. Otherwise, situation will just become worse and as a CBD can no longer act as a CBD.
Finally companies will look for other suitable places to move to and such an inefficient CBD would be abandoned. Why banning cars isn’t a smart decision. I dare you dear proposition to take a look into dessay one of the streets of Raffles Place or of any other ironical CBD around the world. Places conceived for maximizing efficiency. How? By using cars! That is the reason why you’ll find yourselves surrounded by traffic lights, parking lots, big avenues and gas stations that were all built for supporting the smart and efficient drivers. By the way, all of these marvelous installments weren’t magically created. Failure Essay. Governments had to make use of taxes to give maintenance to streets.
Entrepreneurs spent millions in building the parking slots in all of the skyscrapers. And most importantly, normal people like you and me bought cars in order to dessay take advantage of this scenario! Because doing it would lead them to easier and more comfortable lives. The prohibition of cars will take away the soul-purpose of the investments of all of these groups. It’ll turn what was once a very rentable active into an obsolete and depressing passive. Appealing to the recycling of this resources, like the transformation of phd proposal big avenues into quicker effective transportation and better investment is false and wrong. Metropolitan Hamlet. Government may have the resources for explatory essay doing it but it doesn’t justify the frittering of hamlet dessay billions of dollars that those roads cost to all of the fall introduction citizens [[ftp://ftp.dot.state.fl.us/LTS/CO/Estimates/CPM/summary.pdf]]. Do you really think that entrepreneurs will look happily while their inversions drop to 0 because of a negligence?
Like constructing the parking slots and gas stations, remodeling them for making them again usable costs money, and a lot of it. What about the civilians who will be forced to watch how their cars powder in hamlet dessay their garages because they can only use them when they don’t have to work? That is certainly not what they bought them for, hours of effort going to waste. It is explatory essay actually an abuse! To protect the investments of the many people who rely on the effectiveness of the usage of car, we beg you to metropolitan oppose th. There are three key questions: 1,-Will this measure prevent traffic? This was the of rome essay introduction most discussed issue since Prop defined that as the problem they tried to solve and we have clearly made the point that it won't be the hamlet dessay case. Prop started off the debate by saying that, obviously, traffic jams are caused by solving, cars, however there was not major analysis on that whilst we said that actually blocking the main artery of a city will give it a heart attack, since cars need to go through the dessay centers in order to get to other places (or through) the city and here they would need to phd proposal go around, something answered, whilst we also said a better investment is to dessay improve roads. 2.-Will it affect commerce? Yes because traffic isn't much of a problem within the CBDs since, as we said, they're purposely built small so everything is close together and by walking distance so the problem solving work backwards people actually walk there, however the nature of the people working there requires them to use their cars a lot (such as for metropolitan hamlet dessay supervising projects or transporting clients) since they are active and need to be moving from place to place carrying laptops, without necessarily the public transport system being able to carry them everywhere, so in psychotherapy the end their policy will be the one that affects commerce.
Prop's main reason on commercial harm is that somehow for being in metropolitan hamlet dessay the traffic, people stop being efficient however Opp said that those workers take their cautions and mba application failure are obliged to work their hours, regardless of the metropolitan hamlet hours they lose outside work. We also said that with slower routes, the industries will suffer losses, as will the government and abuse among young essay its road investments . Their point of meeting friends in the subway was just pointless; we said relationships are done at the office and parties. 3.-Should the right of using cars be denied? No, because Prop says that using cars is irrational, first by saying that people only use cars to metropolitan show wealth and when we made our rebuttal saying that actually in some cities the majority of backwards cars have darkened shields/windows they changed their minds saying that the reason was stupidity in hamlet the people thinking cars are quicker than the public transportation, and we said sometimes they are , and even in those cases where they aren't, the truth is explatory essay that they prefer to use their well-earned investment of car where they can be more comfortable even if they are willing to take more time, this is a matter of being their own choice, which Prop tried to hamlet cut on the basis that people are irrational. Most people clearly prefer traffic than public transportation. Moreover there could be other reasons such as security, and Prop answered that cars can still be targets for crime, but we said that they could be a less vulnerable target. Then our point of high profile people fully stands on our side since Prop only answered saying they could still use security companies since they are public, something that is obviously not true. They do a direct harm here. Opp made its point clear.
What do you think? Continue the Debate - Leave a Comment. 2 Comments on Cars Should Be Banned From City Centres why is there no talk about all the lives saved from car accidents? We would love to hear what you think – please leave a comment!
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Guidelines for writing a literature review. by Helen Mongan-Rallis. Last updated: November 21, 2014. [Note: For these guidelines, in some sections I have quoted directly some of the the steps from: Galvan, J. (2006). Writing literature reviews: a guide for students of the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.) . Hamlet Dessay? Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing. Fall Introduction? ] A literature review is metropolitan hamlet, not an annotated bibliography in which you summarize briefly each article that you have reviewed. While a summary of the what you have read is contained within the literature review, it goes well beyond merely summarizing professional literature. It focuses on a specific topic of interest to you and includes a critical analysis of the relationship among different works, and relating this research to your work.
It may be written as a stand-alone paper or to psychosynthesis, provide a theoretical framework and rationale for a research study (such as a thesis or dissertation). These guidelines are adapted primarily from Galvan (2006). Galvan outlines a very clear, step-by-step approach that is very useful to use as you write your review. Hamlet Dessay? I have integrated some other tips within this guide, particularly in suggesting different technology tools that you might want to consider in helping you organize your review. In the sections from help, Step 6-9 what I have included is the outline of those steps exactly as described by hamlet, Galvan. Abuse Young People Essay? I also provide links at the end of this guide to hamlet, resources that you should use in order to search the literature and as you write your review. In addition to psychosynthesis, using the step-by-step guide that I have provided below, I also recommend that you (a) locate examples of hamlet literature reviews in your field of study and explatory essay skim over these to get a feel for metropolitan hamlet dessay what a literature review is and training how these are written (I have also provided links to a couple of metropolitan hamlet dessay examples at the end of these guidelines (b) read over psychotherapy, other guides to writing literature reviews so that you see different perspectives and approaches: Some examples are: Read through the metropolitan, links provided below on APA guidelines so that you become familiar with the common core elements of how to write in APA style: in explatory essay particular, pay attention to general document guidelines (e.g. font, margins, spacing), title page, abstract, body, text citations, quotations. It will help you considerably if your topic for your literature review is the one on metropolitan hamlet dessay which you intend to do your final M.Ed. project, or is in some way related to of rome introduction, the topic of your final project. Metropolitan Dessay? However, you may pick any scholarly topic.
Step 3: Identify the literature that you will review : Familiarize yourself with online databases (see UMD library resource links below for help with this), identifying relevant databases in your field of study. Using relevant databases, search for literature sources using Google Scholar and also searching using Furl (search all sources, including the Furl accounts of other Furl members). Some tips for identifying suitable literature and narrowing your search : Start with a general descriptor from the database thesaurus or one that you know is already a well defined descriptor based on past work that you have done in this field. You will need to experiment with different searches, such as limiting your search to descriptors that appear only in explatory essay the document titles, or in both the document title and in the abstract. Redefine your topic if needed: as you search you will quickly find out if the topic that you are reviewing is too broad. Try to narrow it to a specific area of interest within the broad area that you have chosen (remember: this is merely an introductory literature review for hamlet Educ 7001). It is a good idea, as part of your literature search, to fall of rome essay introduction, look for dessay existing literature reviews that have already been written on this topic. As part of your search, be sure to identify landmark or classic studies and theorists as these provide you with a framework/context for your study.
Import your references into your RefWorks account (see: Refworks Import Directions for guide on how to psychotherapy, do this from different databases). You can also enter references manually into RefWorks if you need to. Once you have identified and metropolitan hamlet located the articles for fall essay your review, you need to dessay, analyze them and organize them before you begin writing: Overview the articles : Skim the articles to get an phd proposal idea of the general purpose and content of the article (focus your reading here on the abstract, introduction and first few paragraphs, the conclusion of each article. Tip: as you skim the articles, you may want to record the notes that you take on each directly into RefWorks in the box for User 1. You can take notes onto note cards or into hamlet dessay, a word processing document instead or as well as using RefWorks, but having your notes in RefWorks makes it easy to organize your notes later. Group the abuse among people, articles into categories (e.g. into topics and subtopics and chronologically within each subtopic). Once again, it's useful to enter this information into your RefWorks record. You can record the topics in hamlet the same box as before (User 1) or use User 2 box for the topic(s) under which you have chosen to place this article. Take notes : Decide on drug and alcohol abuse among people the format in which you will take notes as you read the articles (as mentioned above, you can do this in RefWorks. You can also do this using a Word Processor, or a concept mapping program like Inspiration (free 30 trial download), a data base program (e.g. Access or File Maker Pro), in an Excel spreadsheet, or the old-fashioned way of using note cards.
Be consistent in how you record notes. Define key terms: look for metropolitan hamlet dessay differences in the way keys terms are defined (note these differences). Drug And Alcohol Among Young Essay? Note key statistics that you may want to use in dessay the introduction to psychosynthesis psychotherapy training, your review. Metropolitan? Select useful quotes that you may want to include in your review. Important : If you copy the exact words from an article, be sure to cite the page number as you will need this should you decide to use the quote when you write your review (as direct quotes must always be accompanied by page references). To ensure that you have quoted accurately (and to save time in note taking), if you are accessing the mba application failure, article in a format that allows this, you can copy and paste using your computer edit -- copy -- paste functions.
Note: although you may collect a large number of hamlet quotes during the note taking phase of your review, when you write the review, use quotes very sparingly. The rule I follow is to psychotherapy training, quote only when when some key meaning would be lost in translation if I were to paraphrase the original author's words, or if using the original words adds special emphasis to metropolitan hamlet dessay, a point that I am making. Note emphases, strengths weaknesses: Since different research studies focus on different aspects of the explatory essay, issue being studied, each article that you read will have different emphases, strengths. and weaknesses. Metropolitan Hamlet? Your role as a reviewer is to evaluate what you read, so that your review is not a mere description of explatory essay different articles, but rather a critical analysis that makes sense of the collection of articles that you are reviewing. Critique the metropolitan, research methodologies used in the studies, and distinguish between assertions (the author's opinion) and actual research findings (derived from psychosynthesis psychotherapy training, empirical evidence). Identify major trends or patterns: As you read a range of articles on your topic, you should make note of trends and patterns over time as reported in dessay the literature. This step requires you to synthesize and mba application failure essay make sense of what you read, since these patterns and trends may not be spelled out in the literature, but rather become apparent to you as you review the big picture that has emerged over time. Your analysis can make generalizations across a majority of metropolitan hamlet dessay studies, but should also note inconsistencies across studies and over time. Identify gaps in the literature, and reflect on why these might exist (based on problem the understandings that you have gained by reading literature in this field of study).
These gaps will be important for you to metropolitan hamlet dessay, address as you plan and psychotherapy training write your review. Dessay? Identify relationships among studies: note relationships among studies, such as which studies were landmark ones that led to subsequent studies in the same area. You may also note that studies fall into explatory essay, different categories (categories that you see emerging or ones that are already discussed in the literature). When you write your review, you should address these relationships and different categories and discuss relevant studies using this as a framework. Keep your review focused on metropolitan dessay your topic: make sure that the articles you find are relevant and directly related to your topic. As you take notes, record which specific aspects of the article you are reading are relevant to your topic (as you read you will come up with key descriptors that you can record in problem your notes that will help you organize your findings when you come to write up your review).
If you are using an electronic form of note taking, you might note these descriptors in a separate field (e.g. in RefWorks, put these under User 2 or User 3; in Excel have a separate column for each descriptor; if you use Inspiration, you might attach a separate note for key descriptors. Evaluate your references for currency and dessay coverage: Although you can always find more articles on your topic, you have to explatory essay, decide at what point you are finished with collecting new resources so that you can focus on writing up your findings. However, before you begin writing, you must evaluate your reference list to ensure that it is up to date and has reported the most current work. Typically a review will cover the last five years, but should also refer to hamlet dessay, any landmark studies prior to this time if they have significance in shaping the direction of the field. If you include studies prior to explatory essay, the past five years that are not landmark studies, you should defend why you have chosen these rather than more current ones. Step 5: Summarize the literature in metropolitan hamlet table or concept map format. Galvan (2006) recommends building tables as a key way to help you overview, organize, and summarize your findings, and suggests that including one or more of the tables that you create may be helpful in your literature review. If you do include tables as part of your review each must be accompanied by an analysis that summarizes, interprets and explatory essay synthesizes the literature that you have charted in the table. You can plan your table or do the entire summary chart of your literature using a concept map (such as using Inspiration) You can create the table using the table feature within Microsoft Word, or can create it initially in Excel and then copy and paste/import the the Excel sheet into Word once you have completed the metropolitan hamlet dessay, table in Excel. Problem Solving Work? The advantage of using Excel is that it enables you to sort your findings according to metropolitan hamlet, a variety of failure factors (e.g. sort by hamlet dessay, date, and then by author; sort by methodology and then date) Examples of tables that may be relevant to your review: Definitions of key terms and concepts. Research methods Summary of research results.
Step 6: Synthesize the literature prior to psychotherapy training, writing your review. Using the notes that you have taken and summary tables, develop an outline of your final review. The following are the hamlet, key steps as outlined by abuse among, Galvan (2006: 71-79) Consider your purpose and voice before beginning to write. In the case of this Educ 7001 introductory literature review, your initial purpose is to provide an overview of the topic that is of interest to you, demonstrating your understanding of key works and dessay concepts within your chosen area of focus. You are also developing skills in reviewing and writing, to provide a foundation on which you will build in subsequent courses within your M.Ed. and ultimately in your final project. Problem Solving Work? In your final project your literature review should demonstrate your command of your field of study and/or establishing context for a study that you have done. Consider how you reassemble your notes: plan how you will organize your findings into a unique analysis of the picture that you have captured in hamlet your notes. Important: A literature review is not series of annotations (like an annotated bibliography). Galvan (2006:72) captures the difference between an annotated bibliography and a literature review very well: . in essence, like describing trees when you really should be describing a forest. In the case of a literature review, you are really creating a new forest, which you will build by using the trees you found in the literature you read.
Create a topic outline that traces your argument: first explain to the reader your line or argument (or thesis); then your narrative that follows should explain and justify your line of argument. You may find the program Inspiration useful in mapping out your argument (and once you have created this in a concept map form, Inspiration enables you to convert this to a text outline merely by clicking on the outline button). This can then be exported into a Microsoft Word document. Reorganize your notes according to and alcohol abuse among young essay, the path of your argument Within each topic heading, note differences among studies. Within each topic heading, look for metropolitan dessay obvious gaps or areas needing more research. Plan to describe relevant theories. Plan to discuss how individual studies relate to and advance theory Plan to mba application, summarize periodically and, again near the end of the review Plan to present conclusions and metropolitan hamlet dessay implications Plan to suggest specific directions for future research near the end of the review Flesh out your outline with details from your analysis.
Step 7: Writing the help, review (Galvan, 2006: 81-90) Identify the broad problem area, but avoid global statements Early in the review, indicate why the topic being reviewed is metropolitan hamlet, important Distinguish between research finding and help phd proposal other sources of information Indicate why certain studies are important If you are commenting on the timeliness of a topic, be specific in describing the time frame If citing a classic or landmark study, identify it as such If a landmark study was replicated, mention that and indicate the results of the replication Discuss other literature reviews on hamlet your topic Refer the reader to other reviews on problem work issues that you will not be discussing in details Justify comments such as, no studies were found. Avoid long lists of metropolitan hamlet dessay nonspecific references If the results of fall of rome essay introduction previous studies are inconsistent or widely varying, cite them separately Cite all relevant references in the review section of hamlet thesis, dissertation, or journal article. Step 8: Developing a coherent essay (Galvan, 2006: 91-96) If your review is long, provide an overview near the beginning of the mba application failure essay, review Near the dessay, beginning of a review, state explicitly what will and explatory essay will not be covered Specify your point of view early in the review: this serves as the thesis statement of the metropolitan hamlet dessay, review. Aim for fall essay a clear and metropolitan hamlet dessay cohesive essay that integrates the key details of the literature and communicates your point of view (a literature is not a series of annotated articles). Use subheadings, especially in long reviews Use transitions to help trace your argument If your topic teaches across disciplines, consider reviewing studies from psychosynthesis training, each discipline separately Write a conclusion for the end of the review: Provide closure so that the dessay, path of the argument ends with a conclusion of explatory essay some kind. How you end the review, however, will depend on your reason for writing it. If the review was written to stand alone, as is the case of a term paper or a review article for hamlet dessay publication, the conclusion needs to make clear how the material in the body of the review has supported the assertion or proposition presented in the introduction. On the abuse people essay, other hand, a review in a thesis, dissertation, or journal article presenting original research usually leads to hamlet dessay, the research questions that will be addressed.
Check the flow of your argument for mba application essay coherence. Galvan, J. Metropolitan? (2006). Writing literature reviews: a guide for students of the behavioral sciences ( 3rd ed.). Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing.