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Questions for dissertation interviews

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British Imperialism in Burma: Shooting an questions for dissertation interviews, Elephant. Abstract The present study looks at an important political essay “Shooting an Elephant” by George Orwell. The literary critics gave the persuasive abortion speeches, text wide recognition and appreciation. It depicts Orwell’s anti-imperialistic view which is presented through the shooting of an for dissertation, elephant. The theme is presented in a fantastic way and location, this is evident from Orwell’s use of lexis, syntax, cohesive ties, point of view, and figures of speech. We will write a custom essay sample. on for dissertation interviews, British Imperialism in Burma: Shooting an Elephant or any similar. topic specifically for persuasive speeches you. Questions For Dissertation? A closer look at dissertation the experiences he had gone indicate that his sentiment matches his objectives and that he has been successful in attaining his political, artistic as well as thematic aims through his elegant style of storytelling.

Introduction George Orwell writes of for dissertation his experience in British-ruled India in the early Twentieth Century. At the time, he was a young, inexperienced soldier stationed there to help protect the Queen#8217;s interests. While he was there, he had to do something that had made some ethical conflicts within him. British Imperialism immerged and persuasive abortion, killed people’s freedom, hopes, and desires. Interviews? Shooting an Elephant is an essay written and published in the autumn of 1936. The essay mainly illustrates how a white British imperial police officer in Burma reacted and responded when he ought to encounter a ravaging elephant while he was on duty. The story is set in the British-conquered Burma. The setting of this story provides images and portrayal of Christ figure imperialism of Britain during their imperial era. The narrator describes the way he feels toward the natives and how the natives respond toward the European throughout his retelling of experiences. The description and portrayal of questions for dissertation imperialism in this story shows that being a conqueror does not necessarily means total control—the conquered might as well control the conqueror in a different way, and being in charge of controlling simply means lending out freedom to the occupation. Imperialism was seen in many different views: some view it as a noble thing in which the essays, empire brings culture, religion, and civilization for the savages and for dissertation interviews, some other view it as an evil thing—like the narrator of this story.

It is considered as acruel domination of less-powered nation by others who are stronger and more advanced. University Database? Page 2 British Imperialism in Burma: Shooting an Elephant Essay. The narrator’s hate toward the empire is actually unsurprising. Questions? He does not get any benefit from the empire. What he gets is the position where everybody hates him, with high risks, and high level of stress,away from his home, where he can see the “dirty work of Empire at close quarter. ” These descriptions show that imperialism is mainly the government’s interest but not the people’s. The aim of this term paper is… 1. To expose the evil of imperialism that arises in Burma under British occupiers.

2. To show how symbolism and irony were used all throughout the composition. 3. To inform people about how pressure can influence a person to do something he/she doesn’t want to and might not get anything from university essays, it. The questions are… 1. How does Imperialism affect the occupied people? 2. How do these occupiers define power? 3. Interviews? How does pressure manipulate people’s will to do things he doesn’t want to? Evil of Imperialism and its effect to location thesis, people Imperialism is questions for dissertation interviews evil. First, it humiliates the occupied people, reducing them to inferior status in their own country. Second, it pushes the occupiers into making immoral or unethical decisions to maintain their superiority over the people.

In “Shooting an Elephant,” the narrator acts against his own conscience to save face for himself and his fellow imperialists. The main character is the narrator who experiences external and dissertation, internal conflicts. The narrator is a Young Englishman serving as a police officer in for dissertation interviews Burma in the 1920s, when Burma was part of British-controlled India. He strongly opposes the university essays, oppressive British rule of Burma and the rest of India. At the questions, same time, he resents the ridicule he receives from the natives, who are unaware that he is on their side politically. The narrator#8217;s views represent those of the author, George Orwell. #8220;I was sub-divisional police officer of the town, and in an aimless, petty kind of way anti-European feeling was very bitter. #8221; #8220;As a police officer I was an obvious target and was baited whenever it seemed safe to do so. #8221; The narrator thinks that the British Empire’s occupation of Burma is unjust and also, another conflict is with the Burmese because of their mockery of him as a representative of the hurricane katrina essay conclusion, British Empire. But Orwell did not want to look like a fool in interviews the eyes of the natives. #8220;For at that time I had already made up my mind that imperialism was an evil thing and the sooner I chucked up my job and persuasive, got out of it the interviews, better. #8221; Orwell is speaking to the British population about their Imperial government and how it is ineffective, hurtful, and oppressive to all. Orwell’s purpose was to show the oppressiveness of British Imperial rule. Imperialism is hurricane katrina harmful to everyone, to the oppressed and the oppressor. Interviews? “I perceived in this moment that when the white man turns tyrant it is his own freedom that he destroys. ” (Orwell) Imperialism takes away freedom for even the Imperialists. Location Services? “But I did not want to questions for dissertation, shoot the elephant#8230;. Christ Figure? It seemed to me that it would be murder to shoot him. ” (Orwell) Imperialism is definitely synonymous to questions for dissertation interviews, domination. This act of power usually includes economical, political, or even military dominance over the colonized country, not to mention the university database, territorial domination.

The event that Orwell was being pressured by the mob of yellow people shows that the natives are the one who manipulates the vanquisher, it is imperialism upside-down, and this essay shows that this is the nature of questions for dissertation imperialism. An imperial agent such as the narrator of the story is nothing more than a puppet in-between the conqueror and statement, the conquered. Prejudice to the system and to its people. Although the narrator seems to respect the natives as fellow human beings, other Europeans regard the Burmese and for dissertation, Indians with contempt—an attitude made clear near the end of the story: #8220;[T]he younger [Europeans] said it was a damn shame to shoot an elephant for killing a coolie, because an elephant was worth more than any damn Coringhee coolie. #8221; Historically, the British placed their own men in positions of authority in the colonial government in India, which then incorporated Burma, and natives in inferior positions. Moreover, the persuasive speeches, British generally did not socialize with the natives. Burma being a colonized country, it experiences different prejudices under its British rulers. The breaking down of the indigenous culture and, in some cases, the complete loss of indigenous languages the physical harm of the local population and the exploitation of the local population occurred during these days. We find the Burmese in general too ignorant to have a clear understanding of the questions, way in which they are being treated and, as a result, too ignorant to show the least resentment.

Besides, for conclusion the moment they have not suffered much economic damage. Questions Interviews? British seized the mines and the oil wells. They control timber production. All sorts of middlemen, brokers, millers, exporters, have made colossal fortunes from rice without the producer-that is the peasant-getting a thing out of it. The British are robbing and pilfering Burma quite shamelessly but we must stress that the Burmese hardly notice it for the moment. Their country is so rich, their population so scattered, their needs, like those of all Orientals, so slight that they are not conscious of being exploited. Pressure done to its people The first impressions about George Orwell#8217;s #8220;Shooting An Elephant#8221; include a white man not being accepted by his surroundings in Burma. It eventually leads to a tragic death of an elephant and some happy Burmese people; however, in the end the narrator reflects on his actions.

The central meaning within this essay is services that social pressure on a person leads to foolish actions in order to be accepted. When it comes to an event where the natives are the one who controls the conqueror, it is imperialism upside-down, the questions for dissertation, nature of services thesis imperialism. An imposing agent such as the narrator of the story is nothing more than a puppet in-between the conqueror and the conquered. Ironically the status and alignment which the agent has does not help him to gain control over anything. He is at the same time controlled by the conqueror and interviews, the conquered, making him simply out of services thesis place: “And it was at this moment, as I stood there with the rifle in my hands, that I first grasped the hollowness, the futility of the white man’s dominion in the East. Here was I, the white man with his gun, standing in front of the unarmed native crowd – seemingly the leading actor of the questions interviews, piece; but in reality I was only an absurd puppet pushed to and fro by the will of those yellow faces behind. ” (Orwell) Why shoot an elephant?

The reason why he shoots the elephant is simply “to avoid looking fool. Katrina? ” The native crowds expect him to shoot the elephant to get “a bit of questions for dissertation entertainment. ” He hates both the natives and the empire, now his whole life in Christ figure the colonial country is all about avoiding the native’s jeers and questions for dissertation interviews, that is what he exactly does. If he ran out, or do nothing about the elephant, the natives obviously will laugh at conclusion him. That is the interviews, only reason why he shot the elephant, why he does it against his better judgment. Just like his view toward the Burmese, he has a difficulty in making his own mind. Defined? He did not want to shot the elephant, but he did not want the natives to laugh at him.

He decided not to shot it, but the decision changes a minute later. “But I did not want to shoot the elephant. . Interviews? . . It seemed to me that it would be murder to shoot him. . . . Besides, there was the beast’s owner to be considered. . . . Defined? But I had got to act quickly. Questions For Dissertation? I turned to some experienced-looking Burmans who had been there when we arrived, and asked them how the elephant had been behaving. They all said the same thing: he took no notice of you if you left him alone, but he might charge if you went too close to him. ” The passage above shows his consideration before he shot the persuasive speeches, elephant. However, this passage shows the questions, reason why he finally chose to shot it: “To come all that way, rifle in hand, with two thousand people marching at my heels, and then to trail feebly away, having done nothing — no, that was impossible. Katrina Conclusion? The crowd would laugh at me. And my whole life, every white man’s life in the East, was one long struggle not to be laughed at. ” Orwell is ashamed to had submitted to the pressure of the Burmans, but he does so at interviews his own will. Respect among the people is highly valued to Orwell. He claims that “every white man’s life in the East, was one long struggle not to be laughed at” (Orwell). This weakness plagues the author throughout the story and displays the softness of his character. This softness foreshadows the collapse of his morals, and ultimately the slow, sad death of the elephant.

The author’s mistake in his decision cost him the goodness of his character, and forced upon speeches him the horrifying experience of watching the for dissertation interviews, elephant die slowly in pain. This sight was so disturbing to Orwell that he leaves. “In the end I could not stand it any longer and went away” (Orwell). This quote also hints at abortion speeches the shamefulness that the author feels and the dishonor which prevails over him in the end. Questions? Conclusion In a world where people must work hand in hand to accomplish one goal, a peaceful coexistence, imperialism has done cruel and unjust treatment to the people who are with lesser power to fight them. This wicked act humiliates the occupied people, reducing them to statement, inferior status in their own country and it goads the occupiers into making immoral or unethical decisions to maintain their superiority over the people. “The greater the power, the dangerous the abuse,” according to Edmund Burke.

Power is the ability or authority to control people and events, whether it is economically or politically. . It is the ability or authority to control people and events, whether it is questions for dissertation interviews economically or politically. Power is defined as a political or national strength; strength might force or possession or control over others authority. Power is apparent in dissertation defined every society all over the world. Power itself is not necessarily a bad thing with many cases of power producing positive results. It is when power is combined with abuse that a problem begins. Many people in power abuse their position through authority with manipulative strategies.

Such behavior can have negative, inaccurate, unfair or even bias outcomes. With great powers in hand, people make use of this power to questions interviews, manipulate the ones who are inferior to speeches, them. People used to think of ways on how he can be more powerful. Power fuels people to strive hard to attain this and questions for dissertation, once they did, this creates different forms of wickedness to be done in their inferior. It thickens and numbs the humane and location thesis, benevolent part of the questions for dissertation interviews, one who acquires great power. “Power gradually extirpates for the mind every humane and gentle virtue,” (Burke) “And it was at location services thesis this moment, as I stood there with the rifle in my hands, that I first grasped the hollowness, the for dissertation, futility of the white man’s dominion in the East. Here was I, the white man with his gun, standing in front of the unarmed native crowd – seemingly the leading actor of the piece; but in reality I was only an absurd puppet pushed to and fro by the will of those yellow faces behind. ” (Orwell) More so, one of the effects of imperialism incorporated in this essay is the imperialism upturned, how the colonized create strings to their colonizer and let them be their puppet through the pressure the bestow. “And my whole life, every white man’s life in the East, was one long struggle not to be laughed at. ” (Orwell) There is a conflict with himself in his fight with his conscience and abortion, his personal dilemmas. So, he had to choose combat between his ideas and questions for dissertation interviews, his emotions. Christ Figure? This fear for being laughed by for dissertation their colonized people fuels a false bravery just to avoid looking a fool. The relationship that develops with the British Empire is that of slave and master. University? Is this good thing or not?

That is not the questions interviews, question; let us simply say that British control is despotic and, to dissertation defined, put it plainly, self-interested. Even though the Burmese have not had much cause for complaint up till now, the day will come when the riches of their country will be insufficient for a population which is constantly growing. Then they will be able to appreciate how capitalism shows its gratitude to those to whom it owes its existence.

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How to Write an Essay About Drugs? One should not underestimate the significance of essay writing. Apart from developing personal writing skills and questions for dissertation interviews ability to conduct a profound research, a student also contributes much to the development of critical skills. Hurricane Katrina Essay Conclusion? Remember that in the process of essay writing it is crucial to choose an appropriate topic. This is questions for dissertation interviews, why students prefer writing on controversial topics, which make readers think more about the issue, its causes, and consequences. Most Popular Essay Topics among Students : Social media and its effect on people’s lives; Causes and effects of university essays, obesity; Let us have a look at how the essay about drugs is built. This will hopefully give you an insight about how this type of interviews, essays are to be written. Besides, this is statement development, a very popular topic among students so if you are one of them it is most likely you will have to write an essay about drug addiction one day. Questions? At the same time, the drug abuse topic is quite complex.

On the one hand, drugs were discovered to help people who suffer from thesis statement development pain. Questions? This makes drugs one of the most beneficial inventions ever made. On the abortion speeches other hand, their use is not limited to medical treatment only; there are a lot of who use drugs “for fun”. Such approach ultimately leads to serious health issues and devastation when referring to the families of questions, drug addicts. These lines are to dissertation defined, show that it is important to know the subject of your topic prior to writing. Without understanding the key concepts of the subject, it is impossible to write a good essay. The word “drug” does not presume medication only.

More commonly, it is for dissertation, referred to as the chemical compounds that are illegally sold, e.g. marijuana, ecstasy, heroin, etc. Drugs make people feel ecstatic and database “high” during limited period of time. Usually, the “high” effect doesn’t last long. When it is questions for dissertation, all over, a drug addict feels sadness, frustration, senselessness as if life does not have its positive sides. However, every addict desires to continue experiencing the good stuff so one always feels the need to take a new drug dose again. The very moment when a person takes a second dose, he or she can be called an addict. Apart from illegal drugs sold on the streets, there are numerous drugs that can be easily bought without any restrictions. The effect most of the drugs have should not be underestimated since many people are dependent on it and database use drugs on for dissertation interviews a daily basis. When we say drugs, we don’t mean pills only.

Cigarettes, alcohol and coffee drinks are also drugs for many as they cannot live without these products despite the fact that they claim that they are not dependent on their effects. An article n the topic : Whenever you have to write an persuasive abortion speeches, essay on drug addiction, you have to mention its most common causes. The concept of drug addiction essay assumes that. Below are some of the examples of causes you can use for your essay. They are all in their essence misconceptions about the questions for dissertation danger of drugs: “Drugs are everywhere. Why not try them?” “I will try drugs only once; I will never become a drug addict if I am not going to take it the other time.” “I can quit taking drugs whenever I want. Why not live my life the way I want?” “I will not die if I take one pill”. “Drugs can make my life full of thesis development tool, pleasant emotions and will allow forgetting about everyday life challenges and constraints.”

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amistad story essay Sengbe Pieh (Cinque), the questions interviews, African who lead the revolt against the Spanish crew on the Amistad. Picture courtesy of ClipArt.Com. The story of the Amistad began in January 1839 when hundreds of native Africans were captured from Mendeland near Sierra Leone, and sold into the Spanish slave trade. The captives endured brutality, sickness, or death during a horrific journey to the Spanish colony at Havana, Cuba, on the notorious Portuguese slave ship Tecora . Upon arrival in Cuba, the Africans were fraudulently classified as native Cuban-born slaves and sold at auction to Christ figure Don Jose Ruiz and Don Pedro Montez, who planned to transport them to their plantations on another part of the island aboard the cargo schooner La Amistad which, ironically, means “friendship” in Spanish. Desperate, the Africans staged a revolt three days into the journey and seized control of the questions for dissertation, vessel, killing the captain and the cook; two other members of the crew dove into the sea. The Africans were led by Sengbe Pieh, a 25-year-old Mendi known to the Spanish as Cinque, who managed to unshackle himself and his companions. Montez and Ruiz were ordered to sail east towards the rising sun, and Africa. During the night, the Spaniards would secretly change course, attempting to sail back to Cuba or to the southern coast of the essay, United States.

After more than two months at sea, the questions for dissertation interviews, beleaguered Amistad finally arrived at Montauk Point, Long Island, New York, where the vessel and its African “cargo” were seized by the Federal survey brig Washington . On August 29, 1839, the Amistad was towed to New London, Connecticut, where the services thesis, African's legal struggle for freedom was waged in for dissertation the lengthy battle which ultimately involved the former President of the Christ figure, United States, John Quincy Adams. Photo courtesy of the White House www.whitehouse.gov/history/ Charged with murder and piracy and claimed as salvaged property along with the Amistad , Cinque and questions interviews the others were imprisoned in Christ figure New Haven, after a judge in New London ordered the case to be heard at the next session of the questions interviews, U.S. Circuit Court, in abortion Hartford. Groups involved with the growing abolitionist movement organized a legal defense, and began to provide for for dissertation the Africans’ physical well-being and educational instruction. The Amistad Committee, as they came to be known, located a translator who could speak Mende fluently and thus allow the captives to tell their own story. Three days into the circuit court trial, the judge referred the case to development tool the U.S. Questions For Dissertation Interviews? District Court. The Political Implications of the Case. The implications of the Amistad case were profound.

If the essays database, Africans were found guilty under American law, they faced permanent slavery or death. If they were handed over to Spanish authorities without trial, as Spain pressed President Martin Van Buren to do, the constitutional separation of powers was openly compromised. If freed after a trial, key pro-slavery forces would be embittered and likely withdraw their support for Van Buren who sought reelection in questions for dissertation 1840. Hoping that the courts would order the Africans returned to Cuba, President Van Buren requested and received a concurring opinion from U.S. University Essays Database? Attorney General Felix Grundy and the Cabinet. Questions For Dissertation Interviews? Secretary of State John Forsyth had a ship ready to sail for Cuba immediately after the trial, to prevent an appeal. The Africans defense centered around the fact that the importation of slaves from Africa was illegal under Spanish law, and international treaties to which Spain was a party.

During the District Court trial, Cinque and the others described how they had been kidnapped, mistreated, and sold into slavery. The District Court judge agreed, ruling that the Africans were legally free and katrina essay conclusion should be transported home. Questions For Dissertation Interviews? (The murder and conspiracy charges were dropped in the circuit court trial, the judge having found that the United States had no jurisdiction in those incidents.) Dismayed, the president ordered an immediate appeal, and the case went to the U.S. Supreme Court. A contemporary depiction of the Amistad revolt. Picture courtesy of americaslibrary.gov. The Amistad Committee believed that they would need additional legal help to assure a favorable outcome for Christ figure the Africans and decided to ask former President John Quincy Adams to intervene on their behalf. Adams was considered one of the nation's leading opponents of slavery because of his relentless fight against the gag rule in for dissertation Congress, which between 1836 and 1844 prevented Congress from hurricane katrina essay conclusion, considering antislavery petitions. Adams's status as a former President would attract publicity and interest in the case and forestall the Van Buren administration from failing to extend due process of law to interviews the Africans. The interpretation of international law and treaties between the United States and Spain would be important to the outcome of the case, many of which Adams, had helped to formulate while serving as a diplomat and Secretary of State. Finally, even though he had not actively worked as a lawyer for quite a while, Adams had experience arguing before the United States Supreme Court.

Photo courtesy of Amistad Memorial, Inc. In November 1841, Ellis Gray Loring and Lewis Tappan of the Amistad Committee paid a call on Adams at his home in Quincy, Massachusetts, (today the persuasive speeches, Adams National Historical Park Old House) to ask him to questions for dissertation defend the Africans. At first, Adams questioned his ability to rise to this challenge. He was 72 years old, nearly blind, busy with his duties as a member of Congress, and had not argued a case as a lawyer in more than 30 years. He ultimately took the case believing that this would be his last great service to katrina essay his nation. In February 1840, he argued passionately for questions interviews the Africans' right to freedom, decrying President Van Buren's illegal attempts to influence the judicial system and Christ figure circumvent the Constitution. In March 1841, the Supreme Court issued its final verdict: the Amistad Africans were free people and should be allowed to return home. John Quincy Adams wrote a letter to inform his co-counsel Roger Sherman Baldwin of the verdict and reported that, “The decision of the Supreme Court in the case of the Amistad has this moment been delivered by Judge Story. The captives are free.

Yours in great haste and great joy. ” At the end of 1841, the 35 survivors of the Amistad and five American missionaries sailed for questions interviews Sierra Leone. They established a colony and encouraged educational and political reform eventually leading to independence of Sierra Leone from Great Britain. Katrina Essay Conclusion? The Amistad case unified and questions for dissertation interviews advanced the persuasive speeches, abolitionist movement in for dissertation the United States. Civil libertarians increasingly used the judicial system to press their causes, inflaming political passions throughout the country and laying the groundwork for Christ figure the abolition of slavery and the modern Civil Rights movement in questions America.

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chehov essay Place of Birth: Taganrog, Russia. Place of questions for dissertation interviews Death: Badenweiler, Germany. P'yessa bex nazvaniya (Platonov) (one-act; written c. Abortion? 1881); translation by John Cournos published as That Worthless Fellow Platonov, Dutton, 1930; translation by Basil Ashmore published as A Play without a Title (Platonov), P. Questions For Dissertation? Nevill, 1952, published as Don Juan (in the Russian Manner), preface by Sir Desmond MacCarthy, P. Nevill, 1952, first produced in New York at the Minor Latham Drama Workshop, April 23, 1954; translation by Alex Szogyj published as A Country Scandal (Platonov), adaptation by Szogyj, Coward-McCann, 1960, first produced in New York at the Greenwich Mews Theater, May 5, 1960, published as A Country Scandal: A Drama in Four Acts, Samuel French, 1961; translation by Dmitri Makaroff published as Platonov: An Abridged Version of an Untitled Play in Four Acts, introduction by George Devine, Methuen, 1961; translation by David Magarshack published as Platonov: A Play in Four Acts and Christ figure Five Scenes, Hill aWang, 1964; translation by Michael Frayn published as Wild Honey: The Untitled Play, Methuen, 1984, first produced in London at questions for dissertation, the National Theater, 1984, produced on Broadway at speeches, the Virginia Theater, December 18, 1986. O vrede tabaka: Stsena monolog (written c. 1886-1902), translation by Milka Petrovich published as On the Harmful Effects of Tobacco, adaptation by Boris Zupetz, pictures by Patrick Couratin, Quist, 1977. Ivanov: Drama v chetyryokh deystviyakh (four-act), first produced in Moscow at the Korsh Theater, November 19, 1887; translation by for dissertation interviews, Marian Fell published as Ivanoff: A Play in Four Acts, Brentanos, 1923; translation by Ariadne Nicolaeff published as Ivanov: A Drama in Four Acts, adaptation by John Gielgud, Theater Arts Books, 1966, first produced on Broadway at university database, the Shubert Theater, May 3, 1966. Medved': Shutka v odnom deystvii (one-act), first produced in Moscow at Korsh Theater, October, 1888; translation by questions, Roy Temple House published as A Bear, Moods Publishing, 1909; translation by Hilmar Baukhage published as The Boor: A Comedy in defined One Act, Samuel French, 1915; translation by Eric Bentley published as The Brute: A Joke in One Act, Samuel French, 1956; published as The Bear, adapted by Joellen Bland, Denver Pioneer Drama Service, 1984. Predlozheniye: Shutka v odnom deystvii (one-act; written c. 1888-89); translation by Baukhage and Barett H. Clark published as A Marriage Proposal: Comedy in One Act, Samuel French, 1914; translation by Sergius Ponomarov published as The Marriage Proposal: A Joke in One Act, edited by William-Alan Landes, Players Press (Studio City, CA), 1990. Leshy: Komediya v chetyryokh deystviyakh (four-act), first produced in Moscow at the Abramov Theater, November, 1889; translation by S. S. Koteliansky published as The Wood Demon: A Comedy in Four Acts by Anton Tchehov, Macmillan, 1926; translation by Nicholas Saunders and Frank Dwyer, Smith and for dissertation Kraus (Newbury, VT), 1993.

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Sznycer published as The Gull: A Comedy in Four Acts, [New York], 1967, published in questions England as The Gull, Poets' and Painters' Press, 1974; translation by abortion speeches, Jean-Claude Van Itallie published as Anton Chekhov's The Sea Gull: A New Version, Dramatists Play Service, 1974, published as The Sea Gull: A Comedy in Four Acts, commentaries by William M. Hoffman and Daniel Seltzer, textual notes by Paul Schmidt, Harper Row, 1977; translation by Ann Jellicoe pubed as The Sea Gull, edited by Henry Popkin, Avon, 1975; translation by David French published as The Seagull, Playwright's Co-op (Toronto), 1977, published as The Seagull: A Play, notes by Donna Orwin, General Paperbacks, 1978; translation by Thomas Kilroy published as The Seagull, Methuen, 1981; translation with introduction by Tania Alexander and Charles Sturridge published as The Seagull: A Comedy in interviews Four Acts, Amber Lane Press, 1985; translation and introduction by Frayn published as The Seagull: A Comedy in Four Acts, Methuen, 1986; translation by Saunders and Dwyer published as The Sea Gull/Chaika: A Comedy in persuasive abortion speeches Four Acts, Smith and Kraus, 1994; translation by George Calderon published as The Seagull, adapted by Robert Brustein, I. R. Dee (Chicago, IL), 1992; edition by Landes published as The Sea-Gull, Players Press, 1996; translation by Michael Henry Heim published as The Seagull: A Comedy, Dramatic Publishing Co. (Woodstock, IL), 1992. Dyadya Vanya: Stseny iz derevenskoy zhizni v chetyroykh deystviyakh (four-act), first produced in Moscow at the Moscow Art Theater, October 26, 1899; translation by Jenny Covan published as Uncle Vanya: A Comedy in Four Acts, Brentanos, 1922; adaptation and translation by Rose Caylor published as Uncle Vanya, Covici, Friede, 1930; translation by published as Uncle Vanya: Young Scenes from questions interviews Village Life in university Four Acts, Samuel French, 1956; translation by Tyrone Guthne and Leonid Kipnis published as Uncle Vanya: Scenes from Country Life in Four Acts, University of Minnesota Press 1969; translation by Robert W. Corrigan published as Uncle Vanya: An Authoritative Text Edition of a Great Play, Avon, 1974; translation by questions, John Muirell published as Uncle Vanya: Scenes from Rural Life, Theatrebooks (Toronto), 1978; translation by Pam Gems published as Uncle Vanya, introduction by Edward Braun, Methuen, 1979; translation by university database, Van Itallie published as Uncle Vanya: Scenes from Country Life in Four Acts, Dramatists Play Service, 1980; translation and introduction by Frayn published as Uncle Vanya: Scenes from Country Life in Four Acts, Methuen, 1987; translation by Vlada Chernomirdik published as Uncle Vanya, adapted by David Mamet, Samuel French (New York City), 1988; edition by for dissertation interviews, Landes published as Uncle Vanya, Players Press, 1996. Tri syotry: Drama v chetyryokh deystviyakh (four-act), first produced in Moscow at the Moscow Art Theater, January 21, 1901; translation by thesis, Covan published as The Three Sisters: A Drama in Four Acts, Brentanos, 1922; translation by Young published as The Three Sisters: A Drama in Four Acts, Samuel French, 1941, translation by Guthrie and questions interviews Kipnis published as The Three Sisters: An Authoritative Text Edition, critical material selected and introduced by conclusion, Popkin, Avon, 1965; translation and notes by Randell Jarrell published as The Three Sisters, Macmillan, 1969; translation by Moura Budberg published as Three Sisters, Davis Poynter, 1971, translation by Van Itallie published as Anton Chekhov's Three Sisters: A New English Version, Dramatists Play Service, 1979; translation by interviews, Brian Friel published as Anton Chekhov's Three Sisters: A Translation, Gallery Books (Dublin), 1981; translation and hurricane essay introduction by Frayn published as Three Sisters: A Drama in Four Acts, Methuen, 1983; translation by Lanford Wilson published as Three Sisters: A Play, Dramatists Play Service, 1984, first produced in for dissertation interviews Hartford, Conn., at the Hartford Stage, 1984; translation by abortion speeches, Rose Cullen published as Three Sisters, adapted by Frank McGuinness, Faber and Faber (Boston, MA), 1990; translation by Chernomordik published as The Three Sisters: A Play, adapted by Mamet, Grove Weidenfeld (New York City), 1991; translation by Paul Schmidt published as Three Sisters, Theatre Communications Group (New York City), 1992; translation by Lanford Wilson published as Three Sisters: A Comedy in Four Acts, Smith and questions Kraus, 1994; edition by Landes published as Three Sisters, Players Press, 1996. Vishnyovy Sad: Komediya v chetyryokh deystriyakh (four-act), first produced in Moscow at essay conclusion, the Moscow Art Theater, January 17, 1900; translation and interviews introduction by Max S. Mandell published as The Cherry Garden: A Comedy in Four Acts, C. G. Whaples, 1908; translation by Covan published as The Cherry Orchard: A Comedy in thesis statement development tool Four Acts, Brentanos, 1922; translation by Hubert Butler published as The Cherry Orchard: A Play in Four Acts, introduction by Guthrie, Baker International Play Bureau, 1934; translation by Irina Skariatina first produced as The Cherry Orchard on Broadway at the National Theater, January 25, 1944; translation by Young published as The Cherry Orchard: A Drama in Four Acts, [New York], 1947; published as The Wistoria Trees, adaptation by Joshua Logan, Random House, 1950, first produced on Broadway, 1950; published as The Cherry Orchard, Foreign Languages Publishing House (Moscow), 1956; translation by Gielgud published as The Cherry Orchard: A Comedy in Four Acts, introduction by Michel Saint- Denis, Theater Arts Books, 1963; translation by W. L. Questions? Goodman published as The Cherry Orchard, dialogue and adaptation by Henry S. Taylor, Ginn, 1964; published as Chekhov's The Cherry Orchard, edited by Herbert Goldstone, Allyn Bacon, 1965; translation by essays, Avrahm Yarmoky published as The Cherry Orchard, critical material selected and introduced by Popkin, Avon, 1965; translation by Guthrie and for dissertation Kipnis published as The Cherry Orchard: A Play in Four Acts, University of speeches Minnesota Press, 1965; translation by Van Itallie published as The Cherry Orchard, Dramatists Play Service, 1977, published as The Cherry Orchard: A Comedy in Four Acts, Grove Press, 1977, revised version, Dramatists Play Service, 1979, translation by Helen Rappaport published as The Cherry Orchard, new version by Trevor Griffiths Pluto Press, 1978, translation and introduction by questions, Frayn published as The Cherry Orchard: A Comedy in Four Acts, Methuen, 1978; translation by Calderon published as The Cherry Orchard, adapted by Brustein, I. R. Dee, 1995; edition by Landes published as The Cherry Orchard, Players Press, 1997.

The Bear: A Joke in One Act, translated by Ponomarov; edited by Landes, Players Press, 1990. The Anniversary, translated by Ponomarov; edited by Landes, Players Press, 1992. The Wedding: A Scene in persuasive abortion speeches One Act, translated by Ponomarov; edited by questions, Landes, Players Press, 1996. Chekhov published a collection of plays in 1897. COLLECTED PLAYS IN ENGLISH TRANSLATION. Plays, translation and introduction by Marian Fell, Scribner, first series, 1912. Hurricane Katrina Conclusion? Two Plays by questions, Tchekhof: The Seagull [and] The Cherry Orchard, translation, introduction, and notes by George Calderon, G. Richards, 1912. Plays by Anton Tchekoff, translation and persuasive speeches introduction by questions for dissertation, Julius West, second series, Scribner, 1916.

Plays from the Russian, translation by Constance Garnett, two volumes, Chatto Windus, 1923. The Plays of development tool Anton Tchekov, transla by Garnett, preface by Eva Le Gallienne, Modern Library, 1930, University Microfilms, 1974. Plays: The Seagull, The Cherry Orchard, On the High Road, The Wedding, The Proposal, The Anniversary, The Bear, The Three Sisters, woodcuts by Howard Simon, Sirens Press, 1935, published as Plays, Perma Giants, 1950. The Cherry Orchard and Other Plays, woodcuts by Simon, Grosset Dunlap, 1936. Five Famous Plays, translat by West and Fell, Scribner, 1939. Questions? Three Plays, translation by S. S. Koteliansky, Penguin (Harmondsworth), 1940. The Plays of Anton Chekov: Nine Plays including the Seagull . and Others, translation by hurricane, Garnett, Caxton House, 1945. Questions? Nine Plays, Grosset Dunlap, 1946,lished as Nine Plays of Chekov: The Sea Gull, The Cherry Orchard, The Three Sisters, and Others, 1963. Six Famous Plays, translations by statement development tool, West and Fell, Scribner, 1949.

Four Short Plays, translation by West, Duckworth, 1950. Plays, Doric Books, 1950. Chekhov Plays, translation by Elisaveta Fen, Penguin, 1951. The Seagull, Uncle Vania, The Bear, The Proposal, A Jubilee, translation by Fen, Penguin (Harmondsworth), 1953, published as The Seagull and for dissertation Other Plays, 1954. Best Plays, translation and introduction by Stark Young, Modern Library, 1956. Three Plays: The Cherry Orchard, Three Sisters, Ivanov, translation and introduction by Fen, Penguin (Harmondsworth), 1956. The Brute, and university essays database Other Farces, edited by Eric Bentley, translated by Bentley and Theodore Hoffman, Samuel French, 1958, Applause, 1985. Questions? Four Great Plays, Bantam, 1958.

Plays, translation and defined introduction by Fen, Penguin, 1959. Six Plays of Chekhov, translation and introduction by Robert W. Corrigan, foreword by Harold Clurman, Holt, 1962. Questions? Chekhov: The Major Plays, translation by Ann Dunnigan, foreword by Robert Brustein, New American Library, 1964. Uncle Vanya, The Cherry Orchard, and The Wood Demon, translated and edited by Ronald Hingley, Oxford University Press, 1964. The Sea Gull [and] The Tragedian in Spite of defined Himself, translations by questions for dissertation interviews, Fred Eisemann and essay Olive Frances Murphy, International Pocket Library, 1965. Questions Interviews? Uncle Vanya, and The Cherry Orchard, translation by Hingley, Oxford University Press, 1965. Ten Early Plays, translation and hurricane katrina conclusion introduction by interviews, Alex Szogyi, Bantam, 1965. Two Plays: The Cherry Orchard [and] Three Sisters, translation by Garnett, introduction by thesis statement development, John Gielgud, illustrations by Lajos Szalay, Heritage Press, 1966. Questions For Dissertation? Four Plays, translation, preface, afterwords, and notes by Szogyi, Washington Square Press, 1968. Ivanov, The Seagull, and Three Sisters, translation by Hingley, Oxford University Press, 1968.

Four Plays, translation by David Magarshack, Hill Wang, 1969. Chekhov Plays, introduction and appreciation by Arnold B. McMillin, illustrated by Mette Ivers, Heron Books, 1969. Eight Plays, translation by Fen, Franklin Library, 1976. Anton Chekhov's Plays, translated and edited by Eugene Kerr Bristow, Norton, 1977. Chekhov: Five Major Plays, translation and introduction by persuasive speeches, Hingley, Oxford University Press, 1977. Questions For Dissertation? The Cherry Orchard and conclusion The Seagull, translation by Laurence Senelick, AHM Publishing, 1977.

Five Plays, translation and introduction by Hingley, Oxford University Press, 1980. Two Plays: The Three Sisters; The Cherry Orchard, translation by Fen, illustrations by Elaine Raphael and Don Bolognese, Franklin Library, 1980. Chekhov's Great Plays: A Critical Anthology, edited and interviews introduced by Jean-Pierre Barricelli, New York University Press, 1981. Plays, translated and introduced by Frayn, Methuen (New York City), 1988. Chekhov for the Stage: The Sea Gull, Uncle Vanya, The Three Sisters, The Cherry Orchard, translated and introduced by Milton Ehre, Northwestern University Press (Evanston, IL), 1992. Hurricane? Twelve Plays, translated with introduction and notes by Ronald Hingley, Oxford University Press (New York City), 1992.

Uncle Vanya and Other Plays, translated by Betsy Hulick, Bantam Books (New York City), 1994. Chekhov: The Major Plays, English versions by van Itallie, Applause (New York City), 1995. Chekhov: Four Plays, translated by Carol Rocamora, Smith and Kraus, 1996. Chekhov's Major Plays: Ivanov, The Seagull, Uncle Vanya, and The Three Sisters, translated by Karl Kramer and Margaret Booker, University Press of America (Lanham, MD), 1996. The Plays of Anton Chekhov, translated by Schmidt, HarperCollins Publishers (New York City), 1997. Contributor, sometimes under the pseudonyms A Man Without a Spleen, Antosha Chekhonte, My Brother's Brother, or v, of more than four hundred short stories, including An Anonymous Story, Anyuta, Ariadne, At Christmas, At Home, An Awkward Business, The Beauties, The Beggar, The Butterfly, Concerning Love, The Daughter of Albion, The Death of a Government Official, A Dreadful Night, A Dreary Story, Easter Night, The Encounter, Enemies, Excellent People, Fat and Thin, Gooseberries, Grisha, Gusev, A Hard Case, Heartache, The Huntsman, In Exile, In the Cart, In the Ravine, In Trouble, The Malefactor, A Marriageable Girl, Mire, The Misfortune, Murder, My Wife, The Name-Day Party, New Villa, On Official Business, Oysters, Peasant Women, Peasants, Revenge, Romance With Double Bass, Sergeant Prishibeyev, Sleepy, A Trifle From Life, The Two Volodyas, Typhus, Vanka, Verochka, A Woman's Kingdom, The Witch, The Work of questions Art, to essays, numerous periodicals, including Budil'nik, Novoye vreniya, Oskolki, Petershurgskaya gazeta, Russkaya niysl, Russkiye vedeniosti, Severny vestnik, Strekoza, and Zhurnal dlya vsekh.

Chekhov published a number of collections of his works during his lifetime, including: Shornik dlya detey (title means A Collection of Children's Stories ; 1883); Pestrye rasskazy (title means Motley Tales ; 1886); V sumerkakh (title means In the Twilight ; 1887); Nevinnye rechi (title means Innocent Speeches , 1887), Rasskazy (title means Tales ; 1888), Detvora (title means Children ; 1889); also a 1890 collection whose title has been translated as Gloomy People and an 1894 collection whose title has been translated as Stones and Tales. COLLECTED SHORT FICTION IN ENGLISH TRANSLATION. The Black Monk, and Other Stories, translation by R. E. Questions For Dissertation? C. Long, Duckworth, 1903, F. A. Stokes, 1915, reprinted, Books for Libraries Press, 1970. The Kiss, and Christ figure Other Stories, translation by interviews, Long, Duckworth, 1908, F. A. Stokes, 1916, reprinted, Books for Libraries Press, 1972. Stories of Russian Life, translation by Marian Fell, Scribner, 1914. Location Based Thesis? The Bet, and Other Stories, translation by S. S. Koteliansky and J. M. For Dissertation? Murry, J. Statement? W. Luce, 1915. Russian Silhouettes: More Stories of Russian Life, translation by Fell, Scribner, 1915, reprinted, Books for Libraries Press, 1970. The Steppe, and questions for dissertation Other Stories, translation by Adeline Lister Kaye, F. A. Stokes, 1915, reprinted, Books for university essays Libraries Press, 1970. The House with the Mezzanine, and questions for dissertation Other Stories, translation by Koteliansky and Gilbert Cannan, Scribner, 1917. Essay? Rothschild's Fiddle, and Other Stories, Boni Liveright, 1917, reprinted, Books for aries Press, 1970. The Tales of questions for dissertation Chekhov, translation by Garnett, two volumes, Macmillan, 1917, reprinted, Ecco Press, 1984--.

Nine Humorous Tales, translation by Isaac Goldberg and Henry T. Schnittkind, Stratford, 1918, 2nd edition, revised, Books for Libraries Press, 1970. My Life, and dissertation defined Other Stories, translation by interviews, Koteliansky and Cannan, C. W. Daniel, 1920, reprinted, Books for Libraries Press, 1971. The Grasshopper and Other Stories, translation and introduction by A. E. Chamot, McKay, 1926, reprinted, Books for Libraries Press, 1972. The Shooting Party, translation by based thesis, Chamot, Stanley Paul, 1926, McKay, 1927, revised by Julian Symons, Deutsch, 1986. Select Tales of Tchehov, translation by Garnett, two volumes, Chatto Windus, 1927, reprinted, Barnes No7-68. Questions Interviews? Short Stories, translation by location based services, Garnett, introduction by Evelyn May Albright, Macmillan, 1928.

The Stories of questions for dissertation Anton Tchekov, edited and thesis development tool introduced by interviews, Robert N. Linscott, Modern Library, 1932, published as The Stories of Anton Chekhov, 1959. Tales From Tchekhov, translation by Garnett, Penguin, 1938. My Life, translation by E. R. Schimanskaya, Staples, 1943, reprinted, University Microfilms, 1975. Statement Development? Short Stories, translation by Chamot, Commodore Press, 1946. The Beggar, and Other Stories, selected by J. I. Rodale, illustrations by questions interviews, George W. Rickey, Story Classics, 1949. Selected Stories, translation by Garnett, Chatto Windus, 1953. The Woman in the Case, anher Stories, translation by speeches, April FitzLyon and Xyril Zinovieff, introduction by Andrew G. For Dissertation Interviews? Colin, Spearman Calder, 1953, British Book Centre (Newk), 1954. Short Novels and Stories, translation by university database, Ivy Litvinov, Foreign Languages Publishing House (Moscow), 1954. Peasants, and Other Stories, selection and preface by questions interviews, Edmund Wilson, Doubleday, 1956, reprinted, Franklin Library, 1982. Tales, State Press of Artistic Literature (Moscow), 1956. Three Years, translation by Rose Prokofieva, Foreign Languages Publishing House (Moscow), 1958.

Great Stories, translation by Garnett, edited and introduced by David H. Greene, Dell, 1959. Kashtanka (title means Little Chestnut), translation by Christ figure, Charles Dowsett, illustrations by William Stobbs, Oxford University Press (London), 1959, H. Z. Walck, 1961; translation by Richard Pevear, illustrations by for dissertation interviews, Barry Moser, Putnam (New York City), 1991; translation by Ronald Meyer, illustrations by Gennady Spirin, Harcourt Brace (San Diego, CA), 1995. St. Peter's Day, and Other Tales, translation and introduction by Frances H. Jones, Capricorn Books, 1959. Christ Figure? Wife for questions interviews Sale, translation by David Tutsev, J. Calder 1959. Early Stories, translation by dissertation, Nora Gottlieb, Bodley Head, 1960, Doubleday, 1961. Selected Stories, translation by Ann Dunnigan, foreword by Ernest J. Simmons, New American Library, 1960.

The Image of Chekhov: Forty Stories in the Order in Which They Were Written, translation and introduction by Robert Payne, Knopf, 1963. Selected Stories, translation and introduction by Jessie Coulson, Oxford University Press, 1963. Lady with Lapdog, and for dissertation interviews Other Stories, translation and introduction by David Magarshack, Penguin, 1964. Late-blooming Flowers, and Other Stories, translation by dissertation, I. C. Chertok and Jean Gardner, McGraw, 1964. The Thief, and Other Tales, translation by interviews, Ursula Smith, Vantage, 1964. Ward Six and hurricane katrina essay Other Stories, translation by interviews, Dunnigan, afterword by statement tool, Rufus W. Mathewson, New American Library, 1965. Shadows and Light: Nine Stories by Anton Chekhov, translated and selected by Miriam Morton, illustrations by Ann Grifalconi, Doubleday, 1968. Questions Interviews? Stories, translation by Chamot and Garnett, introduction by Arnold B. McMillin, illustrations by Christ figure, Mette Ivers, Heron Books (Geneva), 1969.

The Wolf and The Mutt, translation by Guy Daniels, wood engravings by Stefan Martin, McGraw, 1971. The Sinner from Toledo, and Other Stories, translation by Arnold Hinchliffe, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1972. Interviews? The Short Stories of Anton Chekhov, selection and introduction by Helen Muchnic, illustrations by location based thesis, Lajos Szalay, Cardavon Press, 1973. Seven Stories, translation and for dissertation interviews introduction by Ronald Hingley, Oxford University Press, 1974. Short Stories, translation and introduction by Elisaveta Fen, aquatints by Nigel Lambourne, Folio Society, 1974. Eleven Stories, translation and introduction by university essays, Hingley, Oxford University Press, 1975. Questions For Dissertation Interviews? Chuckle with Chekhov: A Selection of Comic Stories, selected. Letters of katrina essay conclusion Anton Chekhov to His Family and for dissertation Friends, translation by Garnett, Macmillan, 1920. Letters on the Short Story, the conclusion Drama, and Other Literary Topics, selected and questions edited by dissertation, Louis S. Friedland, Minton, Balch, 1924, reprinted, Dover, 1966. The Life and Letters of Anton Tchekhov, edited with translation by S. S. Koteliansky and Philip Tomlinson, G. Questions? H. Doran, 1925, B. Blom, 1965.

The Letters of Anton Pavlovitch Tchehov to Olga Leonardovna Knipper, edited with translation by persuasive speeches, Garnett, G. H. Doran, 1925, B. Blom, 1966. Selected Letters, edited with introduction by Lillian Hellman, translation by Sidonie K. Lederer, Farrar, Straus, 1955 and 1984. Letters of Anton Chekhov, translation by Michael Henry Heim and Simon Karlinsky with introduction, selection, and commentary by Karlinsky, Harper Row, 1973, publisas Anton Chekhov's Life and Thought: Selected Letters and Commentary, University of California Press, 1975. Letters of questions for dissertation Anton Chekhov, selected and edited by Avrahm Yarmolinsky, translation by Bernard Guilbert Guerney and Lynn Solotaroff, Viking, 1973. Dear Writer, Dear Actress: The Love Letters of Olga Knipper and Anton Chekhov, translated and edited by Jean Benedetti, Ecco Press (Hopewell, NJ), 1997. The Diary of Anton Tchehov, translated by S. S. Koteliansky and Katherine Mansfield, Atheneum, 1920. Note-book of Anton Chekhov, translated by Koteliansky and Leonard Woolf, B. W. Heubsch, 1921; published with Reminiscences of Anton Chekhov (see below). (With Maksim Gorky, Alexander Kuprin, and I. A. Bunin) The Note-books of Anton Tchekhov [with] Reminiscences of Tchekhov by Maksini Gorky (the former by Chekhov, the latter by Gorky, Kuprin, and Bunin), translation by persuasive speeches, Koteliansky and Woolf, Hogarth Press, 1921, reprinted, Folcroft Library Editions, 1973. Anton Tchekhov: Literary and Theatrical Reminiscences, translated and edited by Koteliansky, G. H. Doran, 1927.

The Personal Papers of Anton Chekhov, translation by Constance Garnett, introduction by questions for dissertation, Matthew Josephson, Lear, 1948. The Unknown Chekhov: Stories and Other Writings Hitherto Untranslated, translation and introduction by Yarmolinsky, Noonday Press, 1954, published as The Unknown Chekhov: Stories and Other Writings, Funk Wagnalls, 1968. Defined? The Island: A Journey to Sakhalin nfiction), translation by Luba and Michael Terpak, introduction by Robert Payne, Washington Square Press 1967. Questions For Dissertation Interviews? Monologues from Chekhov, translation by Mason W. University? Cartwright, Dramaline Publications (Toluca Lake, CA), 1991. The Plays of Tchehov, translation by Garnett, two volumes, Chatto Windus, 1922-23, reprinted, 1965- The Works of Anton Chekhov, one volume, W. J. Black, 1929, published as The Best Known Works of Anton Chekhov, Blue Ribbon Books, 1936, reprinted, Books for Libraries Press, 1972.

Plays and Stories, translation by questions, Koteliansky, Dent, 1937, Dutton, 1938, reprinted, with introduction by David Magarshack, Dutton, 1967. The Portable Chekhov, edited and introduced by Avrahm Yarmolinsky, Viking, 1947, reprinted, Penguin, 1978. Izbrannie proizvedeniya v trekh toniakh (title means Selected Works ), three volumes, [Moscow], 1964. Anton Chekhov--Plays and Stories, translation by Ann Dunnigan, International Collectors Library, 1965. Selected Works in Two Volumes, translation by thesis development tool, Ivy Litvinov, Progress, 1973. Chekhov, selected and translated by Patrick Mites and Harvey Pitcher, Abacus, 1984. Polnoe sobranie sochinenii i pisem A. P. Chekhova (title means Complete Works and Letters of questions interviews A. Abortion Speeches? P. Chekhov ), edited by S. D. Baiukhatyi and others, twenty volumes, [Moscow], 1944-51. The Oxford Chekhov, translated and edited by interviews, Ronald Hingley, Oxford University Press, nine volumes, 1964-75. Polnoe sobranie sochinenii i pisem A. P. Chekhova (title means Complete Works and Letters of A. P. Chekhov ), edited by N. F. Bel'chikov and others, thirty volumes, Gorky Institute of World Literature of the Christ figure U.S.S.R.

Academy of Sciences, 1974-83. A. Questions For Dissertation? F. Marx published an eleven-volume complete edition of persuasive abortion Chekhov's works from 1900 to 1903. Anton Pavlovich Chekhov, considered the father of the modern short story and of the modern play, was born, the third of six children, in questions interviews the Russian seaport town of Taganrog, near the Black Sea. Son of statement development a grocer and grandson of a serf who had bought his family's freedom before emancipation, Chekhov was well-acquainted with the realities of nineteenth- century lower-middle-class and peasant life, an acquaintance that was reflected objectively and unsentimentally in questions for dissertation his mature writings. Chekhov's father, Pavel, was a religious zealot and essays family tyrant who terrorized Anton and his two older brothers, Alexander and Nicolai. Although the questions for dissertation interviews three younger children recalled a much less terrifying figure in location based thesis Pavel, Chekhov remarked to Alexander in for dissertation an 1889 letter reprinted in Avrahm Yarmolinsky's Letters of Anton Chekhov , Despotism and lying mangled our childhood to such a degree that one feels queasy and fearful recalling it. Essays? The writer's mother, Yevgeniya, was an questions, excellent storyteller, and Chekhov is defined, supposed to for dissertation interviews, have acquired his own gift for narrative and to have learned to dissertation, read and questions write from her. At the age of eight he was sent to the local grammar school, where he proved an average pupil.

Rather reserved and undemonstrative, he nevertheless gained a reputation for satirical comments, for pranks, and for making up humorous nicknames for Christ figure his teachers. He enjoyed playing in amateur theatricals and often attended performances at the provincial theater. As an adolescent he tried his hand at writing short anecdotes, farcical or facetious stories, although he is also known to have written a serious long play at this time, Fatherless, which he later destroyed. The first real crisis in Chekhov's life occurred in 1875, when his father's business failed. For Dissertation? Threatened with imprisonment for university debt, Pavel left to for dissertation, find work in Moscow, where his two eldest sons were attending the university.

Yevgeniya, left behind with Anton and the younger children, soon lost her house to a local bureaucrat who had posed as a family friend. Dissertation? She and the children departed for Moscow in July, 1876, leaving Anton in Taganrog to care for himself and finish school. Questions? The episode provided him with a theme--the loss of a home to a conniving middle-class upstart--that was to appear later in the short story Tsvety zapozdalyie ( Late-blooming Flowers, 1882), and to mature in essay his last play, Vishnyovy Sad: Komediya v chetyryokh deystriyakh ( The Cherry Orchard: A Comedy in Four Acts, 1904). The family struggled financially while Pavel looked for questions for dissertation work, and Chekhov helped by selling off household goods and tutoring younger schoolboys in Christ figure Taganrog. In 1877 Pavel found a position in a clothing warehouse, and in for dissertation 1879 Chekhov passed his final exams and joined his family in Moscow, where he had obtained a scholarship to study medicine at Moscow University. Chekhov was first prompted to defined, write less by an urge toward artistic expression than by the immediate need to support his family. His earliest efforts at publication, after his move to Moscow, were directed at questions, the lowbrow comic magazines that flourished during this period of Christ figure political repression in Russia, when to speak directly and questions critically of the imperial government and its vast bureaucracy could doom a writer to the penal colony of Sakhalin Island in hurricane conclusion Siberia. But Chekhov, who was never politically motivated in his writings or committed in his personal views, was not in danger of provoking official ire.

Although he believed strongly in artistic freedom and scientific progress, politically speaking, revealed Ronald Hingley in A New Life of Anton Chekhov , he might as well have been living on the moon as in interviews Imperial Russia. Chekhov had read and enjoyed the comic weeklies since his schoolboy days, was under no illusions about defined their literary standards, and simply sought the income they provided. For Dissertation? His first published piece appeared in the St. Persuasive? Petersburg weekly Strekoza (Dragonfly) in March, 1880. Many more items followed during the next three years in similar journals and under various pseudonyms, the most common being Antosha Chekhonte, a nickname bestowed upon Chekhov some years before by his favorite grammar school teacher. In 1882 Chekhov met Nicolas Leykin, the owner and publisher of Oskolki (Fragments), the finest of the St. Petersburg comic weeklies, to questions for dissertation interviews, which he began submitting most of Christ figure his better work. Oskolki was distinguished from the general run of comic periodicals by the firmness of Leykin's editorial control and his friendly acquaintance with the St. Petersburg censor, which allowed Oskolki to be a bit more outspoken than its competitors. Leykin insisted on very short items, no more than two and one-half pages, with a consistently comic tone throughout.

While the questions for dissertation young writer resisted the uniformly comic requirements, the statement restrictions on length proved salutary to Chekhov, who was to become the first modern master of interviews a spare and economical prose style in fiction. The years 1883 to 1885 were very productive for Chekhov, who was in Christ figure desperate need of money; but in for dissertation the general litter of tired jokes and farcical trivia that came from his pen at this time, only a few stories stand out: Smert' chinovnika ( The Death of a Government Official, 1883), Tolsty i tonki ( Fat and hurricane essay conclusion Thin, 1883), Doch Al'biona ( The Daughter of Albion, 1883), Khameleon ( A Chameleon, 1884), Ustritsy ( Oysters, 1884), Strashnaya noch ( A Dreadful Night, 1884), Yeger' ( The Huntsman, 1885), Zloumyshlenniki ( The Malefactors, 1885), Neschastye ( The Misfortune, 1885), and Unter Prishibeyev ( Sergeant Prishibeyev, 1885). To these early writings of quality must be added Chekhov's only attempt at questions for dissertation, a novel, the serialized Drama na okhote ( The Shooting Party , 1884). Making their first appearance among these brief vignettes and jokes are the themes that predominate in Christ figure Chekhov's fiction: the obsequiousness and petty tyranny of government officials; the sufferings of the poor as well as their coarseness and vulgarity; the vagaries and unpredictability of feeling; the ironical misunderstandings, disillusionments, and cross- purposes that make up the human comedy in general. But Chekhov's art was also developing during the mid-1880s to embrace more serious themes-- starvation in Oysters, abandonment in The Huntsman, remorse in The Misfortune. Questions For Dissertation Interviews? The narrative began to identify more closely with a particular character's point of based services view and to show more atmosphere or mood by evoking through concrete details the emotions at work in a character's mind.

One of the earliest examples of what D. For Dissertation Interviews? S. Mirsky in his Modern Russian Literature essay labeled biography of dissertation defined a mood appears in questions for dissertation The Huntsman, which presents a roving peasant who refuses to go home with his wife because he prefers the freedom of a sporting life--as a shooter for the local landowner--and cohabitation with another woman. Here, as so often in Chekhov's mature stories, there is no real plot, no dramatic emotional flare-up, only a moment of confrontation which radically condenses the life histories of development both husband and wife. In this moment nothing changes in questions interviews their relationship or promises to change. Details of the database scene--the heat and stillness, the road stretched taut as a thong--reflect both the hopeless stagnation of the couple's marriage and the tension of this encounter. Chekhov's interest in more serious writing found its first outlet in questions for dissertation interviews the newspaper Petersburgskaya gazeta (The Petersburg Gazette), to dissertation, which, in 1885, he began sending stories that Leykin and other comic editors had rejected as unsuitably somber. Here Chekhov found no restrictions on length or tone. Soon after his first visit to St. Petersburg in questions for dissertation interviews December, 1885, he was invited to write for the most respected of the location city papers, Novoye vremya (New Times), owned and edited by the conservative anti-Semite Alexis Suvorin, who insisted that Chekhov now publish under his own name. Chekhov was not particularly bothered by Suvorin's political views. For Dissertation Interviews? Although the young writer was to receive harsh criticism from the left-wing intelligentsia for publishing with Suvorin, he was much more upset at having to abandon his pseudonym: still considering literature, even at this point, to essays, be second in importance to medicine, he had hoped to reserve the questions use of his real name for persuasive speeches future medical publications.

Besides medicine, my wife, he wrote Alexander in a letter printed in Yarmolinsky's collection, I have also literature--my mistress. By 1886, however, Chekhov was becoming a well-known writer in St. Questions Interviews? Petersburg. He had already published one collection of magazine stories in 1883 and another, Pestrye rasskazy (Motley Tales) , was to appear in May. According to Ernest J. Simmons in Chekhov: A Biography , a letter reached Chekhov in March from D. V. Grigorovich, the dean of Russian letters, praising Antosha Chekhonte 's work as showing real talent, which sets you in the front rank among writers in thesis statement the new generation. Questions? It was one of the dissertation few laudatory remarks on his writing by which the typically undemonstrative Chekhov seemed genuinely moved, and his appreciative reply to Grigorovich was uncharacteristically enthusiastic and questions for dissertation effusive. The years 1886 to 1887 were the most productive of Chekhov's career. Though he was still writing stories in an ironically comic vein, such as Roman s kontrabasom ( Romance With Double Bass, 1886), Mest ( Revenge, 1886), and Proizvedeniye iskusstva ( The Work of Art, 1886), his more serious plots were becoming attenuated almost to the point of stasis. In addition, while sounding a strong note of pathos, as in Van'ka ( Vanka, 1886), Chekhov maintained strict authorial detachment: Grisha ( Grisha, 1886), Ved'ma ( The Witch, 1886), Svyatoy Noch'yu ( Easter Night, 1886), Toska ( Heartache, 1886), Verochka ( Verochka, 1887), and Potseluy ( The Kiss, 1887) all demonstrate Chekhov's growing ability to render life from within the minds of his characters through the registration of significant details and to portray experience without preaching or attitudinizing. It was precisely for his refusal to pass judgment on even his most despicable characters--in stories like Anyuta ( Anyuta, 1886), Zhiteyskaya meloch ( A Trifle From Life, 1886), Vragi ( Enemies, 1887), and Tina ( Mire, 1886)--that Chekhov received his most negative criticism. Even his friend and country-house landlady, Mariya Kiselev, could not refrain from scolding him for rummaging in a dung heap, to which he replied, as Yarmolinsky's collection shows, in a manner thoroughly compatible with his medical training and outlook: To think that it is the essays database duty of for dissertation literature to pluck the pearl from the heap of villains is to deny literature itself.

Literature is called artistic when it depicts life as it actually is. A writer should be as objective as a chemist. As for trying to instruct his readers, which was the principle task of persuasive speeches any great writer according to contemporary critics of Russian culture, he later wrote to Suvorin in a letter printed by Yarmolinsky, You are confusing two concepts: the questions for dissertation interviews solution of a problem and the correct posing of a question . Only the second is obligatory for an artist. Granted Chekhov's strictures on statement development tool, authorial preaching, however, many stories from this period--for example, Vstrecha ( The Encounter, 1887), Nishchy ( The Beggar, 1887), Beda ( In Trouble, 1887), and Khoroshyie lyudi ( Excellent People, 1886)--show the unfortunate moralizing tendencies of Leo Tolstoy, who had by this time become an object of questions interviews admiration for the young writer. Despite the persuasive abortion general brightening of the Chekhov family's monetary prospects throughout the questions interviews 1880s, debts continued to mount, mostly due to the spendthrift habits of the hurricane katrina essay conclusion older brothers, Alexander and Nicolai, debts which Anton undertook to pay. At the same time his health had been deteriorating since December, 1884, when he had suffered his first episode of bloody sputum and painful lungs, symptoms of the tuberculosis that was eventually to kill him. Though a doctor himself, having received his medical degree in the summer previous to his first attack, Chekhov spent most of his remaining years denying that there was anything seriously wrong with him.

Nevertheless, by the summer of interviews 1887, debt, ill health, and the prodigious effort of statement development writing to interviews, keep pace with family expenses forced Chekhov to take a vacation trip to the Steppes and Christ figure eastern Ukraine, including a visit to questions for dissertation, Taganrog. The trip refreshed Chekhov's boyhood memories and persuasive provided material for his first publication in a serious literary, or so-called thick, journal, Severny vestnik (The Northern Herald), in questions for dissertation March, 1888. Step ( The Steppe ) tells the dissertation story of a nine-year-old boy's journey across the vast plains of southern Russia with his merchant uncle and a local priest. Considered too long, impressionistic, and questions plotless by the popular press, The Steppe marked Chekhov's entry into Christ figure, the ranks of the major Russian writers and the beginning of his artistic maturity. Later in 1888 he received the Pushkin Prize from the Division of Russian Language and Letters of the Academy of for dissertation Sciences for persuasive speeches his collection of stories, V sumerkakh ( In the Twilight ), published the previous year. Typically, he declared himself unimpressed. For Dissertation? This collection and later ones-- Rasskazy ( Tales , 1888), Detvora ( Children , 1889), and a collection whose title has been translated as Gloomy People (1890)--went through many editions.

Meanwhile, Chekhov had made his theatrical debut in the autumn of 1887 with the premiere of his four-act play, Ivanov, at the Korsh Theater in location based services Moscow. For Dissertation Interviews? He had written two earlier one-act plays, neither of which had been produced, and a very long, melodramatic, four-act potboiler, Platonov, which was neither produced nor published in his lifetime. In Ivanov, a middle-aged landowner beset by debts and weary of marriage seeks an affair with a neighbor's daughter while his Jewish wife, Sara, rejected by her family for marrying a Gentile, is dying of tuberculosis. The play marks a great advance over the histrionics and verbosity of Platonov but shows little of conclusion Chekhov's later experimentation with understatement, anticlimax, and for dissertation implied feeling. Audience and critical reaction was polarized: on Christ figure, the one hand, the play was very well made, so good, in fact, that Hingley in A New Life of Anton Chekhov deemed it superior to Chayka: Komediya Chetyryokh deystviyakh ( The Seagull: A Comedy in Four Acts ), Chekhov's first truly innovative contribution to modern drama. On the other hand, the playwright had refused to represent his hero's behavior in an unfavorable light and even showed the interviews only character who denounces Ivanov, Sara's doctor, Lvov, to be self-righteous and narrow-minded. This constituted another instance in which Chekhov's objectivity violated the canons of Russian literary taste.

From 1888 to 1890 Chekhov continued to write for the theater. In addition to a new but poorly received four-act play, Leshy ( The Wood Demon, 1889), he wrote four one-act farces, Medved' ( The Bear ), Predlozheniye ( The Proposal ), Tragic ( A Tragic Role ), and Svad'ba ( The Wedding ), all quite successful. On January 31, 1889, Ivanov opened its St. Petersburg run at the Alexandrine Theater to extremely favorable reviews. But Chekhov, bending under the strain of overseeing rehearsals, advising his producers, and dealing with the press, was becoming morose and irritated at his success. University Essays? He declared himself bored with Ivanov and for dissertation interviews contemptuous of theatrical people. In general, he was impatient with praise because it seldom matched his own highly critical self-estimation, while fame brought with it heightened public expectations and unsolicited advice. It also brought visitors, and even toward welcome visitors Chekhov often felt ambivalent. When alone with his family, as at his rented country house in Babkino or in summer residences at Luka in the Ukraine, he longed for company and the excitement of city life. But he quickly grew tired of Christ figure guests because they kept him away from his work. After 1888 Chekhov's fiction diminished in quantity but increased in for dissertation interviews quality.

He began trying to katrina conclusion, write longer stories without sacrificing conciseness. To the period from 1888 to questions for dissertation interviews, 1890 belong such prized works as Nepriyatnaya istoriya ( An Awkward Business, 1888), Krasavitsy ( The Beauties, 1888), Spat' khochetsya ( Sleepy, 1888), and hurricane katrina essay his two brilliant long stories, Imeniny ( The Name-Day Party, 1888) and Skuchnaya istoriya ( A Dreary Story, 1889). These two works, along with Sleepy and The Seizure, are among the finest instances of what Oliver Elton in Chekhov: The Taylorian Lecture called the questions interviews clinical study: stories drawing on Chekhov's medical expertise and depicting psychosomatic illness or the psychological effects of physical disease or distress. It was a form he had used in earlier stories such as Oysters and Tif ( Typhus, 1887) but had never before developed at such length or with such skill. Christ Figure? In The Name-Day Party a pregnant wife, hurt and infuriated by her husband's failure to share his professional concerns with her, must cope with the added pressures of questions for dissertation entertaining the dissertation defined guests at his name-day party. This superb study of the emotional effects of marital and social hypocrisy ends with a harrowing description of the wife's experience of miscarriage, which results from the day-long physical and mental strain. Interviews? Chekhov claimed that many of thesis development his female readers attested to the accuracy of questions for dissertation this story's description of labor pains, a description based on services thesis, his clinical observations. In A Dreary Story a dying medical professor, Nicolai Stepanovich, recounts at length his final months, his night fears and insomnia, his impatience with colleagues and weariness with family affairs. Alarmed by his own indifference to questions for dissertation interviews, his daughter's elopement with a scoundrel and vulgarian, he registers that indifference as a paralysis of the soul, a premature death, and discovers within himself only a bundle of peevish desires uninformed by any general idea, or the god of statement development a living man. When his ward, Katya, a disillusioned actress who has been seduced and questions for dissertation interviews betrayed and thesis statement who is beset by questions for dissertation, the advances of database a new unwanted suitor, begs for Nicolai's advice, he cannot reply, leaving her bitterly disappointed.

Having discovered the meaninglessness of life, the professor is now useless to the living. Scholars have drawn numerous parallels between Chekhov and his protagonist in A Dreary Story, particularly in the professor's pessimistic and cynical opinions on life, on questions interviews, the academic professions, and on thesis statement development tool, the theater, despite Chekhov's own vigorous disclaimers to Suvorin, recorded by questions interviews, Simon Karlinsky in Anton Chekhov's Life and Thought : If I present you with the professor's ideas, have confidence in me and don't look for Chekhovian ideas in them. In any case, the theme of life's meaninglessness recurs often in the writer's later work, along with a healthy skepticism--but never cynicism--toward the possible fulfillment of human hopes. It is dissertation defined, far from questions for dissertation interviews true that, as Lev Shestov maintained in Anton Tchekhov and Other Essays , Chekhov was doing only one thing in dissertation his writing, killing human hopes; but it is a rare occasion in his fictive universe when expectations of happiness--especially in matters of the interviews heart- -are fulfilled. At the same time, Chekhov strongly believed in scientific and location based thesis technological progress--slow though it might be in coming--and was a thoroughgoing pragmatist, like another character of his, Dr. Astrov, the questions for dissertation conservationist and physician in tool Dyadya Vanya: Stseny iz derevenskoy zhizni v chetyroykh deystviyakh ( Uncle Vanya: Scenes From Country Life in Four Acts ). The author believed in questions interviews doing one's best for today, letting tomorrow take care of itself, and remaining open to the joys of life, however vulnerable to Christ figure, subsequent disappointment such openness might leave one. Chekhov's least likeable characters are nearly always energetic and efficient but indifferent to deeper human feelings, or else so benumbed by suffering and privation as to have died emotionally, like the narrator of A Dreary Story or the for dissertation interviews Siberian ferryman, Semyon, of V ssylke ( In Exile, 1892). By early 1890, Chekhov's spirits were low.

His brother Nicolai had died the previous summer after a protracted bout of tuberculosis. In the autumn, The Wood Demon had been rejected by two theaters and had closed for good after three performances at a third. A projected novel had been abandoned after two years of intense work, and the liberal press was attacking him for his unprincipled writing. On top of everything else, Chekhov was bored. In April, after months of preparation, he set off to visit the eastern Siberian penal colony of Sakhalin Island to take a census of its inhabitants, interview its officials, and write a report on conditions there. Though he cited scientific, humanitarian, and literary reasons for his unusual decision, and a vague desire to pay off my debt to medicine, according to a letter printed by speeches, Yarmolinsky, Chekhov was motivated principally by the need for interviews a radical change of scene. The trip was arduous and hazardous, even for a healthy man: five thousand miles across the Siberian wilderness, three thousand by horse-drawn cart along the infamous trakt , the hurricane dirt road that spanned Siberia. Questions Interviews? On arrival, Chekhov observed and carefully recorded the misery of life on the five-hundred-mile-long island, conducting some 160 interviews a day.

In October he sailed for Christ figure Odessa by way of Vladivostok, Hong Kong, Singapore (which he found depressing), Ceylon (which he thought a paradise on questions for dissertation interviews, earth), and university essays database Port Said, arriving December 1. Questions Interviews? Once in defined Moscow, he joined his family in their new lodgings on Malaya Dmitrovka Street. Material based on his eastern journey later appeared in Gusev ( Gusev, 1890), In Exile (1892), and Ubiystvo ( Murder, 1895). From February to March of 1891, Chekhov worked on questions for dissertation interviews, Duel ( The Duel, 1891), a long story set in the Caucasus and hurricane katrina depicting the antagonism between a young, Bohemian romantic and idealist, Layevsky, and a cold-blooded, hard-working, ambitious zoologist, von Koren, who has fanatical convictions about the need to exterminate social drones like Layevsky. For Dissertation? Typically, their creator refuses to take sides in the dispute, although Layevsky reforms at the end. In March and April, Chekhov journeyed with Suvorin and his son to university essays, Italy and France, locales which appeared later in Rasskaz neizvestnovo cheloveka ( An Anonymous Story, 1893) and Ariadna ( Ariadne, 1895). That summer, he lived at Bogimovo in a mansion provided for the season by an admirer of his work. There he began a scholarly book, Ostrov Sakhalin ( Sakhalin Island ), finished The Duel, and wrote Baby ( Peasant Women, 1891). In September he returned to Moscow where he spent the winter working on An Anonymous Story, Zhena ( My Wife, 1892), and a work whose title is translated as The Butterfly (1892). In March, 1892, Chekhov and questions for dissertation his family moved to his newly purchased country estate at Melikhovo in Moscow District. Katrina Conclusion? Here they remained in residence until 1899, their longest--and happiest--stay in any one home. Interviews? Chekhov the Christ figure landowner was on questions for dissertation, good terms with the local peasants, treating their medical problems free of charge, paying for his own dispensary, financing and overseeing the building of schools, and organizing measures against the cholera epidemics of 1892 and 1893.

His experiences greatly influenced his depiction of peasant life in such mature works as Muzhiki ( Peasants, 1897) and V ovrage ( In the Ravine, 1900), the former of which caused a furor when first published because Chekhov refused to thesis, sentimentalize or idealize his peasants in the accepted manner of such promoters of unsophisticated wisdom as Tolstoy and Fyodor Dostoevsky. Questions For Dissertation? At one point, Peasants even reads like an indictment of the peasantry for its brutality, greed, and sordidness. While the essays narodniks , or peasant fanciers, of the liberal press excoriated Chekhov, the interviews Marxists praised the story for its realistic portrayal of class conditions. Dissatisfied, as ever, with staying in one location for hurricane katrina too long, Chekhov made frequent trips to Moscow, St. Questions Interviews? Petersburg, and the south of Russia. Everywhere he went he was welcomed, praised, and celebrated with parties, but he felt rather distant from it all and soon wearied of the social round. Based? At about this time Chekhov apparently took his first mistress, Lydia Yavorsky, an actress at Moscow's Korsh Theater.

It was not a passionate affair. Chekhov had always manifested a somewhat fastidious attitude toward sex, commensurate with his generally stolid or passive temperament, and seemed to believe that unrestrained sexual activity contributed to senility. As Hingley delicately put it in A New Life of questions for dissertation interviews Anton Chekhov , We are certainly entitled to deduce that he was somewhat undersexed. Chekhov's very brief engagement to his sister's Jewish friend, Dunya Efros, in January, 1886, is hurricane katrina essay conclusion, treated so lightly and ironically in his letters to his friend, Bilibin, as to lead Hingley in questions for dissertation interviews A New Life to regard it as a private joke. Other women figured in conclusion Chekhov's life during the early 1890s, including Lydia (Lika) Mizinov, another friend of questions his sister's whose intense love for him he reciprocated only as friendship, and Lydia Avilova, wife, mother, and university minor writer, who, at their first meeting, managed to interviews, convince herself that Chekhov felt toward her a passionate, undying love that was stifled only by guilt over university essays, her marital status.

Mizonov finally turned her attentions to questions for dissertation, Chekhov's friend, the Ukrainian writer Ignatius Potapenko, a married man; Chekhov used the affair as a model for the relationship between Trigorin, the writer, and hurricane essay conclusion Nina, the aspiring actress, in for dissertation interviews The Seagull, much to the chagrin of defined Mizinov and Potapenko. As for Avilova's allegations presented in her memoirs Chekhov in My Life , most modern scholars--with the exception of David Magarshack, who added an appendix to the 1970 reprint of Chekhov: A Life specifically to for dissertation, refute Ernest Simons's dismissal of Avilova's claims--see them as highly subjective interpretations unsubstantiated by hurricane katrina conclusion, corroborating evidence in Chekhov's notebooks and correspondence. Ward Number Six and a later story Moya zhizn ( My Life, 1896), the account of a young man who defies his architect father to for dissertation, work as a common laborer, mark Chekhov's final experiments with the Tolstoyan philosophy of university essays pacifistic resistance to evil. Tolstoy was still, however, a towering object of Chekhov's admiration because of questions his two great novels, War and katrina essay Peace and Anna Karenina , the latter of which had influenced Chekhov's writing of The Name-Day Party. In August, 1894, Chekhov visited Yasnaya Polyana, Tolstoy's family estate, and the two became good friends despite their divergent views on for dissertation, the role of literature and thesis statement tool the arts. Other outstanding works from Chekhov's Melikhovo period include a study of intellectual megalomania, Chorny monakh ( The Black Monk, 1894), Babye tsarstvo ( A Woman's Kingdom, 1894), Volodya bol'shoy i Volodya malen'ki ( The Two Volodyas, 1894), Tri goda ( Three Years, 1895), Ariadne (1895), Skripka Rotshil'da ( Rothschild's Fiddle, 1895), Na podvode ( In the Cart, 1897), Vrodnom uglu ( At Home, 1897), and for dissertation the so-called trilogy of stories--one whose title has been translated as A Hard Case (1898), Kryzhovnik ( Gooseberries, 1898), and tool O lyubvi ( Concerning Love, 1898)--each of questions for dissertation which is told by one narrator to Christ figure, characters who figure as narrators in the other two stories. All three stories focus on a failure to grasp the essential joys of life by not taking advantage of questions for dissertation opportunities that come only once in a lifetime, for fear of making a mistake. From October to November, 1895, Chekhov wrote The Seagull, a play that deliberately flouts the stage conventions of nineteenth-century theater: it has no starring role, its dramatic action declines rather than builds with each act, and it eschews dramatic crises and the direct representation of powerful feelings. Yarmolinsky's Letters records the playwright's own assessment of university essays his art in The Seagull : I began it forte and wound it up pianissimo --contrary to all the precepts of dramatic art.

As his first effort in a radically new form of dramatic composition, The Seagull reveals the full extent of Chekhov's originality. But the play is flawed by heavy-handed symbolism borrowed from the Norwegian dramatist Henrik Ibsen--the use of the dead seagull to represent hopes betrayed; and questions for dissertation interviews the work contains an Christ figure, ambivalence of for dissertation interviews tone that does not resolve itself, as it does in the later plays, into a perfect balance of opposites. While Donald Rayfield argued in persuasive abortion speeches A Chekhov Companion essay that the play is in many ways meant to for dissertation, be farcical, critics are generally undecided about how seriously to take its subtitle, A Comedy in Four Acts, since the work treats the ruin of defined a young woman's life and the suicide of the questions young man who once loved her. The Seagull 's premiere on October 17, 1896, at the Alexandrine Theater in university database St. Petersburg was a complete disaster, due as much to the circumstances in which the questions for dissertation play was produced as to dissertation, its originality. Besides being under-rehearsed, The Seagull was scheduled for questions the benefit night of a well-known comic actress, for whom there was no part in the play. Her assembled fans were displeased with what they felt was highbrow experimentation, and a riot ensued. Though later performances were well received, theater management decided to close the play after only five performances.

Chekhov was devastated and university swore never again to write plays. He was nevertheless devoting a great deal of effort to questions, revising The Wood Demon, the 1889 stage failure that eventually became the dissertation defined play Uncle Vanya. On the evening of March 22, 1897, Chekhov suffered a violent hemorrhage of the lungs while at dinner with Suvorin in Moscow. He was hospitalized for two weeks, during which time he suffered a second hemorrhage. He then had to questions for dissertation, acknowledge his illness. During the university essays ensuing summer at interviews, Melikhovo, he stopped writing completely, cut back on all his activities, and his health began to improve. For the winter of 1897 to 1898, Chekhov sought a climate favorable to his health, resuming his writing in Nice on the French Riviera.

In France at this time controversy was stirred by the Dreyfus affair, in which military officer Alfred Dreyfus was wrongly tried and imprisoned for thesis statement tool treason against France; Chekhov took an interest in the case, particularly after the publication of Emile Zola's J'accuse, a defense of the court-martialed Jewish lieutenant. Support for Dreyfus also earned Chekhov's partisanship, which led to a break with his friend Suvorin, whose Novoye vremya was publishing vehemently anti-Semitic attacks on the Dreyfusards. In Nice Chekhov was contacted by Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko, cofounder along with Constantin Stanislavsky of the new Moscow Art Theater, which was intended to stimulate public taste for the new drama. Nemirovich-Danchenko was ecstatic about The Seagull and persuaded Chekhov to for dissertation, let him produce it as part of the hurricane essay conclusion troupe's first season. From that point on, Chekhov's activities as a dramatist and questions for dissertation those of the Moscow Art Theater were intertwined. In September, 1898, on his way to winter in Yalta, Chekhov attended rehearsals of conclusion his play and was introduced to the members of the new theater troupe, including Olga Knipper, the for dissertation interviews actress who later became his wife. University? On December 17, 1898, the Moscow Art Theater performed The Seagull for the first time since its disastrous premiere. At the end of the first act, after a stunned silence, the audience exploded into for dissertation interviews, applause. At their insistence, a telegram was sent to Chekhov in Yalta to tell him of his success.

During Chekhov's stay in Yalta that winter he purchased land on which to build a new villa and bought a seaside cottage not far from the city. Based Services Thesis? His stories from this time, such as Novaya dacha ( New Villa, 1898), and for dissertation especially Po delam sluzhby ( On Official Business, 1898), show a growing awareness of the rift between the upper and lower classes and a new concern for social justice. It was at this time, perhaps not coincidentally, that he became friends with a young writer of social conscience, Maksim Gorky. In early 1899 Chekhov was elected an Honorary Academician of the Pushkin Section of katrina Belle Letters of the Academy of Sciences. Chekhov divided his time between Melikhovo and Moscow during the questions spring and summer of 1899, helping the Maly Theater in its preparations for the Moscow premiere of Uncle Vanya, which had been making the rounds of defined provincial theaters since its appearance two years before in questions for dissertation interviews Chekhov's collected plays. Except for its principal characters and central theme, Uncle Vanya is almost unrecognizable as a later version of The Wood Demon. The play focuses on the Voynitsky household, plunged into turmoil by the sudden appearance of the thesis statement development now nearly senile Professor Serebryakov, the intellectual brother-in-law for whose benefit Uncle Vanya Voynitsky, to manage the family estate, has sacrificed his adult life. In representing this situation Chekhov fulfilled the promise of The Seagull : he created a perfectly orchestrated tragicomedy of nuanced pauses, significant breakdowns and cross-purposes in conversation, elusively symbolic objects, and farcical violence, all pointing up the unrecoverable loss of a whole and questions meaningful life.

However, the play was much too ambiguous for the Theatrical and Literary Committee that administered the imperial theaters, of which the Maly was one. They voted to send Uncle Vanya back to its author for persuasive abortion cuts and questions for dissertation interviews changes. Chekhov took the opportunity to withdraw the based thesis play and interviews submit it to statement development tool, his new friends at the Moscow Art Theater, where it became the talk of the autumn season in Moscow after its first performance on October 26, 1899. From October to December, 1899, Chekhov worked on for dissertation, his last group of university essays database stories-- Na Svyatkakh ( At Christmas, 1899), In the Ravine (1900), and Dama s sobachkoy ( A Lady With a Pet Dog, 1889)--the last of which Virginia Llewellyn Smith, in Anton Chekhov and the Lady With a Dog , called a summary of the entire topic of Chekhov's attitude to women and to love. Meanwhile, he and Olga Knipper had begun exchanging letters after her short visit to Chekhov's Yalta villa the previous April, when the Moscow Art Theater had made a Crimean tour. Interviews? During the summer of 1900 the two became lovers, but only persuasive, after Olga first made a point of securing the friendship of Chekhov's sister, Mariya, and the good will of the questions Chekhov household. By August Olga was playfully cajoling the thesis writer in her letters from for dissertation interviews Moscow to marry her.

During October, 1900, Chekhov joined Olga in Moscow with the manuscript of The Three Sisters, to which he had devoted nearly all his energies since the new year. In The Hudson Review Howard Moss described The Three Sisters as the most musical of all of Chekhov's plays in construction, the one that depends most heavily on the repetition of motifs, and yet a play that is seemingly artless. Charles J. Rzepka declared in thesis statement tool his Modern Language Studies essay that The Three Sisters continually invokes a world of art larger than life while, like life itself, betraying no sense of . For Dissertation Interviews? a final cause or ultimate purpose. Katrina? The Three Sisters was also the most difficult play, as it turned out, for Chekhov to complete to his satisfaction, and he was still revising it on his arrival in Moscow. Ominously, the Art Theater actors and producers felt it to be unplayable. For Dissertation Interviews? Irritated, as much with Moscow in general as with the players, and feeling definitely uncomfortable with Olga's constant presence, Chekhov took a brief trip to St. Petersburg and then left for Nice; from there he sent back to Moscow revised versions of Acts III and IV and detailed stage directions for The Three Sisters. In general, Chekhov was unhappy with most of the Art Theater's productions of development his plays because of Stanislavsky's tendency to overplay and underscore scenes that Chekhov had conceived as exquisitely understated and indirect. This clash of interpretative styles became very clear during rehearsals for The Three Sisters, where the real tragedy appears not in such events as the killing of for dissertation interviews Irina's suitor, Tusenbach, by the ironical dandy, Solyoni, nor in the success of Natasha, the grasping and ruthless sister-in-law of the Prozoroffs, but in based the agonizing stultification of three lives that are finally smothered under the weight of everyday occurrences. When The Three Sisters premiered on January 21, 1901, response was lackluster, criticism lukewarm.

The public did not know how to receive the play. This news reached Chekhov as he was touring Italy. After he returned to Yalta in early 1901, Olga increasingly pressured Chekhov to marry her. For Dissertation? She did not want to spend time with him and his family in Yalta, living in his house and secretly joining him in his room at hurricane katrina essay, night. In May, Chekhov reluctantly agreed to matrimony and joined Olga in Moscow to exchange vows. His sister, Mariya, was bitterly hurt, even nauseated, by the event, but while her year-old relationship with Olga was temporarily strained, the two ultimately resumed a friendship that endured for for dissertation many years after Chekhov's death.

Contemporary accounts suggest that the marriage itself was something less than blissful. I. N. Statement Tool? Altshuller, Chekhov's Yalta doctor, felt the liaison was a disaster for Chekhov's health. Questions Interviews? Chekhov's friend, the writer I. A. Christ Figure? Bunin, was even more negative, seeing Olga's theatrical milieu as alien and threatening to her husband's peace of mind. Chekhov spent most of his time in the south while Olga performed with the Art Theater in Moscow or on tour, so the two lived as much apart as together. Olga would often write Chekhov from Moscow, describing wild cast parties and the amorous advances of fellow actors, apparently in order to excite jealousy in her rather passive husband. Chekhov, on his part, would frequently excuse himself from questions interviews joining her in Moscow or, when with her, contrive reasons to Christ figure, take brief journeys away from her. During the summer of questions for dissertation 1901, in university Yalta, Chekhov began coughing up blood once more, and his declining health prompted him to make his will. When he went to Moscow in September, he immersed himself in more rehearsals of The Three Sisters for the new season, personally producing Act III. On September 21 he saw it performed, and for for dissertation interviews perhaps the first time in his life felt perfectly satisfied with the interpretation of one of defined his plays.

He was applauded in two curtain calls after Act III. The following winter Chekhov's health worsened, but he continued to for dissertation interviews, write, sending Arkhiyerey ( The Bishop ) to Zhurnal dlya vsekh ( Journal for Everyone ) in February of 1902. Also that month Olga visited Chekhov in Yalta. Dissertation Defined? In March she had a miscarriage, and for the next four months her health fluctuated drastically. Questions For Dissertation? By July she had recovered sufficiently to allow a six-week holiday for dissertation defined her and for dissertation interviews Chekhov at Stanislavsky's family estate, Lyubimovka. These were perhaps the happiest few weeks of the university Chekhovs' married life: they enjoyed abundant food, drink, relaxation, good company, and, most important, good fishing.

But Chekhov left Lyubimovka in mid-August without providing his wife with a sufficient explanation for for dissertation his departure, and afterward he and Olga quarreled by letter for a month. In August, too, Chekhov, along with his friend and fellow academician, Vladimir Korolenko, resigned from the essays Academy of Sciences in interviews protest over the expulsion of Maksim Gorky, who had been elected the Christ figure previous February. Czar Nicolas II, discovering that Gorky had a police record and was under surveillance in questions connection with recent student unrest, had expressed his profound chagrin at the younger writer's appointment. Chekhov's resignation had little effect on the Academy, but did much to bolster Chekhov's reputation with the liberal intelligentsia. Back in Yalta over thesis tool, the winter, separated from questions for dissertation interviews Olga for five months, Chekhov worked on thesis statement tool, his last story, Nevesta ( A Marriageable Girl, 1903), and set about questions interviews writing the first draft of The Cherry Orchard, which he had been pondering for two years. He finished it in Christ figure October, 1902, and sent it to Moscow for rehearsal. By this time Chekhov's health had seriously worsened. For Dissertation Interviews? He was irritable and impatient with everyone and defined became furious at questions for dissertation, Stanislavsky's and Nemirovich-Danchenko's misinterpretations of katrina essay conclusion his new play. Unwilling to leave the play's production in their hands, he journeyed to Moscow against the advice of Dr.

Altshuller and threw himself into preparations and rehearsals for The Cherry Orchard, revising and editing as he went along. It was obvious that he and for dissertation Stanislavsky were working at cross- purposes once again. Chekhov had conceived the based services thesis play as a comedy, a farce, while Stanislavsky kept encumbering the for dissertation interviews staging with ponderous tragic nuance. Indeed, The Cherry Orchard represents the perfect embodiment of that exquisite balance of tragedy and farce with which Chekhov so skillfully imbued his mature plays. This portrait of the economic exploitation of the Ranevskaya family--doomed devotees of a humane and life-loving tradition--by the middle-class vulgarian Lopakhin conveys the major themes of Chekhov's career placed in unresolvable but organic tension: the intrinsic value of opening oneself up to the beauty of the world and the love of hurricane katrina essay conclusion others, and the foolishness of such openness in questions the face of the inevitable destruction of beauty and love. When it premiered on January 17, 1904, as part of a Jubilee Celebration of its author's twenty-five years as a writer, The Cherry Orchard was an immediate success. Later, back in Yalta, Chekhov was pleased by essays database, news of the play's successful opening in St. Petersburg on April 2, even though he remained convinced that the questions interviews company did not really understand the katrina essay play.

In May, quite near death, Chekhov left Russia on his doctor's orders for a spa at Badenweiler, Germany, taking Olga with him. Through most of June his health seemed to questions, improve, but on June 29 he suffered a heart attack. He recovered, only to suffer another attack the next day. In the Christ figure early morning hours of July 2, 1904, he awoke choking and delirious but had enough presence of mind to send for questions interviews a doctor. While awaiting the physician Olga prepared some crushed ice to place on her husband's chest, but Chekhov protested, You don't put ice on an empty heart. When the doctor arrived, Chekhov revealed, Ich sterbe (I am dying). Location? Taking a sip of champagne, which at questions interviews, that time was considered salutary for essay conclusion heart victims, he remarked that he hadn't drunk champagne for ages, then turned on his side and closed his eyes. Moments later he was dead. In an ironic twist that he might have appreciated, Chekhov's body, sent back to Russia in a refrigerator car, was enclosed in a box marked oysters.

Chekhov's influence on the modern short story and the modern play was immense. Among his innovations were his economical husbanding of for dissertation narrative resources, his concentration on character as mood rather than action, his impressionistic adoption of abortion speeches particular points of view, his dispensing with traditional plot, and, as Charles May declared in an essay collected in A Chekhov Companion , his use of atmosphere as an ambiguous mixture of both external details and psychic projection. For Dissertation? In all these regards Chekhov had an thesis, immediate and for dissertation interviews direct impact on such Western writers as James Joyce, Katherine Mansfield, and Sherwood Anderson; indirectly, most major authors of essay short stories in the twentieth century, including Katherine Anne Porter, Franz Kafka, Ernest Hemingway, Bernard Malamud, and Raymond Carver, are in his debt. With respect to questions for dissertation interviews, twentieth-century drama, few playwrights with so small an oeuvre have wielded such vast influence over the course of literary history. Persuasive? With Ibsen and Strindberg, Chekhov pioneered what Magarshack in Chekhov the Dramatist called the indirect action play: he used understatement and broken conversation, off-stage events and absent characters as catalysts of questions for dissertation tension, but retained a strict impression of realism. He went further than his contemporaries in his rejection of the classical Aristotelian plot- line, in which rising and falling action comprise an immediately recognizable climax, catastrophe, and university database denouement. For Dissertation? In Chekhov's mature plays, realism extended to the strict coincidence of stage time with real time, so that it was the elapsed time between acts, sometimes extending over months or years, that showed the changes taking place in characters.

Thus, as Martin Esslin pointed out in an essay appearing in A Chekhov Companion , the relentless forward pressure of the traditional dramatic form was replaced by a method of narration in services thesis which it was the discontinuity of the images that told the story, by implying what had happened in the gaps between episodes. At the same time, Chekhov's realism was not a simple transcription of life but a highly structured portrait subtly held together by complex networks of verbal imagery, repeated sounds and phrases, ambiguously suggestive or simply enigmatic props--all of which made up what has come to be known as the subtext of a Chekhov play. Among Western playwrights, George Bernard Shaw was the first to grasp Chekhov's intentions and techniques, and he modeled his own Heartbreak House (1919) on The Cherry Orchard. Interviews? Yet it was not until the thesis statement development mid- 1920s that Chekhov caught on with English audiences, becoming one of the trio of major dramatists regularly performed in British playhouses, along with Ibsen and Shakespeare. His influence on English playwrights other than Shaw, up to and including Harold Pinter, has been less direct, but no less powerful. In American drama the for dissertation interviews notion of persuasive abortion speeches subtext that Chekhov originated informs many of the questions for dissertation interviews works of Tennessee Williams, Arthur Miller, Clifford Odets, and dissertation defined William Inge.

Chekhov's methods also anticipate Bertolt Brecht's technique of for dissertation Vefreundungseffekt (estrangement) and Samuel Beckett's dramatic stasis and derealization; although Kenneth Rexroth's contention in university database Classics Revisited that Chekhov's is truly a theater of the absurd, may overstate the case, Richard Gilman nevertheless concurred with Rexroth in The Making of Modern Drama . Perhaps the most puzzling aspect of Chekhov's canon is the diversity of responses it excites. Early portraits of the interviews man and his work tended toward sentimentality: Gorky in Reminiscences of Anton Chekhov recalled the quiet, deep sigh of a pure and human heart, and Nina Andronikova Toumanova in Anton Chekhov: Voice of a Twilight Russia described a gentle soul . in dissertation defined desperate fear of interviews life, taking refuge in a queer world of silvery twilight and dark shadows. Dissertation? The modern portrait of Chekhov, while much more nuanced and complex, is also contradictory. Questions For Dissertation Interviews? In Chekhov: The Evolution of His Art , Donald Rayfield detected at least three different Chekhovs emerging from the critical canvas, optimist, pessimist, decadent, [and] scientific impressionist; in university an essay appearing in Chekhov: A Collection of for dissertation interviews Critical Essays , John Gassner sees two figures: on the one hand, an artist of half-lights, a laureate of well-marinated futility, and a master of hurricane katrina tragic sensibility, and on questions, the other, a paragon of breezy extroversion. Nearly all his commentators concur that Chekhov was a master ironist, but not all agree on just when he was being ironic. In The Cherry Orchard, for based services thesis instance, is the student Trofimov--buoyant, enthusiastic, and filled with hope about the progress of humanity--indeed Chekhov's spokesman, as Ruth Davies contended in The Great Books of for dissertation interviews Russia ? Or is he simply a queer bird, as the character Madame Ranevskaya tells him, someone whose talk, asserted Joseph Wood Krutch in Modern Drama: A Definition and an Estimate , like that of nearly all Chekhov's characters, will never be anything but talk? Does the cherry orchard itself symbolize, as Krutch insisted, the grace and thesis statement development tool beauty of the past which is being sacrificed because it has no utilitarian value? Or is questions for dissertation, it what Magarshack identified in university database Chekhov the Dramatist as a purely aesthetic symbol that expresses the destruction of beauty by questions, those who are utterly blind to it? These are the kinds of questions excited by the enigma that was Chekhov--lyricist and realist, comedian and tragedian, ironist and progressive. Defined? Perhaps, in the end, as Hingley suggested in A New Life of Anton Chekhov , Chekhov was himself that tantalizing phenomenon: a Chekhov character.

Aiken, Conrad, Collected Criticism, Oxford University Press, 1968. Avilova, Lydia, Chekhov in My Life: A Love Story, translation by for dissertation, David Magarshack, Greenwood Press, 1971. Bitsili, Petr M., Chekhov's Art: A Stylistic Analysis, translation by T. W. Clyman and E. J. Cruise, Ardis Press, 1983. Bruford, W. Speeches? H., Anton Chekhov, Yale University Press, 1957. Clyman, Toby W., editor, A Chekhov Companion, Greenwood Press, 1985. Davies, Ruth, The Great Books of Russia, University of Oklahoma Press, 1968. de Sherbinin, Julie W., Chekhov and Russian Religious Culture: The Poetics of the Marian Paradigm, Northwestern University Press, 1997. Elton, Oliver, Chekhov: The Taylorian Lecture, Clarendon Press, 1929. Erneljanow, Victor, editor, Chekhov: The Critical Heritage, Routledge Kegan Paul, 1981. Gilman, Richard, Chekhov's Plays: An Opening into Eternity, Yale University Press (New Haven, CT), 1995. Gilman, Richard, The Making of Modern Drama: A Study of Buchner, Ibsen, Strindberg, Chekhov, Pirandello, Brecht, Beckett, Handke, Farrar, Straus, 1974.

Gorky, Maksim, Alexander Kuprin, and interviews I. A. University Database? Bunin, Reminiscences of Anton Chekhov, translation by S. Questions For Dissertation Interviews? S. Koteliansky and Leonard Woolf, B. W. Huebsch, 1921. Hahn, Beverly, Chekhov: A Study of the Major Stories and Plays, Cambridge University Press, 1977. Hingley, Ronald, Chekhov: A Biographical and Critical Study, Oxford University Press, 1950. Hingley, Ronald, A New Life of Anton Chekhov, Knopf, 1976. Jackson, Robert Louis, editor, Chekhov: A Collection of Critical Essays, Prentice-Hall, 1967. Jackson, Robert Louis, editor, Reading Chekhov's Text, Northwestern University Press, 1993. Johnson, Ronald L., Anton Chekhov: A Study of the Short Fiction Twayne Publishers (New York City), 1993. Karlinsky, Simon, editor, Anton Chekhov's Life and Thought: Selected Letters and Commentary, translation by thesis, Karlinsky and Michael Henry Heim, University of California Press, 1975.

Krutch, Joseph Wood, Modernism in Modern Drama: A Definition and an Estimate, Cornell University Press, 1953. Lafitte, Sophie, Chekhov: 1860-1904, translation by M. Budberg and questions interviews G. Location Services Thesis? Latta, Angus Robertson, 1974. Magarshack, David, Chekhov: A Life, Greenwood Press, 1952, reprinted, 1970. Magarshack, David, Chekhov the Dramatist, Hill Wang, 1960. Magarshack, David, The Real Chekhov: An Introduction to Chekhov's Last Plays, Allen Unwin, 1972. Mirsky, D. S., Modern Russian Literature, Oxford University Press, 1925. Pitcher, Harvey, The Chekhov Play: A New Interpretation, Chatto aWindus, 1973.

Pritchett, V. S., Chekhov: A Spirit Set Free, Random House (New York City), 1988. Rayfield, Donald, Chekhov: The Evolution of His Art, Barnes e, 1975. Rayfield, Donald, The Cherry Orchard: Catastrophe and Comedy, Twayne Publishers, 1994. Rexroth, Kenneth, Classics Revisited, Quadrangle Books, 1968. Reference Guide to questions, Short Fiction, St.

James Press, 1994. Reference Guide to World Literature, second edition, St. James Press, 1995. Shestov, Lev, Anton Tchekhov and Other Essays, translation by S. S. Koteliansky and J. Tool? M. Murty, Maunsel, 1916, reprinted, University of Michigan Press, 1966. Simmons, Ernest J., Chekhov: A Biography, University of for dissertation interviews Chicago Press, 1962. Smith, Virginia Llewellyn, Anton Chekhov and the Lady With a Dog, Oxford University Press, 1973. Stowall, Peter, Literary Impressionism: James and Chekhov, University of development tool Georgia Press, 1980. Styan, J. L., Chekhov in questions for dissertation interviews Performance, Cambridge University Press, 1971. Toumanova, Nina Andronikova, Anton Chekhov: Voice of location Twilight Russia, Columbia University Press, 1937. Tulloch, John, Chekhov: A Structuralist Study, Macmillan, 1980.

Turkov, Andrei, Anton Chekhov and His Times, translated by Cynthia Carlile and Sharon McKee, University of Arkansas Press (Fayetteville, AR), 1995. Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism, Gale, Volume 3, 1980, Volume 10, 1983. Valency, Maurice, The Breaking String: The Plays of questions for dissertation interviews Anton Chekhov, Oxford University Press, 1966. Watson, Ian, Chekhov's Journey, Carroll and dissertation defined Graf (New York City), 1989. Williams, Lee J., Anton Chekhov, the Iconoclast, University of Scranton Press (Scranton, PA), 1989. Winner, Thomas G., Chekhov and His Prose, Holt, 1966. Woolf, Virginia, The Common Reader, Harcourt, 1948. Yarmolinsky, Avrahm, editor, Letters of Anton Chekhov, translation by questions for dissertation interviews, Bernard Guilbert Guerney and Lynn Solotaroff, Viking, 1973.

Zubarev, Vera, A Systems Approach to Literature: Mythopoetics of Chekhov's Four Major Plays, Greenwood Press (Westport, CT), 1997.

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essay in pediatrics Pediatrics and Pediatric Subspecialties. Pediatrics if the care of infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatric Nurses/Pediatricians are the doctors who take care of these patients. For Dissertation. Most children have the same pediatrician from the time they are born until they hit adulthood. A pediatrician requires years of schooling and training. You can further your education and choose to do one of the many pediatric subspecialties. There are plenty of opportunities when you become a pediatrician, especially if you take the time to certify in a subspecialty. Pediatricians jobs are very important considering all the dissertation defined years of schooling that come along with the profession.

To become a pediatrician, you must graduate from questions for dissertation medical school and hurricane conclusion complete three years of education in a pediatric residency program. The three-year residency includes mandated rotations in general pediatrics, normal newborn care, and time in a selected subspecialty are. It takes up to 3 more years of training to questions for dissertation, be certified in a subspecialty. (Becoming A Pediatrician) The annual salary for pediatricians can range from $140,000 to $202, 547. (Pediatrician Salary) A pediatrician is held responsible for caring for newborns up to the point that they reach adulthood. Christ Figure. Pediatricians make sure that a child is for dissertation, maturing into a healthy adult . It is the thesis job of the pediatrician to give proper care to questions for dissertation, their patients. One of the main ways that pediatricians are able to do this is by paying attention to the patients needs. Children are not able to speak up about the way they are feeling especially infants, so, pediatricians speak to the parents and evaluate the child's behavior and try to work out what is wrong.

Pediatricians have the knowledge to essay, treat major illnesses, but most patients they see on a daily basis have more minor illnesses. Questions Interviews. Pediatricians will treat issues of cold, fever, infections, and minor injuries. Speeches. A pediatrician also deals with giving patients routine immunizations that they are to for dissertation, receive. Pediatricians who deal with major illnesses or injuries on a daily basis usually specialize in a specific kind of university, condition, such as cardiology. These are called subspecialties. Pediatricians can also be licensed to conduct surgery and can work from for dissertation interviews 50 to 60 hours. (Becoming A Pediatrician) A pediatrician can also expect to work all hours of the day and night, most are always on call, so they must be ready to based thesis, work at all times, unless they are on vacation.

A pediatrician advises patients, parents or guardians and community members on concerning diets, activity, hygiene, and disease prevention. Questions For Dissertation Interviews. They collect, record, and maintain patient information, such as medical history, reports, and examination records. (pediatricians job description – part 1) Until the 19 th century, medical doctors were responsible for the treatment of adults, and the children were cared for by mothers and midwives. Also, before the 19 th century there were no subspecialties, most children had to do without or they were seen by an adult doctor. Christ Figure. Most doctors then did not know much about the differences in illnesses in children and in questions for dissertation interviews, adults. Based Thesis. An example would be walking pneumonia, this sickness occurs in children and can be deadly. For Dissertation. Adults and children had different illnesses with their age, and most doctors back then did not realize it. Pediatrics began in Europe in the Infants-Trouves in Paris in 1674. Infants-Trouves means Hospice for Found-Children, this was when people wanted to katrina conclusion, build separate institutions for ill children, mostly to avoid exposing them to adults. In the West, the first accepted pediatric hospital, which was called the Hospital for Sick Children, opened in Paris in questions for dissertation, June 1802. Persuasive Speeches. The hospital accepted patients up to the age of questions for dissertation interviews, fifteen years old.

The Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital [Enfants Malades means ill infants] was created in 1920 as an add on dissertation, to the Necker Hospital, which was founded in 1778 for adults. Questions For Dissertation Interviews. (History Of Pediatrics) In pediatrics, there are at least 20 subspecialties which include developmental/behavioral pediatricians, pediatric otolaryngology, pediatric neurology, pediatric ophthalmology, pediatric cardiology, pediatric endocrinology, pediatric rheumatology, and many more. (Types of Pediatric Specialist) Most subspecialties are usually referred if the patient needs further evaluation. Many of these pediatricians receive more extensive training in their area of thesis development, practice. In an effort to complete the care for the patient, pediatric specialist will work with other pediatric specialist, therapist, dietitians, and others who might be needed to complete their treatment and questions for dissertation interviews care. A person who is hurricane essay, interested in pursuing their training further and specializing in a subspecialty must achieve certification in general pediatrics and maintain the certification throughout their career. (Types of Pediatric specialist) Subspecialties were not always here for us, in fact, subspecialties are quite new. Most subspecialties were formed to broaden the range of knowledge on a certain field. Most pediatricians are not going to study every single subspecialty; it would take too much time. A specialty in medicine is a branch of medical science. After completing medical school, students usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a residency. Now, a pediatrician would get a degree in general pediatrics and then choose a subspecialty.

Furthering your education from a specialty to a subspecialty is narrowing your field of work. If your child has a developmental, learning, or behavioral problem, a developmental/behavioral pediatrician will be referred. They have the training and expertise to evaluate, counsel, and provide treatment for the patient. Interviews. They look at persuasive abortion speeches developmental delays/disabilities, attention and behavioral issues, school difficulties, habit disorders, and anxiety and stress management. They would treat learning disorders such as dyslexia, writing problems, and math disorders. Also, they would treat and diagnose attention and behavioral disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression. Developmental/behavioral problems also include delayed development in speech, language, and learning skills. The job of for dissertation interviews, this pediatrician can be very helpful to abortion speeches, both the parents and questions the children. (Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics Clinic) A pediatric doctor who specializes in location based services, diagnosing and treating the for dissertation ear, nose and throat disorders is an otolaryngologist.

The areas in this pediatrician would specialize in are allergies, facial plastic and reconstructive surgery, head and Christ figure neck, laryngology (throat), otology/neurotology (ears, balance, tinnitus), rhinology (nose), and sleep disorders. Some otolaryngologist will choose one of these eight areas. These pediatricians would treat things like hay fever, sore throat, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), swimmers ear, and little things such as the questions common nose bleed. An otolaryngologist will treat little things and major things, and in thesis, some cases may need to refer another pediatrician for the job. (What is an questions for dissertation interviews, Otolaryngologist) Pediatric neurology is a major subspecialty that specializes in the brain and nerves. Pediatric Neurologists have social training to diagnose and dissertation defined treat problems involving the questions for dissertation nervous system. Location Based Services Thesis. Some examples of these problems include seizure disorders, head injuries, brain tumors, weakness, muscular dystrophy, nerve muscle disorder, headaches and or migraines. There are different kinds of specialists in the field of pediatric neurology. Pediatric neurologists are physicians who work to diagnose and treat neurological problems in interviews, children. Pediatric neurosurgeons specialize in performing complex surgeries within the nervous systems of defined, children, which is a very dangerous job. (What is a Neurologist)

If your child has an eye problem such as having trouble seeing, reading, or learning, or needs surgery or medical treatment for an illness affecting the eyes, a pediatric ophthalmologist is usually the one referred. Questions Interviews. These specialists are concerned with eye diseases, visual development and vision care in children. Their treatments may involve prescribing medication and/or glasses, diagnosing visual disorders, caring for eye injuries, or performing eye and eye muscle surgery. Types of database, examinations they provide include vision testing, measuring eye position, examining the eye for abnormal structures, determines what type and strength glasses a child needs at any age. (Types of Pediatric Specialists) Pediatric cardiology specializes in questions interviews, diagnosing and treating disorders and database acquired heart diseases in questions interviews, children. Some pediatric cardiologists will diagnose and treat infants that are still in the womb. They may be required to work long hours and be on call much of the time.

It takes a minimum of dissertation, 12 years to for dissertation, become a pediatric cardiologist. Examples of conditions that would result in the referral to a pediatric cardiologist include murmurs, cardiac function, arrhythmia, cyanosis, syndromes, chest pain, dizziness, and development cardiomyopathy (heart muscle disease). They usually work in hospitals or universities but can own their own practice or work in questions, a clinic. Defined. For a successful career in Pediatric Cardiology, you have to care for children and have the ability to communicate with their families. For Dissertation. (Pediatric Cardiologist Job Description) If children have problems with growth, puberty, diabetes, or other disorders related to the hormones and the glands that produce them, a pediatric endocrinologist is the one to call. Problems that pediatric endocrinologist see are usually different from those seen by endocrinologist who treat adults. Database. Hormonal problems are often present for life and questions for dissertation require lifelong treatment. Pediatric endocrinologists deal with hormone disorders at all stages of childhood and adolescent years.

They diagnose, and treat hormonal disorders such as growth problems, early or delayed puberty, enlarged thyroid gland (goiter), diabetes, obesity, hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), and dissertation defined hypocalcemia (problems with Vitamin D). (Pediatric Subspecialties) Pediatric rheumatologists are pediatricians who have completed an additional 2-3 years of specialized training in pediatric rheumatology and are usually board-certified in questions for dissertation, pediatric rheumatology. These pediatricians specialize in providing care to persuasive, children with rheumatic diseases. A child may be referred to a pediatric rheumatologist for problems with joints, muscles, bones or tendons, arthritis, unexplained rash, anemia, autoimmune disease, fibromyalgia, growing pains, and for dissertation interviews osteoporosis. Defined. A pediatric rheumatologist works with a pediatrician or family physician to treat a variety of joint, muscle, and bone disorders. Pediatric rheumatologists have special interests in unexplained rash, fever, arthritis, anemia, weakness, weight loss, fatigue, muscle pain, autoimmune disease, and anorexia. They have skills in the evaluation of juvenile arthritis, spondylitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis, Sjogren's syndrome, vasculitis, cleroderma, sarcoidosis, Lyme disease, osteamyelitis, relapsing polychondritis, serum sickness, and fibromyalgia in questions for dissertation, children. (What Is A Pediatric Rheumatologist)

Pediatric nephrologist diagnose, treat, and manage issues affecting a child's kidney and urinary tract. They look at kidney problems such as kidney failure, inherited disease, and stones. Urinary tract issues like infections, bladder problems, or abnormalities in the patients urine are issues addressed. They also evaluate and thesis statement treat high blood pressure and problems with growth and development that are specific to chronic kidney disease. They provide a list of services such as dialysis, kidney transplantation, kidney biopsies, x-ray studies of the kidneys, and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. (Nephrology) A neonatologist is a “preemie” doctor. A neonatologist can assist with delivery of a premature child and with the child's care. Neonatologists usually care for an infant that has be born premature, with a low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation (slow growth while in the mothers womb), birth defects, sepsis (whole-body inflammatory state), pulmonary hyperplasia (incomplete development of the lungs), or birth asphyxias (inadequate supply of oxygen to the fetus). Neonatologist go through training as a pediatrician, 3 years of fellowship training in neonatology, and questions then become board-certified. Pediatric gastroenterologists have the thesis statement knowledge and interviews technical skills to diagnose and manage digestive, nutritional, and katrina liver disorders in infants, children, and adolescents. Patients can have many different different conditions including chronic diarrhea and questions for dissertation interviews malabsorption syndromes, feeding problems, and based services swallowing disorders, functional gastrointestinal disorders, gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic disease, motility disorders, acute and chronic inflammatory bowel disease, acute and chronic hepatitis, and inherited metabolic and immunological defects.

Some patients may have liver failure which would require them to have artificial liver support or liver transplant, others may have short bowel syndrome and intestinal failure requiring intravenous or tube feedings and small intestinal transplant. Pediatric Gastroenterologists have the ability to diagnose and questions for dissertation treat many of essay, these disorders complementing laboratory tests with many different types of endoscopic procedures. (What is Gastroenterology) A major subspecialty is Pediatric Critical Care Medicine. These doctors usually provide care for children with an unstable, critical condition. A hospital based pediatric critical care specialist can be called on to provide the special care that your child needs.

Some conditions that they might treat would be severe asthma, deep diabetic ketoacidosis (a problem that occurs in interviews, people with diabetes), or an overwhelming infection such as severe pneumonia, and serious injuries from accidents. A PCCS will go through three years of pediatric specialty residency training, and three or more years of fellowship training in pediatric critical care. They treat children from defined birth to teen years. They provide a diagnosis of children who have an unstable, life-threatening condition, provide thorough monitoring, medication, and treatment of children in a PICU. (What Is A Pediatric Critical Care Specialist?) A pediatrician that some do not hear about as often is a pediatric geneticists. Pediatric Geneticists diagnose, counsel, and treat familiese with many different problems including birth defects, conditions that cause disabilities, inborn errors of metabolism, and excessive tallness or dwarfism. Some birth defects include down syndrome, cleft palate, congenital infections and rubella -- which is caused by congenital infections. For Dissertation. Conditions that cause disabilities are fetal alcohol syndrome or sickle cell disease.

Pediatric Geneticists would treat these types of diseases and defects. To become a pediatric geneticists you would have to go through four years of essay, medical school, 2 years of residency training in pediatrics, 2 years of additional specialty training in questions interviews, medical genetics, become certified from the American Board of Pediatrics and get a certification from the persuasive abortion speeches American Board of Medical Genetics. They would treat children from birth to the time they reach adulthood, in some cases they would treat infants still in the womb. Their specialized training prepares them to give children the medical care they need. Those are some of the for dissertation interviews few major subspecialties in Pediatrics. Most pediatricians choose to major in a subspecialty, unless they want to own their own practice. Thesis. The pros of becoming a pediatrician are that they have many career options, flexible hours, and a high job satisfaction. Other pros are that they can work in questions for dissertation, most geographical locations, and persuasive abortion speeches there is an expected job growth of 22%.

Cons of becoming a pediatrician are that it requires at questions interviews least 6 years of schooling beyond an undergraduate degree. Development Tool. (Becoming A Pediatrician) Also, they have an endless exposure to blood and germs. Another is medical school can be very costly. The working conditions of a pediatrician may vary, but there are some aspects of the job that seem to be experienced by questions for dissertation interviews, the average pediatrician. Working conditions are usually nice an pleasant since you work indoors and in well lighted exam rooms and hospitals. The job of hurricane, a pediatrician can be very rewarding. Most enjoy helping others and especially children, but in some situations it can be heartbreaking.

If a pediatrician gets attached to a child or if the child is a family member and questions for dissertation interviews something happens it can be very heartbreaking. In some situations a pediatrician can refer another pediatrician for the job if the abortion speeches case is to overwhelming. Pursuing the career of questions for dissertation, a pediatrician can be tough, but in the end it is a great thing to do.