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The BELvue Museum and the malaise of Belgian history. Pangloss was inspired to write this article after hearing the names in essays, sad news from the web assign ncsu, Musee BELvue. For those readers who did not have the chance to visit, BELvue was a really nice little museum in Brussels which focused on names of articles in essays the history of Belgium. On 21 July, the museum announced a redesign of its permanent collection which “will approach Belgium and its history from a thematic point of in a view, starting with Belgian society today. Names! Visitors can learn more about our parliamentary constitutional monarchy, the why i an air officer essay, economy, social movements and the welfare state, Belgium as a European crossroad, migrations and also ideological, linguistic and religious tensions.” So, why should anyone be interested in this?

For Pangloss, this is important because it epitomises the current problem with Belgian history and the way that Belgians see their past. In order to understand the problem, it#8217;s important to know exactly what changed. In Essays! The BELvue museum was originally conceived as a way of educating the public about the history of Belgium and its monarchy. Using documents and the occasional object, it presented an why i essay, uncontroversial narrative account of the history of Belgium from the Revolution of of articles 1830 onwards. The monarchs played an important part in this, by cutting the chronology up into defined episodes. This certainly had its limitations. The resulting picture was not very nuanced and it struggled with periods of recent history where no consensus narratives exist.

In short, it was just like a school textbook made into a museum. The thematic approach might be more exciting than the previous chronological one, but the change takes something pretty fundamental for granted. Thinking thematically is about re-arranging facts into a particular order. And, in order for to become force officer this to happen, it is necessary to have those facts. Today it is unfashionable to argue, as Leopold von Ranke did, that history should be told ‘as it really was’ ( wie es eigentlich gewesen ). Clearly, there is a need for everyone to names of articles, understand the app essay suggestions, bare minimum of facts before they can do anything else with them. As a recent study demonstrated though, the average Belgian – even the average Belgian university student – knows practically nothing about Belgian history. The average tourist or expat probably knows even less. Of Articles In Essays! This state of affairs is depressing and has many causes. Partly it is a reaction against the rather unfashionable nationalist rhetoric that has traditionally pervaded the an air officer, kind of Belgian history shaped by writers such as Henri Pirenne; partly it is a reaction against national history in general and a function of the fact that History is no longer considered a particularly important subject in schools. Regardless, the basic fact is that the very few people who visit the new BELvue will have any idea about the contexts behind the narratives they’re hearing.

As a result, they will have no idea about how they fit together. In Essays! It’s a classic example of too much ambition: if the intention is to teach people about the Belgian past, then they should start from the basics. The website of the BELvue museum can be found here. Common App Essay! Like Tintin, Pangloss is a big fan of the flea-market ( brocante ) at the Place du Jeu-de-Balle at the foot of Brussels’ Palais de Justice. It was in the course of one such expedition a few months ago that the following correspondence came into his possession. The two postcards, part of a correspondence in 1913-14, provides a window, albeit a small one, into names of articles in essays what life was like for the early Belgian colonists. Postcard of 4th November 1913. So, the why i an air, postcards, what are they?

The correspondence we’re dealing with are two postcards sent by a Theo Rocheux (or possibly Theo Rocheu, the in essays, handwriting leaves something to be desired) to a friend in Brussels between November 1913 and January 1914. The friend in question, a certain Georges Hody of rue Caroly, Ixelles may well be the same Hody from Liege (1892-1955) who would briefly serve as a senator for the Parti Social Chretien in want to become officer essay the 1950s. Both postcards are sent from Elisabethville (today Lubumbashi) in of articles the south of the Belgian Congo. At the time the web assign ncsu, cards were written, Elisabethville was one of the few real towns in the Congo and already the centre of names Katanga’s emerging mining industry. By 1910, it had a population of 5,000. Paper! It is more than likely that the Rocheu, who, judging by the tone of names of articles in essays his greetings, must have been in writing for a scholarship his 20s or 30s, was employed in the same industry.

Judging by the tone of the names, first card, the writer had only recently arrived in the colony when he put pen to paper on 4th November 1913: The climate in Katanga is not too bad; life is not inhospitable. However, precautions are needed. Many whites fall victim to malarial fevers (malaria/haematuria/typhoid fever/dysentery, etc.) I am having a good time and, so far, have not felt the slightest depressive or feverish for paper the three months that I’ve been in the heart of in essays Africa! Time passes rapidly. We are in app essay the rainy season now and the weather is delicious. In this, the of articles in essays, Katangese climate is ideal. The evenings of the dry season are the why i to become force, most suave, the most comforting… The anxiety about health was not misplaced and reflected a very potent danger for these early colonists. Note also that idiom #8220;heart of in essays Africa#8221; ( coeur de l#8217;Afrique ) which pops up time and time again as a kind of exotic trope in Belgian colonial writing. Writing Letter Scholarship Application! The letter arrived in Brussels after about names in essays, a month and clearly met a receptive audience in the metropole. The writer’s enthusiasm for his new settings clearly touched a nerve and on 27th January 1914 he wrote back: To respond to web assign ncsu, your question, you must know that we do not forget our little nation [ petite patrie ] just because we find ourselves separated from in essays it by a few thousand leagues.

No – we think of it often; and paper, hope to of articles in essays, see it again one day [?]. So we love it above all. I must tell you however that I have no regrets to have left it – Belgium, that is – because I’m having a good time [here] in why i want to become force officer the heart of Africa. Names Of Articles! Was this typical of Belgian coloniaux ? Katanga was still a disputed territory at the time, after all, and a psychology paper, under constant threat of British annexation. But clearly the concern was much more basic. Exactly what made Belgian colonies ‘Belgian’ was clearly a concern and one, incidentally, shared in British and French empires. In Essays! Postcard of 27th January 1914.

So, these two postcards will not re-write our histories of colonialism but they are still interesting in in a paper their own right. It would be interesting to names in essays, know more of the dissertation articles, writers. Was the recipient the same Georges Hody, a soldier of the 26 e Ligne, who would be gravely wounded just months later in of articles in essays November 1914? There is also a more serious point to be made here too. How many people in the metropole, like Hody, would get their information about the colony from the letters and correspondence written by their friends and relatives there? What ideas, concerns and cliches did people like Rocheu provide them with? These are all good, historical questions. Web Assign Ncsu! “Standing on the Frontiers”, or on Belgians and Borders. Standing on names of articles in essays the frontiers. Dissertation! On the of articles in essays, flank of writing letter for a dark hills, There are the haughty soldiers. Who are always watching.

In this age of of articles in essays Schengen and free-movement, it is (still) sometimes easy to to become an air force officer, forget just how important borders have been historically. The historian Charles Maier has argued that the single thing that characterised all twentieth century history was ‘territoriality’, the names of articles in essays, preoccupation with ruling over a space bounded by defined borders. But how does this work in the Belgian context? For Belgium, the writing a psychology, idea of names of articles in essays a ‘frontier’ is quite problematic. There are no natural borders which divide the country from its neighbours. In fact, there is a certain ridiculousness in the fact that the why i want to become an air force officer essay, Schelt river – an ideal natural border between Belgium and the Netherlands – is still in names of articles Dutch hands, leaving the Netherlands with a small strip of territory on the Belgian side of the river with no visible land connection with the rest of the country. Want To Become Force Officer Essay! There’s also the continued anomaly of Baarle-Hertog, a Belgian exclave (or, more properly, a number of exclave s ) in the Netherlands. Because the current borders of Belgium are to some extent arbitrary, there has been no shortage of names of articles schemes to common app essay, expand. Names In Essays! Some, such as the additions of the ‘Eastern Cantons’ of Eupen-Malmedy in the aftermath of the First World War, have been successful. Many have not. Web Assign Ncsu! Early claims to Dutch Limburg were abandoned in 1839 as the price of international recognition after the revolution.

The same was true of Dutch Zeelandic Flanders, already mentioned above. A much longer-running campaign against Luxembourg, supported by Leopold II among others, only appears to have been dropped in the early 20 th century. In all of in essays this, what really stands out is that even nationalists saw Belgium’s borders as somehow temporary and in need of writing expansion. There is therefore something of paradox. On the one hand, nationalists saw the Belgium as a defined, historically-fixed entity, its inhabitants united by their shared #8216;Belgianness#8217; in an almost spiritual way. Names Of Articles In Essays! At the organizing articles, same time, however, they clearly considered its borders sufficiently arbitrary to be in need of enlargement. This paradox can be seen in names of articles the lyrics of Vers L’Avenir (“Towards the web assign ncsu, Future”), a nationalist song and something of a second national anthem before 1940, which celebrates Belgians#8217; historical connection to their country#8217;s current land but also the need to in essays, expand it further: Sacred land, land of the ancestors.

Through whose toil and blood it was shaped. Near or far, their pious children. Will honour and enlarge the nation! Your brothers are going, going in their thousands, Faithful guardians to protect your hearths. The implications of territorial enlargement were always unclear. Were the inhabitants of Eupen-Malmedy (or, for in a paper that matter, the Congo) really “Belgian” just because of where they found themselves living? Despite the usually flexible attitudes on the perimeters of nationality, the answer was usually ‘no’. In Eupen-Malmedy, perhaps unsurprising in light of post-war anti-German hostilty, inhabitants were treated with great suspicion until well after the Second World War. Names! But what of the writing letter for a, actual borders themselves?

The very existence of a physical border can serve to consolidate mental ones. It is certainly true that different traits were read into different sides of the border. The 2010 film Rien a Declarer (“Nothing to Declare”) explores this idea, however improbably, by basing a comedy on border guards at the Franco-Belgian frontier in the months leading up to Schengen and names in essays, free movement. The two protagonists, a Belgian and French border-guard, epitomise the difference in in a mentality between the two countries to such an extent that they can barely work together. Names! Yes, it’s exaggerated for comic effect but its depiction of the border as a mental interface between different world-views is certainly valid. So, what has Schengen done for Belgium? I’m not sure we know yet.

Certainly, by changing borders from sealed entities to symbolic lines, Schengen has resolved many of app essay suggestions Belgium’s anxieties over territoriality. Can it survive indefinitely? Despite recent developments, personally, Pangloss cannot see an alternative. Borders are so much less important mentally than they were even twenty years ago that it is difficult to see a border as porous as that of Belgium and France or the names of articles in essays, Netherlands ever being re-sealed altogether. If territoriality really is the key to understanding European history in the twentieth century, re-imposition would condemn all Europe to returning to same vicious issues all over again. Let’s not do that. Today we will look at a pivotal event in the history of the Belgian Congo’s transition to independence which can also tell us something about a very particular moment in Belgium’s political history in the 1950s. In December 1955, the academic A. A. Writing A Psychology Paper! J. Van Bilsen published his thoughts about the future of the of articles in essays, Congo in writing De Gids , the newspaper of the progressive Catholic Algemeen Christelijk Werknemersverbond . The argument was not a particularly radical one as, indeed, its choice of publication would suggest. Van Bilsen’s thesis was fairly simple: colonial policy in the Congo should endeavor to bolster the Congo’s “evolue” elite with a view to preparing the names of articles in essays, Congo for autonomy within a period of, say, thirty years or so. In A! By 1985, the in essays, Congo would be ready to join Belgium in a common ‘union’ or federation of independent states, similar to the British Commonwealth, for mutual commercial and cultural benefit. In February 1956, the text – entitled ‘A Thirty Year Plan for the Political Emancipation of Belgian Africa’ – was printed in French in the Dossiers de l’Action sociale Catholique and caused a sensation in both Belgium and the Congo.

A copy of the original document as published in 1956. In Belgium, the proposals chimed to some extent with the prevailing mood. In 1954, Achille Van Acker returned to power in Belgium at the head of for a scholarship a “purple” (Socialist-Liberal) coalition. In Essays! Today, his government is chiefly remembered for beginning a new protracted war with the Right over the role of religion in education but at the time it represented something more. Coming just a few years after the 1950 Royal Question crisis and the clash between left and right wings, the Van Acker government was the first progressive administration since the war that did not have the shadow of Leopold III#8217;s return hanging over it. Thesis Paper! This, coupled with the exhaustion of the hard-right Catholics, meant that a period of names surprising ‘small-l’ liberalism reigned in Belgium. It was also a time when Belgium could look beyond its own political infighting at something bigger. App Essay! In 1955, Belgium returned to the UN Security Council as a Non-Permanent Member; a position which it would hold for two years and would not regain for names of articles almost 20. That same year too, King Baudouin embarked on a highly-publicised and symbolic official tour of the colony. The mid-1950s were also an auspicious time on the world stage for new ideas about the future of colonial empires. By 1954, the protracted French war in Indochina had ended with the recognition of Vietnamese independence, following the common app essay, independence of Indonesia from the Netherlands a few years earlier.

The same year too, nationalist violence flared up in French Algeria and, in 1955, the Bandung Conference which brought together ex-colonial states for the first time took place. These are, of course, a cherry-picked sample of events but they do illustrate that a new ethos – one less certain about the future of colonial empires in Africa – was already emerging. Within two years of Van Bilsen’s initial publication, both Sudan and Ghana would become formally independent of their former colonial powers and exemplars to anticolonial nationalists across Africa. What the Congo shall be in thirty years will be the result of what we do between now and 1960 or 1965. If we want it [the plan], within a generation, our African territories will be ready to take in hand the responsibility for their own destinies. It is our duty, and in our interest, to provide it. —A. In Essays! A. J. Van Bilsen, Un Plan de Trente Ans pour l#8217;Emancipation politique de l#8217;Afrique Belge (n.p., 1956), p. 9. In this context, Van Bilsen’s ideas could not fail to elicit public debate. It had soon reached the Congo where it was much discussed and a number of ‘countermanifestoes’ appeared in the Congolese press soon after.

Most notable of these, of dissertation course, was Joseph Kasa-Vubu’s in the Conscience Africaine newspaper which seized on Van Bilsen’s admission of the inevitability of independence but rejected the names in essays, proposed delay in realising it. Kasa-Vubu, it should be remembered, would become the first President of the independent Congo. The Van Bilsen plan may not have triggered the emergence of Congolese nationalism but it clearly shaped its course. Of course, it cannot be denied that the Van Bilsen plan was a failure. It was not, after all, 1985 that saw Congolese independence but 1960 – something which can be partly attributed to the frightening growth of radical nationalism in the Congo after 1959 and web assign ncsu, a geopolitical climate beyond Belgium’s (or the Congo’s) control. It is not worth speculations about whether the Congo might be better off today had this been the case. In Essays! Nonetheless, the why i to become officer, Van Bilsen plan fits into this story and we should not reject its importance. It put the issue of colonial reform on of articles in essays the agenda and 1957 saw the colony’s first ever elections (albeit only municipal ones) in cities across the Congo. It was an attempt – and a prescient, influential one – to think differently about a subject that no-one had seriously considered before and whose importance would rapidly become apparent.

Its ultimate failure should not detract from this. A Cover Scholarship Application! Salamander (2012), or what Belgians really think of their State. Following our recent trend of looking at names contemporary Belgian history, this week Pangloss will talk about the letter for a application, excellent 2012 television series Salamander or, more specifically, what it tells us about the culture of modern Belgium. For those who haven’t come across the series before, you should watch it. Amid the current vogue for ‘Scandi noir’ (i.e. gritty Swedish or Danish crime drama) in Britain, Salamander represents an attempt by the Belgian film industry to ‘go global’. And Flanders, it seems, is names of articles in essays sufficiently Nordic to pull it off.

Now, the plot is as complex as the 12-episode series would lead you to believe it has everything from murder and blackmail to ‘dark’ wartime secrets and political cabals. If you don’t want spoilers, look away now. We’ll try to organizing, keep it simple: The film begins with a carefully orchestrated break-in at an exclusive private bank in Brussels. The robbers specifically target a number of vaults containing compromising material on key Belgian public figures and begin to blackmail them one-by-one. The chain works upwards from generals to the Minister of the Interior and the Prince royal . Names! The series’ hero, Paul Gerardi of the Brussels Federal Police (yes, you read that correctly – ‘hero’ and #8216;federal police#8217;) begins to investigate. He is soon pulled off the case by a Public Prosecutor who is in league with an writing letter for a scholarship application, elite secret society, or cabal, known as the ‘Salamander’. Geradi is initially pursued by both the police and the thieves, but continues his investigation.

He is eventually co-opted by Salamander into the state’s secret “P9” security agency as he tries to names of articles in essays, catch the burglars and they try neutralise whoever is trying to blackmail their members. A Psychology! Eventually surprise it is discovered that the robbers are led by a man who is attempting to names, bring down the Salamander group. His reasons for doing this are complex: a relative was betrayed to the Nazis by a relative of the private bank’s owner during the German occupation and that the private bank has been established on the proceeds gained from this act of treason. Meanwhile, though, Belgium is about to collapse under the weight of recurrent political suicides and barely-concealed scandals in its establishment. The ending? You#8217;ll have to watch it. #8216;So,#8217; Pangloss hears you ask, #8216;what is the point of all this?#8217; If there is one important theme that runs throughout the entire series, that is a total distrust of the writing a cover letter scholarship application, state. In Salamander , this makes total sense – the state institutions, from the King downwards, run for the benefit of the coterie which control them. The Public Prosecutor does not serve justice but a political cabal of notables who care only for themselves. As such, even murder and child abuse can be covered up without any apparent difficulty.

Gerardi himself is an names of articles in essays, interesting example too because, although clearly the ‘good guy’ of the series, he is practically as corrupt as the rest. Web Assign Ncsu! It is mentioned that he himself covered up police abuses. The virtuous things he does are not done through official state channels either; what he does discover, he achieves despite the police not because of them. Of course, the small-guy-against-the-world plot device is common in American films and perhaps ties to of articles, ideas of individualism and libertarianism. What stands out in Salamander , however, is both the Machiavellian complexity of the common app essay suggestions, conspiracy and the total control it has over the state and its agents. There is also a strong emphasis on the politics of patronage. It is no secret that much in Belgium works on personal introductions and contacts and it is certainly not unique in this regard. Names In Essays! Salamander, as an organisation, merely represents an institutionalisation of this, turning networking into cabal. Thesis In A! Even as he investigates the crime and hides from names of articles his enemies, Gerardi himself works almost exclusively through his own network of personal associates and contacts. Granted it#8217;s only a fictional construct, but the picture it paints of web assign ncsu Belgian society is quite a coherent one. #8220;It#8217;s the story of names of articles one man, one cop, against the establishment,#8221; says its [ Salamander ’s] director, Frank Van Mechelen. #8220;It#8217;s a very big story, a political story, but we tell it through human drama,#8221; added Hulselmans.

Both of writing letter application these ideas fit neatly into the two ‘distinguishing features’ of Belgian political life identified by names of articles the late historian Tony Judt in his excellent 1999 article ‘Is there a Belgium?’. Judt himself distinguished (i) a ‘pervasive system of patronage’ and application, (ii) the absence of a ‘notion of an in essays, autonomous, dispassionate, neutral state’ as a product of writing a psychology it. Names Of Articles In Essays! Whether he is a cover letter application correct about the reality of Belgian political life or merely its popular perception , Judt’s argument is very powerful. More interesting however is that although Judt was writing at the apogee of Belgium’s ‘period of scandals’ between c. Names Of Articles In Essays! 1990-2005, the writers of web assign ncsu Salamander over a decade later shared exactly his frame of reference. Allusions to state-sanctioned terrorism in the 1980s, child abuse, and scandals in the palace, in all likelihood, are a reference to events of the period. Salamander is thus an object lesson in the continued legacy of the scandals of the 1990s and their internalisation by the Belgian public. It is names also support to Judt’s argument about a gulf – in organizing articles aims and aspirations between the state and the people in names of articles modern Belgium. But at the same time, does it really reflect the reality or is it just a pastiche of it? Pangloss is a psychology paper not convinced. But there is something interesting here too – if Belgians really distrust the very idea of a ‘state’, why are they so keen to tinker with it rather than reform its apparently-rotten core?

Pangloss has no answer, so he’ll just have to watch more TV in the meantime… “Being Brel-gian”? Jacques Brel and names of articles in essays, #8220;Les Flamandes#8221; (1958) Few people are as quintessentially Belgian as the singer Jacques Brel. The resemblance between his surname and the French word Belge (#8220;Belgian#8221;) has not gone without mention. Anyway, having recently stumbled across his songs, this time as a historian, Pangloss was anxious to see what academia and writing letter for a scholarship, the internet could offer in of articles terms of telling us what Brel’s songs can tell us about Belgian history in the 1960s and 1970s. Jacques Brel: was he really a racist who hated the Flemish or just a satirist? The result was, to put it mildly, very disappointing. The Independent newspaper, for example, offers us a picture of Brel-as-racist. It argues that he harboured rather nasty political ideas, especially “revealed” in his song “Les Flamandes” (The Flemish Women) which “depicts Flemish women as immodest, coarse and full-figured”. Common App Essay Suggestions! Pangloss was intrigued. Moving away from the British gutter press into the ivory tower, Pangloss found the book Georges Brassens and Jacques Brel: Personal and Social Narratives in Post-War Chanson (2005) which, curiously, offers an equally bizarre take on Brel’s politics.

This was fascinating, for a number of reasons – not least because the writer clearly does not have the first idea about Belgian politics, history or culture. But again, the song “Les Flamandes” is highlighted – though this time as evidence of misogyny and as an attack on the “ embourgeoisement ” of the Flemish. So, let’s look at the actual song and make the names of articles in essays, judgment for ourselves. Common App Essay Suggestions! Anyway, “Les Flamandes” – the song that caused all the in essays, confusion – was first written and performed in 1958 – a period when linguistic tensions in Belgium were beginning to warm up. Organizing Articles! But before we get into names of articles the context too much, have a quick look at the lyrics for one verse: Les Flamandes dansent sans rien dire. Sans rien dire aux dimanches sonnants. Les Flamandes dansent sans rien dire. An Air Force Essay! Les Flamandes ca n#8217;est pas causant.

Si elles dansent, c#8217;est parce qu#8217;elles ont vingt ans. Of Articles! Et qu#8217;a vingt ans il faut se fiancer. Se fiancer pour pouvoir se marier. To Become An Air Force Essay! Et se marier pour avoir des enfants. C#8217;est ce que leur ont dit leurs parents. Le bedeau et meme son Eminence. L#8217;Archipretre qui preche au couvent. Et c#8217;est pour ca, et c#8217;est pour ca qu#8217;elles dansent. Les Flamandes, les Flamandes, Les Fla, les Fla, les Flamandes. The Flemish girls dance without saying a thing, Without saying a thing as the bells ring on Sundays, The Flemish girls dance without saying a thing,

The Flemish girls, they’re not chatty. If they’re dancing, it’s because they are twenty; And at names of articles in essays twenty, they must get engaged; Engaged, to get married. And get married, to have children! That’s what their parents tell them, The verger, and even the Cardinal, The Archpriest who preaches at the Convent. And that’s why, that’s why they dance. The Flemish girls, the Flemish girls, The Flem…The Flem… The Flemish girls. One noticeable omission is anything about the “immodest, coarse and full-figured” Flemish women which The Independent got so hot under the collar about.

In fact, the reverse is common true. The song clearly, perhaps rather crudely, describes how all Flemish women are actually under the thumb of their society – the Church and the Family looking large. Indeed, leaving Brel on names in essays one side for organizing dissertation articles a minute, the stereotype of Flemish society presented by “Les Flamandes” is far from unique. In Essays! 19 th , and to writing, a lesser extent 20 th , century Europe was a continent divided between church and anti-church factions; between clericals and anti-clericals. The Rerum Novarum encyclical of 1883, which brought the Catholic Church into the lives of the poor and the working classes for the first time in names in essays centuries, sharpened this divide by explicitly impinging on the Socialists’ territory. Frustrated at the impasse, especially in Flanders where the church kept Socialism out, the Socialists enthusiastically adopted the anticlericalism which liberals had espoused for generations. After all, Karl Marx himself had described Belgium as the “snug, well-hedged, little paradise of the landlord, the capitalist, and the priest” as early as 1869. For the embattled socialists and liberals of writing a psychology Brel#8217;s day, fighting off the religious rhetoric of the Flemish Movement (#8220;All for Flanders, Flanders for Christ#8221;) and the all-encompassing centre-right Christian Social Party ( Christelijke Volkspartij , or PSC-CVP ) , the in essays, Church could hardly be considered apolitical or beyond satire. Indeed, the nascent Walloon Movement would go to writing application, great effort to emphasise its own anticlericalism partly to distinguish itself from its Flemish counterparts.

All of which is just a long-winded way of saying this: “Les Flamandes” is not some racist or misogynistic vendetta, but a classic anticlerical attack on Flemish right-wing conservatism. When he describes the names in essays, Flemish women who do exactly what the priests tell them, Brel is not criticising the writing for a application, Flemish women per se (as those without knowledge of the context might assume) but those whom he believed “controlled” them – namely, the in essays, Church and, to a lesser extent, local social conservativism. Seen as a metaphor, the idea of Flanders (literally) dancing to the Catholic Church#8217;s tune is much more understandable. And quite humorous? This blog mostly deals with History, but today Pangloss thinks it is thesis paper important to of articles, address a matter of thesis paper current affairs. Following the names of articles in essays, tragic attacks in Paris on Friday, evidence is emerging that they may have been planned or organised by Belgian terrorists. Unfortunately this would be hardly surprising; as recently as January, the German newspaper Der Spiegel was asking what it termed “the Belgium Question”: “why is a small country producing so many jihadists?” It’s a fair question too. Why I Want An Air Force Officer Essay! In the last few years alone, we have seen terrorist attacks on Belgian soil, gun battles in the streets of of articles provincial towns, and an exodus of more than 500 volunteers to Syria.

This article will not attempt to produce an common, answer, but it does aim to present a picture free of the kind of ideological (often nakedly racist) material which covers the names of articles, Internet. Firstly, we need to look at Belgium’s Muslim community in some detail. Common! There are thought to be about 650,000 Muslims in of articles in essays Belgium today, a figure representing something like six percent of the national population. The vast majority are of Moroccan or Turkish origin (70 and 20 percent respectively) and arrived in the country during the an air officer, 1960s and 1970s when the need for cheap labour in industry meant that immigration was relatively easy. By the time the guest-worker programme was revoked in 1974, the names of articles in essays, community was more or less established. Like most immigrant groups in Belgian history, the Muslim community is almost entirely urbanised: something like half the total reside in Brussels, particularly in organizing articles the poorer regions of Molenbeek and Anderlecht. Like most immigrant groups too, it has a high birth-rate and is growing pretty fast. Now, it must be said that Moroccans and Turks are not exactly natural jihadists in of articles waiting.

Morocco’s king is a champion of moderate (if slightly self-serving) Islamic doctrines and the nation as a whole is why i want to become an air force officer essay held up as the model of a stable Muslim state. Turkey too, despite the best efforts of the Erdogan government, is not a hive of latent Jihadist sentiment; religious extremism is fundamentally seen as conservative rather than revolutionary. Of Articles! So what went wrong in app essay Belgium, a country so committed to in essays, the fight against international terrorism of all sorts? Well, the first is a European matter. Whatever face Belgium may present the world, Belgians are still staunchly conservative.

As a result, a sizable number of Muslims (rightly or wrongly) feel rejected by Belgian society at large. Want To Become An Air Essay! This is not helped by the (highly visible) actions of names Vlaams Belang and why i want an air essay, their ilk who, even if they have now virtually disappeared from in essays Belgian political life, have made the life of paper immigrants very difficult for the last decade or more. Names! The 2009 ban on the wearing of the Burqa (full veil) is in a paper interpreted within the same context. There’s also the demographic issue which has nothing to do with race or religion: a large number of Belgian Muslims are young, poor and angry – they see themselves as the victims of discrimination and home, yet also isolated within their own community. The Israel-Palestine conflict is of articles also an important motivator and, among other things, has contributed to a sharp rise in antisemitism in recent years – another important problem in Belgium today. Thesis In A Paper! La Libre #8216;s excellent DuBus cartoon captures part of the story. But these are all problems which Belgium shares with its neighbours, particularly France and the Netherlands. What is distinctively Belgian, however, is the highly efficient mobilisation of discontent by Jihadists groups. Most important of these must be Sharia4Belgium, founded in 2010. The importance of the group is best read from the fact that, out of articles, of the 500-or-so Belgians fighting in dissertation articles the Syrian Civil War, at least 78 are known to have Sharia4Belgium connections. Sharia4Belgium’s ideology is nothing new (it borrows from the names, standard Salafist language popularised by Anjem Choudray in Britain) but its success in mobilising the discontent of Belgian Muslims for its own religious ends is app essay quite startling.

Interestingly, it has also succeeded in reaching out to frustrated (white) Belgian converts, demonstrating nicely that religion serves mainly as a symptom for wider discontents of names of articles in essays all sorts. So, what’s the why i want to become essay, answer? Pangloss has no idea, but stoking the fires of religious and racial violence is certainly not the answer. Somehow, the Belgian state must find a way to make its citizens (of all religions) feel that they belong but how this is achieved is impossible to names of articles in essays, say. What the tragic attacks in articles Paris demonstrate, more than anything, is names in essays that Belgium simply cannot afford to do nothing.

Ed: We should also take a moment to note the a psychology paper, absurdity of the notion of Belgium as an names of articles, Islamic state which Sharia4Belgium preaches. Pangloss finds it fascinating that a country which many denounce as artificial or dysfunctional (and founded by a Liberal-Catholic alliance) should be considered a natural political unit for a global Islamic caliphate! Pangloss would also like to draw the attention of the reader towards a 2012 survey, conducted by #8220;Eurislam#8221; and commissioned by the European Commission which showed that Belgian Muslims are strongly pro-Belgian (between 56 and 69 percent depending on ethnic group, the Turks being an exception) and more strongly in favour of freedom of a cover application speech than their non-Muslim counterparts. Sure the survey is fairly old, but does it really indicate that Belgium has a #8220;Muslim Problem#8221; as the foreign media is want to of articles, claim? Think, people.

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Patent Law School Exam: Essay No. 2. 2. (25 POINTS) AlphaDog’s US patent has one claim: 1. A method of paying a company executive comprising: Calculating a salary, wherein the salary is calculated by multiplying the average non-executive company employee income by an X-factor, wherein the X-factor is names in essays between 10 and 99; and. Paying the paper, executive the salary. During examination, the claim was amended. As originally filed, the claimed X-factor range was between 10 and 120. In Essays! AlphaDog had amended the a psychology paper, claim to avoid a prior art reference that discussed paying executives over 100-times the of articles in essays, average employee salary. AlphaDog had discovered that reference after filing the patent application. Writing A Cover Letter For A Scholarship Application! The company amended the claims, but did not tell the patent office of the reference (believing that it was no longer relevant to of articles the claimed invention).

BetaDog has two employees – the CEO and thesis her secretary. Of Articles! BetaDog’s CEO is paid 9-times the salary of the secretary. Although paid in in a paper US Dollars, BetaDog directly-deposits its CEO’s salary in an offshore bank located in Bermuda. AlphaDog sues BetaDog and names of articles its CEO for patent infringement. Explain the relevant legal issues, and figure out who wins and loses. Law Professor at the University of Missouri School of Law. View all posts by Dennis Crouch →

33 thoughts on “ Patent Law School Exam: Essay No. 2 ” Regardign the mouse/trackball, I heard the first mouse was invented by flipping a trackball over and attaching a button to it. So a mouse inherently comprises a trackball. You could flip the mouse over and use the trackball element without actuating the button. Or you could actuate the button. It’s still a trackball on the other side.

Nobody123 wrote: “As claimed, the pc has both a mouse and dissertation articles trackball. There is no way to use the names of articles in essays, spec to a cover letter for a reject the claim under 102. Therefore, the in essays, claim has new matter because the claimed embodiment was not in an air possession at of articles in essays, the time of writing a psychology paper filing.” I disagree, a mouse that is also a trackball is supported by the spec. In the English language the word “or” is not exclusive. Although the “single input” limitation may limit the number of inputs to names one, the organizing dissertation, input can still be characterized as both a mouse and a trackball. Under current US practises, this claim definitely fails the “machine” prong of Bilski because there is names of articles no structure recited in writing paper any step. You can argue that “Paying the executive the salary” amounts to a “transformation”, but this would be tough. “Which problem would this patent be solving? I can’t make out a problem which doesn’t have either a trivial or arbitrary answer. Some patents are such that posing the problem they solve amounts to explaining the idea of the in essays, patent itself (those silly throw-dog-ball-sticks for in a, example).

This one doesn’t seem to be of that kind.” I’m not sure what you’re getting at. Other than statutory subject matter, utility is such a low bar that you can determine utility just by of articles in essays reading the writing a psychology, title. Assuming that the issue is one of accidental anticipation, then EP enlarged boad decisions G1/02 and G2/03 allow you to exclude the “accidentally anticipated” values even if your new range 10-99 was not literally supported in of articles in essays the original specification. This allows the person drafting the application to avoid lists of the type “not more than 120, 119, 118, 117…” ad nauseum. In any case, such a claim probably can’t be patented in the EP because it might be considered to be lacking in technical effect or to be a method for performing a mental act or doing business. Example I use for training: spec at a psychology, filing: a computer with a single input, wherein the input may be a mouse or a trackball.

pending claim: a computer with a mouse and a trackball. Using the spec as originally filed, there are 2 disclosed embodiments: 2) pc w/ trackball. As claimed, the pc has both a mouse and trackball. There is no way to use the spec to reject the claim under 102. Therefore, the claim has new matter because the claimed embodiment was not in possession at of articles in essays, the time of letter for a scholarship filing. Even if it were obvious to of articles combine mouse and trackball into a single pc, the spec would still need modification to arrive at app essay suggestions, the claimed invention, and therefore constitutes new matter. Even if the spec at filing enabled Mr POSITA to make a pc w/ both mouse and trackball, this also is names in essays not germane to the new matter because applicant was not in possession of the claimed embodiment at filing.

I see several issues in the comments. Do we know the in a, difference between written description and enablement? Written description = did applicant have possession of the claimed invention at the priority date? Enablement = did the of articles, specification at organizing articles, the priority date enable Mr POSITA to practise the names of articles, claimed invention? The originally filed claim recites 10-120. At most, the writing a cover, specfication should be objected to for lacking written description support. It is the rest of the spec, not the claim, that is deficient.

In my personal opinion, narrowing to in essays 10-99 does not constitute new matter because these embodiments were supported in the original specification as filed. The question would be did applicant have possession of the 10-99 embodiments at the time of filing? If the applicant had possession of writing a psychology 10-120, I would think that he/she/it had possession of 10-99. When I was trained for 112 1st, the test for new matter would be to use the spec available at names in essays, the priority date to reject the claim. If you can write the writing a psychology, rejection as a 102, then there is no new matter because the claimed embodiment would be fully supported as a single embodiment in the spec. If you cannot write the rejecition as a 102, then the claimed embodiment is not supported in a single embodiment in in essays the spec. Whether the modififications to the spec is obvious/enabled or not is not germane to new matter. If you cannot do a 102, then there is new matter. Even if the in a paper, new matter is obvious from the spec, it is still matter because applicant did not have possession of the claimed embodiment. The question then becomes would a reference disclosing 10-120 anticipate a claim reciting 10-99? If yes, then there is no new matter.

If no, there is new matter. It’s pretty clear that 10-120 anticipates 10-99, right? As for enablement, if all embodiments between 10-120 were supported by the spec as originally filed, then all embodiments between 10-99 would be enabled as well. Anybody care to comment? David French writes: Hey! Isn’t amending to 10 to 99 new matter?

I think it would be in names of articles Europe. The whole scenario just makes me weep inside. But anyway, claim invalid for non-statutory subject matter and/or lack of in a paper novelty/obviousness in names in essays light of the real world, and not infringed because amending to 10-99 to avoid 100 should also exclude 9. Just a comment about the patent. Which problem would this patent be solving? I can’t make out a problem which doesn’t have either a trivial or arbitrary answer. Some patents are such that posing the problem they solve amounts to explaining the idea of the patent itself (those silly throw-dog-ball-sticks for writing letter, example). Of Articles In Essays! This one doesn’t seem to organizing be of that kind. Anyone, please tell me why the of articles, X-factor being greater than or equal to 0, and less than infinity would or would not be obvious? You know what’s really sad? How is the US going to continue to lead the web assign ncsu, world in CEO pay if we can’t protect new and creative ways of paying CEOs?

And if America can’t be competitive in paying CEOs, then those CEOs will just move to other countries and our businesses won’t be able to compete. Names In Essays! Now more than we ever this country need new methods of determining CEO pay if we expect to remain competitive. /patent wanker off. “Glad I’m not in law school anymore.” So are your professors. Especially if you really needed clarification on a patent law exam that you should limit your discussion to issues of patent law. Did anyone bring up the issue of whether the CEO can be liable for infringement? Personal liability would generally require active inducement or some other specific intent on the part of the individual to infringe the patent. The claim against the CEO is probably dismissed on writing for a scholarship application a MTD for failure to state a claim (unless there is some other evidence presented). Question possibly fails because we don’t know if the of articles, secretary is an executive.

If no executive, then no non-executive salary to why i want to become an air compare. Cannot assume that secretary is not an executive. Where is betadog company? Is it in America? Is it on Earth? So what if pay is in US dollars. By the way, does discuss all relevant legal issues include failure of betadog to names of articles in essays disclose foreign bank account to IRS? Not to mention possible criminal laws? You should clarify location of betadog company or where there business is transacted. You should clarify that relevant legal issues should be limited to patent law.

You should clarify that secretary is not executive (or maybe you did intend to leave this as gray area??) By the way, 10*0=0 so any start up company in which the want to become officer, CEO and of articles in essays nonexecutives paid by stock probably anticipate the common app essay, patent. Claim should say executive salary is in essays greater than zero. Glad I’m not in law school anymore. You should prepare your students for dealing with the a cover letter for a, USPTO by requiring them to use 14pt font and have a page limit of 2 pages and of articles then ignore all requests for reason. haha. Nice question. If you can get it down to only a claim and dissertation “Discuss,” you’d be in the company of of articles Currie. Here are the issues I see and how I might call them: Written Description or Alternately Enablement under 35 USC 112, paragraph 1. It’s unclear where the thesis, basis is for the upper end of names of articles in essays 99 for the range.

I know there is web assign ncsu case law, such as In re Wertheim that might support such a narrowing, but I’m not sure it would apply here. My view is that Claim 1 goes down under 35 USC 112, paragraph 1. Inequitable Conduct. The fact that the claim was amended to in essays avoid the uncited reference is a real “red flag” here. For sure, this uncited reference is “material.” “Intent to deceive” is a bit more problematical, but given how “material” the uncited reference is likely to be considered, there’s a good chance that “intent to deceive” will still be inferred. Likely to be held invalid/unenforceable for writing a cover for a application, inequitable conduct. Patentability under 35 USC 103. Given that the difference here is 1 for in essays, the multiplier, hard to believe that Claim 1 would be considered unobvious, without some sort of “surprising” or “unexpected” result, which I don’t see here. Likely to be held unpatentable under 35 USC 103.

Patentable Subject Matter under 35 USC 101. Claim 1 is too close in common app essay character to the one that went down in in essays Bilski. What we have defined here is primarily a “calculation” step which won’t fly under Bilski’s “transformation” prong (the “machine” prong wouldn’t apply). Almost certainly invalid under 35 USC 101. Literal Infringement of Claim 1. Unlikely, especially as there is no “about” before the to become an air force officer essay, lower limit of 10. DOE Infringement of Claim 1. Possible, as the end of the end of the range in play (10) isn’t the one that was amended to get around the art. This is similar to the situation in names of articles in essays Warner-Jenkinson. Infringement under 35 USC 271(a) et al.

Most likely, none, as one of the method steps requires paying the CEO which, in this case, happens outside the U.S. In NTP v RIM the Federal Circuit made it clear that all steps of the method must occur in the U.S., or there can be no infringement of the method Claim under 35 USC 271(a). Just Visiting – that case involving pH ranges would be Hilton Davis. And you are correct in that estoppel for DOE can apply to just one end of the range. Just Visiting said: “I vaguely recall an older case involving pH ranges that would allow arguing that amending the common app essay suggestions, upper limit to get around the art would not affect the lower limit.” That case was decided by the Supremes in 1997. See Warner-Jenkinson Co., Inc. v. Hilton Davis Chemical Co., 520 U.S.

17. You remember correctly. The principal holdings were that DOE must be applied on names of articles a claim-by-claim basis, and thesis paper that DOE should be applied within the context of file wrapper estoppel. In Warner-Jenkinson, the record wasn’t clear on the patentee’s reasons for adding the lower limit (only the upper was necessary to in essays avoid the prior art), and so this issue was to be determined on web assign ncsu remand. Good points Just.

When the EPO objects that an intermediate limitation constitutes “new matter” I try to explain it to American clients as being “like your written description requirement”. Names Of Articles! As to ranges, I am always mystified why they should qualify under DoE for stretching. Common App Essay! I should have thought that the range claimed is already at names in essays, the limit of the imagination of the inventor/attorney, at the filing date. App Essay! It’s unconscionable, to demand yet more scope of protection, after the filing date. But, litigators, they have no shame, right?

I don’t think anyone mentioned a possible written description issue regarding an upper limit of 99 not being supported in the specification as filed. Also, there is a fairly recent CAFC case regarding application of in essays DOE to ranges. Common! 9 is possibly equivalent to 10-100. Perhaps “10 or more” would be interpreted differently. I vaguely recall an older case involving pH ranges that would allow arguing that amending the upper limit to get around the art would not affect the lower limit.

Humorless, your name is truly ironic. I laughed a lot, on reading your above contribution. Of Articles In Essays! Compliments of the season to you, Sir or Madam. Frank H. Writing! Caligula, PhD, Esq? Hello Gopher, thanks for the kind seasonal greetings, in excellent German.

In return, I would wish you a Happy Chr–tmas, except that it isn’t PC, right? Instead, Happy “holiday season” and a good “slide” into 2009. Anyway, I don’t know any US patent attorneys I would classify as “pesky”, only diligent ones, trying with all their honest their professional skills to advance the interests of their clients as best they can, in names of articles the difficult conditions that currently prevail in web assign ncsu their jurisdiction. In Essays! Or is “pesky” a designation of full measure of professional competence attained, amongst your brother and sister attorneys at common suggestions, law (I’m here to learn). No doubt this “hypothetical” was taken from a real case, in which plaintiff’s counsel’s last name is a homonym for a certain Roman Emperor… -5 for Dennis for naming this thread with the same starting letters past the abbreviation point on “Recent Comments”.

Now, when I want to make sure I see what’s new, I will have to visit each thread, “scroll down and hit next” repeatedly (still). … 1. Outside the of articles, USA, but inside the legal field of patents for inventions, there are no issues.2. Who loses? The USA (but your readers don’t want to know that).Posted by: MaxDrei. On behalf of all us pesky u.s. patent attorneys: Froehliche Weihnachten und ein glueckliches neues Jahr! On the organizing, IC issue, the test for names in essays, IC is intent and materiality. Materiality is defined as anything that a reasonable Examiner would find important for suggestions, examination. I think materiality is certainly present for the 100X reference. You can make an argument that intent is not given that the names of articles, patentee may have thought they had a good basis for not submitting the reference, but given the way that the CAFC hammers patentees and the current case law, this one would be absolutely dead at the CAFC. Also, it appears that the 100X reference doesn’t teach quite the organizing, same thing as the claim requires. The 100X reference teaches 100-times the names, average employee salary whereas the claim recites the “average non-executive company employee income.”

You have Festo estoppel for any range above 100. Some examiners would 112 “the average non-executive company employee income.” I won’t touch the rest of the issues. Festo kills DOE. The narrowing amendment was made for a reason of patentability. Possibly invalid for inequitable conduct for not pointing out the reference to the examiner. The reference was probably material for 103 reasons, even if the claim had been narrowed to writing letter for a avoid anticipation; but, if it wasn’t divulged because it really wasn’t considered relevant, the patentee might win on intent.

“(believing that it was no longer relevant to the claimed invention). Names Of Articles! ” Woodruff that range right out of town! And of course Bilski. Looks like the first poster beat me to writing a psychology paper em all anyway. But yes he touched most all I see. I disagree with the DOE one though. 9 is not equivalent to 10 or more. Oh, and add that I would make a validity charge based on 103 and google some art additional art.

Also, 684 is right, there should be a page limit. Will keep my contributions short, Dennis, because: 1. Outside the in essays, USA, but inside the writing a cover letter for a scholarship, legal field of patents for inventions, there are no issues. 2. Who loses? The USA (but your readers don’t want to of articles know that).

I hope there is a page limit for that one. maybe invalid (103-the 100x reference) unenforceable (inequitable conduct) noninfringement (no evidence that Beta’s CEO pay is calculated, it could be negotiated to a value that happens to be 9x sec’s pay; no evidence that even if calculated, was calculated based on X factor, could be calculated based on current year times 1,000 which happens to be 9x sec. salary, etc.) infringement maybe under DOE (assuming salary is calc as 9x X factor, then need to argue that 9 is equivalent to why i want an air 10 or more. Didn’t give up that equiv when amended claims b/c only modifed the names of articles, 120, not the 10) geographical issues: method must be performed in US. location of method = where all the steps are performed. Whether all steps are performed in the US is key question –NTP–. Assume calculating was performed in US office. Where did paying occur? I’d argue it occured at site where order to DD the salary occured (i.e., from Beta’s US bank).

Comments are closed. Dennis Crouch Associate Professor, University of Missouri School of letter scholarship application Law SSRN Articles Jason Rantanen Professor, University of Iowa College of Law SSRN Articles Occasional guest posts by IP practitioners and names of articles in essays academics. About 25,000 individuals now receive Patently-O via e-mail each morning. We regularly post top patent jobs from leading firms, corporations, and government and educational institutions. Find a patent professional among the 15,000+ monthly visitors of the writing for a, job board, many of of articles in essays whom are patent professionals at large firms and corporations.

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A model pie chart report step by step. This lesson gives you a step-by-step approach to dealing with pie charts in task 1. Names Of Articles! I talk you through how to identify the a psychology paper main points, select the supporting details and in essays, then structure your report. I then show you two model answers: one with standard vocabulary and web assign ncsu, then a much more advanced version with more vocabulary and grammar you can borrow. The following pie charts show the results of a survey into the most popular leisure activities in the United States of America in in essays, 1999 and 2009. Summarise the common app essay information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. The first step is to identify the main points of the names of articles two charts. This is not just an important part of the task and your band score, it will also help you write your description. The main points are normally obvious. Sometimes they are so obvious that candidates ignore them. Look at these questions: How many activities are there in each chart?

Just count Are the activities the same in writing, each chart? Read the key Are there any changes in popularity between the two years? Look at the colours. There are 8 activities for each year 7 of 8 activities are the same There are a number of differences in names of articles, popularity between the web assign ncsu two years. These two pie charts show the in essays changes in popularity of different leisure activities in the United States of America between 1999 and web assign ncsu, 2009. Names Of Articles In Essays! We can see that the most popular leisure activities were almost the same in app essay, both periods, but there were a number of differences in popularity between the various activities.

Step 2: choose the details to include. There are 16 different figures you can include. Names In Essays! This is too many. The task is to select and report the most important details. This will include naming all the activities, but not all the numbers. Writing A Cover Scholarship! To do this, try looking for: what#8217;s gone up what#8217;s gone down what hasn#8217;t changed what#8217;s new.

Putting this together, we need these details: walking is most popular in both periods yoga disappears and weightlifting is new swimming doubles aerobics, jogging and cycling all fall soccer and camping don#8217;t change much. This will vary from in essays task to task, but typically you will be looking at paper two content paragraphs. As you write your paragraphs, you want to think of three key ideas: highlight the main points they come first group similar ideas together find a logical structure to present the points. This is the of articles big one and will take time to learn. To help you on your way, I show you two model answers with extensive vocabulary notes. My suggestion is scholarship application, start with the first one. Don#8217;t be worries that it looks too simple. it isn#8217;t. It is in of articles, fact extremely good band score 9. The when you have that right, take a look at common suggestions the second version which has some more advanced vocabulary. This is the final report. These two pie charts show the changes in popularity of different leisure activities in the United States of America between 1999 and 2009. We can see that the most popular leisure activities were almost the same in both periods, but there were a number of differences in popularity between the various activities.

It is clear that walking was the most popular activity in both 1999 and names of articles in essays, 2009, with around 30% of Americans saying that they preferred it. Also, yoga was no longer among the preferred activities in why i to become force, 2009, but weightlifting was chosen by 10% of names in essays people. The second most popular activity was soccer at just under 20% in both years, a figure that was matched by swimming in 2009, having almost doubled in popularity over the previous decade. Most of the common suggestions other activities became less popular over the same period of time, with cycling, jogging and aerobics all falling by at least a half to under 10%. The one exception to this trend was camping which stayed almost unchanged at around 9%.

These two pie charts show the changes in popularity of different leisure activities in the United States of America between 1999 and 2009 . We can see that the most popular leisure activities were almost the same in of articles in essays, both periods , but there were a number of differences in popularity between the various activities. It is clear that walking was the most popular activity in both 1999 and 2009, with around 30% of Americans saying that they preferred it . Organizing Dissertation! Also, yoga was no longer among the preferred activities in 2009, butweightlifting was chosen by 10% of people. Of Articles In Essays! The second most popular activity was soccer at just under 20% in thesis, both years , a figure that was matched by swimming in 2009 , having almost doubled in in essays, popularity over the previous decade . Most of the other activities became less popular over the same period of time , with cycling, jogging and aerobics all falling by at least a half to under 10% . Th e one exception to this trend was camping which stayed almost unchanged at around 9% . #8220; These two pie charts show #8220;: the normal phrase to writing a cover letter for a application describe what the chart/graph is about. In Essays! #8220; We can see that #8220;: a phrase to state a main point. #8220; It is clear that #8220;: another phrase to identify a main point. #8220; popular/popularity/preferred #8220;: you are going to repeat the word #8220;popular#8221;. That is not a problem, provided you also use some variations. One way to common app essay do this is to change the form of the word from #8220;popular#8221; to of articles #8220;popularity#8221;. The other word I use in dissertation, this report is #8220;preferred#8221;: you should note I vary this too, using it as an adjective and a verb. Other variations include #8220;to express a preference#8221; and #8220;favourite#8221;. #8220; 1999/2009 #8220;: another word you are going to repeat relates to time.

Again, you want to names in essays make sure you have some variation here. Note these: #8220; between 1999 and 2009 #8220;, #8220; in both periods #8220;, #8220; in both years #8220;, #8220; over the previous decade #8220;, #8220; over app essay, the same period of time #8220;. #8220; a number of #8220;: a simple but exceptionally useful phrase. Avoid using phrases like #8220;lots of #8221; in IELTS. #8220; various #8220;: a useful and more advanced variant for #8220;different#8221; #8220; exception to of articles a trend #8220;: Learn this phrase. You will need to talk about suggestions, things that do not follow the normal pattern. Numbers are very important in this task. I suggest you take a look at my lesson on of articles in essays, dealing with numbers. #8220; around 30% #8220;: you will use per cent a lot in this task. You do need to include numbers, but you should avoid using too many of them. When you do use them, try to paper do what I have done here and use language too, #8220;around#8221; is good language for #8220;about#8221; #8220; a figure that was matched by #8220;: #8220;figure#8221; is an of articles in essays, exceptionally useful word which can be used with numbers or percentages. This is a harder phrase that you could try for yourself when talking about to become an air officer, two similar/identical numbers. #8220; at just under 20% #8220;: more good number language. This is very much better than 18%. #8220; having almost doubled #8220;: more approximate number language.

Remember the language of maths: #8220;half#8221;, #8220;double#8221; etc. #8220; all falling by at least a half to under 10% #8220;: the phrase to in essays note here is #8220;at least#8221; #8220; which stayed almost unchanged at around 9% #8220;: this is better variation of #8220;did not change#8221; The above report is exceptionally good. Scholarship! It covers all the of articles right details (Task response), has a good range of why i want to become an air officer essay grammar with relative clauses (Range and accuracy of grammar), is very coherent (well organised and linked) and has some range of vocabulary, even if some words are repeated (Lexical resource). This answer can help you by extending the range of vocabulary you use for: These two charts illustrate how the of articles preferred leisure activities of Americans changed between 1999 and 2009.Generally speaking, while the list of activities remained almost identical over the decade, there were a number of changes in their relative popularity. It is immediately evident that walking was by some distance the in a paper most popular pastime in both years,accounting for just under a third of the of articles in essays preferences expressed. Of equal note is that by web assign ncsu, 2009, yoga had disappeared from the list of preferred activities and had been replaced by weightlifting, which was chosen by one in ten Americans.

Among the less popular activities, the most notable development was that the proportion of people who went swimming doubled, making it equal second in names in essays, popularity with soccer at a cover for a scholarship application 18%. In stark contrast, around as half as many Americans went cycling in of articles in essays, 2009 as compared to ten years earlier, with the result that it became less popular than camping, at 7% and 9% respectively. Why I Want To Become An Air! Likewise, the number of people who went jogging and did aerobics also dropped significantly, with less than 5% of respondents to the survey choosing them. These two charts illustrate how the preferred leisure activities of names of articles in essays Americans changed between 1999 and 2009. Generally speaking , while the list of activities remained almost identical over the decade, there were a number of thesis paper changes in their relative popularity. It is of articles in essays, immediately evident that walking was by some distance the most popular pastime in both years ,accounting for just under a third of the organizing preferences expressed. Of equal note is that by 2009, yoga had disappeared from the list of preferred activities and had been replaced by weightlifting, which was chosen by one in ten Americans.

Among the less popular activities , the most notable development was that the proportion of people who went swimming doubled, making it equal second in popularity with soccer at 18%. In stark contrast , around as half as many Americans went cycling in in essays, 2009 as compared to organizing dissertation articles ten years earlier, with the in essays result that it became less popular than camping, at organizing dissertation articles 7% and 9% respectively. Likewise , the number of people who went jogging and did aerobics also dropped significantly , with less than 5% of respondents to the survey choosing them. #8220; illustrate #8220;: a useful alternative to the standard #8220;show #8221; #8220; remained almost identical #8220;: a variation of #8220;stayed the same#8221; #8220; The most notable development #8220;: #8220;development#8221; is in essays, a useful alternative to #8220;change#8221; and #8220;notable#8221; works in the same way as #8220;significant#8221;. Thesis In A Paper! #8220; respondents to the survey #8220;: one word you may find yourself repeating a lot is of articles, #8220;People#8221;. One way to avoid this is to paper use #8220;Americans#8221;. This is a more advanced version you respond to a survey and names, the people to thesis respond to of articles a survey are #8220;respondents#8221;. #8220; while #8220;: a useful and slightly more advanced variation of #8220;but#8221; #8220; Generally speaking ,#8221;: an alternative to #8220;in general#8221;. It is a good habit to use a phrase like this in writing for a, your summary paragraph. Note the comma. #8220; It is immediately evident that #8220;: a variation of the standard #8220;It is clear that#8221;. Again, it is a good habit to of articles in essays use a phrase like this when you are writing about the main points of the chart/graph. #8220; Of equal note #8220;: a useful linking phrase when you are joining two important main points. #8220; Among the less popular activities #8220;: this is writing a psychology paper, good writing as it explains to the reader that this paragraph is about a different topic.This is a good structure to borrow. #8220; In stark contrast #8220;: this is in essays, a set phrase when you have a large contrast.

Don#8217;t overuse it, it only organizing dissertation articles, works for big differences. #8220; Likewise #8220;: another very useful linking phrase. You use it between two sentences which are about similar ideas. Note the comma. #8220; accounting for just under a third #8220;: you could just say #8220;around 30%#8221;, but this way you use more language. #8220;Accounting/accounted for#8221; is a very useful phrase when dealing with numbers. Another example would be: #8220;Children under 14 account for almost a quarter of people who play golf regularly#8221;. #8220; by some distance the of articles most #8220;: when you make a comparison, it is web assign ncsu, a good idea to try and qualify it in some way. if you say it is the biggest, ask yourself the question #8220;By how much?#8221;. Another alternative her would be #8220;significantly the most#8221;. #8220; one in ten Americans #8220;: #8220;one in ten#8221; is a very useful variation when you are talking about percentages. #8220; proportion #8220;: another key word for names, task 1 an excellent variation for percentage. #8220; dropped significantly #8220;: you should have a number of variations for saying #8220;rise#8221; and #8220;fall#8221;. #8220;Drop#8221; is thesis in a paper, quite a neutral word so you can qualify with adverbs like #8220;significantly#8221; #8220; had disappeared #8220;: think about tenses if you are given two charts relating to different periods in the past. Can you use a past perfect? #8220; which was chosen by #8220;: two points to names in essays consider here. The relative #8220;which#8221;is a key piece of grammar and suggestions, the passive, both of which are key pieces of grammar for this task. #8220; with the result that #8220;: note the structure here.

The fall in popularity means that it has become less popular. This is an idea you can borrow. To get my next lesson in your inbox. How to like it, share it and save it. Get more help with IELTS preparation on the main pages of names of articles my site. A Psychology! Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and even more advice there.

Or just get all my free lessons by names, email. 27 Responses to A model pie chart report step by step. I appreciate your concern about leaving valuable tips for a cover for a scholarship application, taking this high-stake test. Also it is kind of you to put all these information online for free. I am going to take the test On Nov 26 so I was wondering if you could reply my comments and give feedback on my performance.

Thanks you in advance. I do try and names in essays, answer all my comments. If I don#8217;t, it simply means that I am taking a break form the site. Writing A Cover For A! it#8217;s a really great and very helpful lesson. Dominic you#8217;r awesome #128578; Very helpful! Fantastic stuff. Thanks heaps. hello sir, my exam is in 2 days and I#8217;d really be grateful if you check my writing for these two charts and tell if I#8217;ve gotten it right! here it is: These two charts show us the change of popularity in different leisure activities in the United States of America between 1999 and 2009. We can see that seven out of eight leisure activities are identical and show slight changes to a higher or lower percentage while others almost maintain their pace or disappear completely. In this period of of articles time a new activity adds to the preferred ones of the people of the United States. The first thing to note is that walking takes the lead in why i want to become force essay, both years with a proportion around 30%, and then comes soccer with an insignificant increase in its percentage. Names In Essays! Both of jogging and common app essay, swimming have almost doubled in of articles in essays, this period of time whereas aerobics and bicycling fell in numbers. Camping has almost remained the articles same with the slight increase of 1%, while yoga which ranked 5% in 1999 has disappeared all together in 2009 to be replaced by a new activity called weightlifting with the percentage of 10% it#8217;s 163 words, please tell me if it#8217;s good enough! thanks in advance #128578; I simply don#8217;t have the time/resources to check work properly from the site.

I have had a quick look though and the one thing that stands out is tenses. Names In Essays! You use a range of present tenses (simple and dissertation articles, present perfect), while you must use a past tense to describe data that is in of articles in essays, the past (1999 2009). Best of luck. let me know how it goes. I just wanted to tell you that I#8217;ve gotten my IELTS score today, I got: Listening 8 , Writing 7, Reading 7 and Speaking 7.5. an overall of 7.5. and thesis in a, I have you and this awesome blog to of articles thank for this because I took no courses whatsoever and studied depending on your tips only! so, THANKS a billion :)) GOOD INFO FOR ME TO PREPARING FOR MY FINAL EXAM QUESTION. Great Piece Dominic!! quite helpful indeed xxx. i just want to information related reading and writing also because its huge hadal of my life just few days left my exam. my exam date 14 feb , i am tensinate abot my exam please help me sir gives some tips please support me sir. There isn#8217;t a lot you can do immediately before the exam to improve your English. Take a look at organizing dissertation my exam days tips at the top of the page. hi dominic, do i need to names of articles in essays download any apps for mac and ipad to a psychology paper view the names of articles in essays images inside the boxes. thanks #128578; Hope not!

They appear fine on my Macbook and Ipad. Let me know if you have problems I am having one of my periodic tidy ups. Can I ask, if the two charts with one in the past and one in the future, which tense should we use to web assign ncsu describe and compare? Good question. Let me do a lesson on this for you.

Typically the main language you want for an example like that is the language of change. I#8217;ll try and names in essays, get this done in the next few days. Is it o.k to write this essay without a summary? In short no. You do need some sort of web assign ncsu summary/overview to complete the question fully. The pie chart illustrate the names of articles in essays outcome of survey on several leisure activities. Of Americans in year 1991 and a cover letter application, 2009. As observed, the favorite free-time activity of American pupils in names of articles in essays, 1991 and. 2009 was Walking, 29% and dissertation, 31% respectively. However very less people of.

America have chosen Yoga (5%) and Jogging (3%) as their pass time in 1991. and 2009 respectively. It can be seen from chart that popularity of Jogging(3%) and Aerobics(4%) saw. an declining trend in year of 2009. On the other hand, Swimming(18%) saw an rising trend in 2009,double of American have it as their leisure activity than people in 1991.Popularity of Soccer and Camping were remained almost same in 2009 but, 5% of people who were doing Yoga in 1991 was clearly replaced by Weightlifting with popularity of 10%. Overall, the three activities Soccer, Camping and Walking almost have same popularity in 2009 as in 1991 where as, Weightlifting introduced as new leisure. Activity in 2009 replacing Yoga from 1991. I have learnt A lot by browsing this useful site. Thanks a lot in updating my Writing and other Skills.

Awesome site to Augment knowledge with respect to IELTS. I came across your page as I was even scared of reading charts and graphs and wanting to overcome this fear. I followed your step-by-step guidance while I was looking at names of articles in essays the two pie charts. I think I am understanding how to make a Task 1 essay better than before and want force essay, feeling the fear lifted away from my mind. I#8217;m glad to have found your page. Thank you. Thank you for putting so much effort on this website! I have a question here about #8216;difference between#8217;. In the names of articles in essays introduction part, it says #8216;there were a number of differences in popularity between the various activities.#8217; , to to become an air officer me it seems like the difference is between activities, like soccer 20% but walking 30%. To me #8216;differences between popularity in of articles, various activities#8217; seems more relevant to paper the next paragraph. Names Of Articles In Essays! Can you give some advice on my understanding of this phrase?

Thank you!

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Q When writing a paper, do I use italics for all titles? - Answers

Custom The Arab League essay paper writing service. The Arab League is a weak organization with no notable success but rather status quo and failures in many occasions. The league was formed in 1945 with the main aim of giving political expression to the Arab nations. According to Sayegh (1958), The original drive behind the league was given by the British in 1942 who hoped to rally the Arab nations against the Axis powers; however the league did not form until the final months of World War II. The original charter members were Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Transjordan, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen. Although not an names of articles in essays, original signatory of the charter because he represented no official government, a representative of Palestinian Arabs was given full status and a vote in the Arab League (Sayegh 1958). The league was a brain child of colonial powers. This makes it a prone to foreign interference in its operation and decision making. This paper takes a critical analysis of Arab league as a weak organization and the influence of Nasser, Saddam, UN and international community in the affaires of Arab league. This paper further analyzes the why i want force essay, league instability to names of articles in essays strike a decisive action on its member states.

Organization of the league and its weaknesses. Arab league is organized in a council, committees, and a permanent secretariat; the secretariat currently has its headquarters in Cairo (Sayegh 1958). Each member country has got one vote which hold similar weight. The Arab league has got constitution spells out provides coordination among the signatory nations in the areas of education, finance, law, trade, and foreign policy, and it forbids the use of force to settle disputes among members (Sayegh 1958). It should be noted that the Arab League has failed to take a realistic position on the reconstruction of Iraq. It has not discussed any humanitarian aid plan and has not discussed what role the Arabs would play in app essay suggestions reconstruction. Furthermore, no member-state has dared discuss democracy in debating the new Iraqi government's future (Go, and of articles Davis, 2009).

It has even become a taboo for Middle Eastern journalists to propose that their may be beneficial outcomes to paper the war. Hala Mustafa, an names of articles, analyst at the Al Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies in Cairo said she was struck by common suggestions the Arabs' unwillingness to debate What next? and names of articles in essays their failure to app essay offer creative responses to the opportunities and dangers presented by Hussein's overthrow (Nash, 2010). Emad Shahin, an Arab specialist at the American University in Cairo said the current crisis offers the 22-member Arab League an opportunity to regain relevancy by formulating a common strategy on Iraq . Names. Unfortunately, the Arab League has failed to scholarship application take advantage of this bid for legitimacy by failing to address the pertinent issues (Go, and Davis, 2009). Nasser manipulated Arab league to help him further his political ambitions in the region rather than fighting for the whole organization and Arab community. This is in essays evidenced by a number of his behaviors and how he governed Egypt affairs with the backing of Arab league. It was Suez that made Nasser a magnet of Arabism by making him the dominant leader in the Arab world and his leadership was not based on any constitutional or institutional foundations(Toffolo, 2008). It was based on the consent of the Arab masses through the traditional cultural practice of bay'a (acclamation) when choosing a tribal sheikh or a Caliph with a unique exception, there was not any processions or formalities involved. The strong reactions of the Arab people to Nasser's Campaign against Baghdad Pact made Nasser more convinced to foster links between Egypt and the Arabs.

The Egyptian Constitution of January 1956 identified Egypt as an Arab country. The preamble reads: We the Egyptian People who recognize our existence within the great Arab world, we appreciate our responsibilities and for a scholarship commitment to join forces with our Arab fellows to achieve dignity and glory of Arab nation .The First article stated that Egypt is an names in essays, Arab sovereign state , and thesis in a the Egyptian people are part of the Arab nation. The constitution marked a turning point in names in essays Egypt's previous affiliation to a territorial nationalism, a departure from Egyptianism to Arabism. This closer linking of the Egyptians and Arabs was an asset of Nasser's leadership of Arab people (Toffolo, 2008).Suez brought Egypt and other Arab countries closer together in writing letter application two ways. It confirmed Nasser's belief that Arab solidarity was an indispensable part of Egyptian national security, not only for defense against Israel, but also because of the deterrent effort on of articles, the West of Arab control of a psychology, oil-fields and pipelines. Toffolo,(2008) states, there is no evidence that Arab solidarity made him think about its value as a decisive military asset against Israel, because there was not any indication of military confrontation with Israel in his statements or actions other than calling for commitment to UN resolutions regarding Palestine. The sympathies aroused by Suez and the admiration for Nasser's success in names in essays handling the articles, crisis had created a new emotional bond between Egyptians and other Arabs, especially in Syria.

Nasser has been encouraged by his Suez success to names widen the web assign ncsu, dimensions of his Arab role taking advantage of the weakness and instability of the other Arab states through an active Arab policy (Toffolo, 2008). His main target was to in essays strengthen Arab position on international political arena and prevent any attempts to drag the region into the spheres of influence of great Powers. Saddam Hussein positioned himself as a powerful member of the Arab league and constantly held the writing letter scholarship application, organization at ransom. This is because he furthered his political ambition as well as economical ambition with then help of the of articles in essays, league. Organizing Dissertation. Being seen as powerful in Arab community, Iraq through the leadership of Saddam ensured that Arab league followed its interests through manipulation and threats (Nash, 2010). Names In Essays. The league being weak and toothless could not take any decisive action against rebellious behaviors by Iraq for paper instance during Iraq Iran war.

This significantly shows the extend to which this Arab league is held ransom by a few member states yet in the chatter which created it, each member state has got one vote which has got similar weight. Arab League Failed plans in Israel. Toffolo, (2008) illustrates that, During the inception year of the in essays, Arab league, it took a position supporting Syria and Lebanon in their disputes with France and also demanded an web assign ncsu, independent Libya. Later, in 1961, it supported Tunisia in a conflict with France. From the beginning years the league made public its opposition to Israel and offered its support towards the formation of a Palestinian States with a majority Arab population (Toffolo, 2008). Of Articles In Essays. Shortly after the creation of the State of Israel in 1948 the league countries jointly attacked it, but Israel resisted the multi-faced attack successfully (Toffolo, 2008). The league continued to paper maintain a boycott of names in essays, Israel and thesis in a of companies trading with Israel.

The summit conferences of 1964-65 established a joint Arab military command, which has failed to provide a unified strategy towards the formation of a State of Palestine (Toffolo, 2008). Egypt's membership in the League was suspended from 1979 to 1989 because of its treaty with Israel, and the league's headquarters were temporarily moved to Tunis (Toffolo, 2008). In 1988, the league endorsed the names, PLO's plan for a negotiated settlement with Israel, and therefore returned its headquarters to Cairo in 1991. Organizing Dissertation Articles. After much debate, the league ultimately supported Iraq in the Iran-Iraq War (1980-88). However the league remained divided over names, the Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990 and the ensuing Persian Gulf War. However Kuwait, instead of in a, welcoming this apology and joining forces with Iraq as Saddam had hoped, instead labeled the in essays, apology as efforts to web assign ncsu create disorder amongst the of articles, leadership and why i essay people of names in essays, Kuwait. Arab League chief Moussa declined any involvement in the Iraq Kuwait issue, responding to questions about the a psychology paper, confrontation by stating: It is not obliged for the Arab League to make any statement on names in essays, what Saddam is talking about. My stance is clear that it is imperative for Iraq to comply with the UN Security Council resolutions. Organizing Dissertation. This example illustrates the hesitation that the Arab League had shown in names of articles in essays attempting to resolve any conflict within its member nations.

By completely avoiding the common app essay suggestions, issue, the Arab League let the names in essays, hostility between the dissertation articles, nations grow which led to further complications as the war approached (Toffolo, 2008). In the weeks prior to the war, Kuwaiti and Iraqi delegates were openly insulting one another at Arab League meetings. Nash, (2010) illustrates that, The Iraqi delegate at one point even went as far as publicly stating, Shut up, you monkey and curse upon your mustache [honor], you traitor. Certainly when one is invoking primates and speaking of another delegate's mustache, things have gotten far out of in essays, hand. An additional factor creating tensions and mistrust within the Arab League in the months leading up to the war was the situation in the Middle East between the Israelis and the Palestinians. According to organizing dissertation articles columnist Liu Yunfei, as quoted by (Nash, 2010) The negative factors to the Mideast peace process caused a heavy blow to confidence on the side of the Arabs, and consequently channels criticism to the Arab League. Sayed Eliwa, political science professor of the Egyptian Helwan University, further explains that Many Arabs are getting much more disappointed that a host of resolutions and statements could not be translated into actions(Nash, 2010).

This mounting disappointment could clearly be seen in the actions of the member countries in the months leading up to the war. For example, on October 24 th , 2003, Libya informed the Arab League of its intentions to quit the league because of the displayed inefficiency in dealing with Arab issues, especially the Palesinian-Israeli conflict and the Iraqi Crisis. Of Articles In Essays. Libyan leader Omar Muammar Ghaddafi states, Why should we remain as a member of an ineffective organization? Reports later surfaced that Qatar intended to follow Libya's example and force essay leave the league as well. However, in November Libya reversed its position and decided to remain a member of the league. The Libyans concluded that in the time of crisis leading up to the Iraqi war, that despite some limits, the Arab League is required to play an even more effective role at a time when the Arab nation is facing dangers (Nash, 2010) However Libya was not done creating rifts within the Arab League. In an ironically named Unity Summit in the beginning of March, Libyan President Muammar Ghaddafi blamed Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and others for involving the names in essays, US in the area twelve years prior in the Gulf War, which he claimed was the source of the current Iraqi conflict.

Gadhafi had previously accused Saudi Arabia of organizing dissertation articles, entering into a pact with the devil by inviting US troops to defend its territory in 1990. Gadhafi's comments at the summit prompted the Saudi, Iraqi, and Syrian leaders to immediately leave the room and respond harshly to the comments, accusing the Libyan leader of ignorance. The Saudi representative further called Libya an agent for colonizers. This series of insults prevented anything constructive from of articles in essays, happening for the day at common app essay the conference, as the major issues were forgotten in names of articles a series of insults. Furthermore, the conference was broadcast live on Arab satellite television, making the disunity and arguments within the Arab League public for the whole Arab world to witness. In Saudi Arabia, Khaled al-Maeena, editor of the Arab News, as quoted by (Nash, 2010) said he was shocked, appalled and saddened by dissertation articles the news. I felt embarrassed, he said. In front of the world we've become a laughing stock. The Arab people are disappointed and confused.

The spat took the of articles in essays, steam off the main thrust, which was the web assign ncsu, Iraq issue (Nash, 2010) Furthermore, The United Arab Emirates caused an names of articles in essays, additional stir at the same summit when it called for Saddam Hussein to surrender power and leave Iraq. The proposal requested that The Arab League, in cooperation with the web assign ncsu, U.N. secretary-general, should supervise the situation in Iraq for an interim period during which all necessary measures are taken in order to return the situation to its normal situation according to the will of the brotherly Iraqi people (Nash, 2010). While many in the Arab world were calling for a unified front against the incursion by the Western powers, others were advocating surrender to in essays the demands of the West. Moussa responded to this proposal by stating that it was not considered an official request and writing a psychology it was excluded from the consideration of the council (Nash, 2010). The proposal was generally publicly ignored at the conference, in spite of the fact that it was well known such ideas had been floated around several of the names, countries individually for several weeks.

In response to this, the Emirati information minister grumbled that the Arab League didn't have the courage to respond to the proposal. However the Iraqis responded to this proposal angrily. Thesis. In New York, Mohammed Aldouri, Iraq's Ambassador to the United nations, as quoted by Nash, (2010) said Saddam's relinquishing power was not at all likely. He further called the proposal by the UAE silly . At the summit, an angry Iraqi Foreign Minister Naji Sabri said that the proposal was not discussed because the summit does not discuss silly, dirty, trivial ideas. This clearly showed the inability of Arab league in handling its own affairs as a regional block. Arab League and Hamas of Palestine. Arab league relation and full support of Hamas of Palestine is a great violation of the of articles in essays, organization constitution. This is because the league should use member country as actor but not a group in member country. Towards this, the group has gained a lot of confidence in its sordid operation in common app essay suggestions Palestine and names in essays abroad. The result of this relation is that it has become difficult for the Arab league to decisively take action and stop Hamas from web assign ncsu, negative operations in Palestine.

It is on this ground that the league has immensely failed and publicly showed that it is a weak organization which cannot take action against of articles its members to solve a problem. Arab League and to become officer essay member state sovereignty. The organization charter and constitution spells out of articles that the league must respect member states sovereignty. Web Assign Ncsu. In this case of Somalia and Yemen, the two countries have great political problems which began long time ago. But since the league could not directly involve in the situation to prevent further problems, they have fallen in the abyss of statelessness and lack of the names of articles in essays, rule of law. This further has opened the why i want to become an air essay, wounds in the league's inability to solve problems in its member state.

This raises question on the importance of the league to in the names of articles in essays, Arab community and the value of its existence is questionable. The UN interference in the Arab League. Toffolo, (2008), United Nation contribution and interference in Arab League is evidenced in many ways for instance, reconstruction of Iraq began following the writing a psychology, war, the names of articles, previous U.N. oil- for-food program was awash in accusations of Hussein's corruption as well as corruption on the part of the U.N. The oil-for-food program was designed to offset civilian suffering under the economic sanctions the U.N. imposed after the 1990 Iraq invasion of in a paper, Kuwait (Toffolo, 2008). According to Toffolo, (2008), more than 90 percent of Iraqis survived on the U.N. food basket and medical supplies. Sixty percent used to sell part of their rations to pay for other essential needs, because it was their only source of income. Of Articles In Essays. The program was suspended March 17 th and the U.S. led assault began on March 20 th . (Lederer) After the war, while some parties called for an expansion of the role of oil-for-food to achieve a reconstruction like that which followed the bloody East Timor revolutions, others (namely the writing a cover letter application, U.S. administration) called for of articles a lifting of U.N sanctions upon which oil-for food depended. In an effort to get aid to organizing dissertation articles Iraq quickly, on names, April 24 th , the Security Council voted unanimously to extend U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan's authority to speed additional food and medicine to suggestions the Iraqi people till June 3 rd . On May 22nd, after pressure from the names, U.S. and negotiations between the U.S. and opposing powers within the Security Council, such as Russia and Germany, the U.N. lifted 12 years of sanctions on Iraq (Brian, and Steidle, 2007). Lifting the sanctions provoked extreme responses, as could be expected. Writing. While Iraqis and most Arabs declare the institution of the sanctions after the in essays, Gulf War unjust, their suspension gave cause for another outrage (Toffolo, 2008).

U.S. Web Assign Ncsu. Secretary of the Treasury John Snow gave a press conference to announce the U.S.'s lifting of the sanctions declaring Today marks a new beginning for a liberated Iraq. Saddam Hussein's regime and the command economy that he forced upon the Iraqi people is now merely a painful memory (Federal News Service). One glaring discrepancy is evident in Secretary Snow's statement. While a sanction-free Iraq will create free-trade and support a liberated Iraq , the sanctions were imposed by the U.N. with the U.S.'s overwhelming support, and these sanctions were the foremost barrier to trade, not Hussein's command economy. As a further example, Snow went on in essays, to say As other nations follow the lead of the why i want to become an air force, United States, and implement, as we have today, the resolution passed by the U.N. (Brian, and Steidle, 2007). Security Council last Thursday, the people of Iraq can look forward to an end to the crippling economic deprivations they have suffered under the Saddam Hussein regime. In Secretary Snow's statement, he attempts to conflate Hussein's regime and the sanctions themselves, in effect making them synonymous. That Snow even begins the first quote from above with today, that is, the of articles in essays, day that the U.S. lifted sanctions, as opposed to the day that the why i officer essay, U.N. approved sanctions, or the day when all sanctions on Iraq had been lifted the world over, is telling.

It is in essays a complicit allowance that the U.S. played a large role in web assign ncsu keeping Iraq out of articles of the common app essay suggestions, world economy, and is now playing a large role in re-introducing Iraq, albeit on the U.S.'s terms. Brian, S. and Steidle, (2007), While the world fights over Iraq's future, the future of the Arab League and names of articles Arab relations with the rest of the world are, as could be predicted, in a state of web assign ncsu, flux stemming from mistrust on of articles in essays, all sides and disagreement from within the Arab League as well as the Western powers. In an interview from April 1, 2003, Arab League Secretary- General, Amr Moussa questioned the League's future after divisions over Iraq. The interview took place with a London-based Arabic paper, Al Sharq al-Awsat (Brian, and Steidle, 2007). Writing Letter. During the interview Moussa expressed the belief that war would not have broken out had the Arabs adopted a unified position. The war had brought out such deep divisions that Moussa himself expressed apathy over names in essays, whether or not the Arab League would survive.

He stated, Arab states wanted the war and I do not care if the Arab League remains or goes. Moussa as quoted by Brian, and Steidle, (2007), went further to make a distinction between the administration's positions and the desires of the people (Brian, and Steidle, 2007). As he said The Arab [nations] are not united, the people are. All Arab people reject the war. Responding to queries on the Arab league's future, Moussa Moussa as quoted by a psychology Brian, and Steidle, (2007) declared that the Arab League could be reorganized in another form.

He made a comparison with the in essays, League of Nations' dissolution with World War II that led to the formation of the want an air officer, United Nations. According to Moussa, the current goal of the Arab League should be to protect the regional and names of articles strategic interests of the Arab states which could potentially be more effectively achieved under the auspices of a different organization. Common. However, this sentiment never saw the light of the names of articles, day the league failed in its mandate and responsibility. Organizing. He pointed to the two big shakes that have jolted the Arab system, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the failure there, and names the Iraqi events. Now that simultaneous seeming solutions, or at least respites from the two big shakes have occurred-- reconstruction of Iraq has begun and Sharon has approved the formation of a new Palestinian state-- initiation of the reform process for why i want officer the Arab League has also been declared. On May 29th, Agence France Presse reported a meeting to take place in Cairo on June 15-16 to begin a six month study of reforms aimed at saving the Arab League. The committee's task is to draft a consensus formula on the development of the organization using proposals floated from Syria, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia among others. The article noted that several of the proposals posited the European Union's structure as a model. Two plausible obstacles to the successful implementation of these reforms immediately come to mind.

Firstly, within the charter of the Arab League, Article VII states that Unanimous decisions of the Council shall be binding upon all member-states of the League; majority decisions shall be binding only upon those states which have accepted them [see appendix]. Thus, to accept the reforms, the Arab League must be unanimously in favor of them, which given the disunity within the names in essays, League, seems unlikely. Second and a less direct impediment, but as confounding, is the discrepancy between proposed models based on the European Union and the preexisting Arab League and member states' governments. European governments, have by in for a large settled on some form of socialist-democracy which enables more equality for the citizens as well as transparency between the administrations and names in essays the citizens (Brian, and Steidle, 2007). Although this may be a generalization, it can be stated that Arab nations in general have not enjoyed as many rights in alignment with democracy as those of a cover, European nations. Arab league is toothless dog with no notable and glaring success to in essays pride itself of. The league has been taken by a few powerful member states to thesis in a use as a buffer zone in names of articles furthering their national interest instead of fighting for the entire Arab community.

It is therefore as good as nothing to letter scholarship have the league dismantled. The foreigners' interest and continuous interference has further compounded the league's inability to handle its affairs. Buy The Arab League essay paper online. Do you want to get an. Get a generous discount on the original paper on this topic.

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How to Write a Professional Resume Summary Statement. You’re on a dating site. Just an average-looking person in search of love… ( bear with me here) . Your profile bio says: “Loves traveling, meeting new friends, and swimming” Not bad, not that good either. Some people might swipe right because of common interests. Or you have cute dog pictures. Yes, this is a tutorial on how to in essays, write a resume summary. ( stick with me another moment) . Then there’s some other average-looking person with this profile bio: Funny and charming guy your friends will approve of…Will cook and watch Netflix with you, and bring you food on bad days. Loves going on epic adventures.

Who do you think is more memorable? Love for web assign ncsu, travel and meeting new friends are common on names in essays dating profiles. Writing Paper? Bringing you food on days you’re grumpy and moody? Not so much. It’s intriguing and a good conversation starter. The same goes for applications and names, writing a resume summary. Common skills get ignored. App Essay? Personality and creativity wins.

Write a resume summary statement that gets you hired. (graphic) A resume summary is a short and catchy paragraph or bullet list highlighting your most defining skills, achievements, and character traits. It's three to in essays, five sentences in length, the text equivalent of your elevator speech, and often the first thing recruiters see after opening your resume. Resume Summary vs Resume Objective. Most resume objectives read like wish lists.

It’s all about the writing paper applicant’s wants, and little to do with what the employer is looking for. Here’s an example for an IT Project Manager: I’m a Technical Project Manager with 5 years of experience. I’m now looking for names, a new challenge that allows me to leverage my IT background and resource management skills. It mentions experience and the applicant’s skills in resource management, but nothing that would stand out to a recruiter. It’s also written in a way that emphasizes what the candidate is looking for, instead of appealing to the employer. A resume’s goal is to convince recruiters you’re worth interviewing.

Because you have the talent and experience they’re looking for. Below is an app essay suggestions example of names in essays a resume summary, in bullet points, for dissertation, the same position: * Technical Project Manager with 5 years of experience. * Specializes in website creation, e-commerce sites, and website launch marketing. * Insider knowledge of the of articles in essays ecommerce market. * Proven skill in paper crafting website launch marketing campaigns that generate buzz and profit for names in essays, different industries and products. Notice how this summary statement focuses more on paper the applicant's strengths and what they can deliver to names of articles in essays, a hiring employer. When to Use a Summary and organizing articles, When to Go for a Resume Objective.

Which approach is better? The experts I talked to are divided on this. Names In Essays? Some say it’s always better to go for a summary. Others are partial to for a scholarship application, resume objectives for specific situations. Resume Summary Statements Are Often Best. Writing a resume summary statement is usually best, if you have years of names of articles in essays work experience in a cover letter for a scholarship a given profession, (as recommended per HR recruiters and career experts).

It’s the best way to display notable achievements and names in essays, skills, so it’s not hidden—ala Where’s Waldo in your work history. Upper management candidates with a long work history spanning different industries and writing a psychology, job titles need a resume executive summary. Without it, it will be hard for the recruiter to see their progression, and the professional brand they built for themselves. It’s also a chore to read through 10+, 15+, or 20+ years of experience. So, When Do You Use a Resume Objective?

A resume objective, whether it reads like a wish-list or a tad less self-centered, is names of articles in essays, a good alternative for app essay suggestions, career changers, and fresh graduates. These groups might not have much in the way of of articles in essays job-related skills or accomplishments to thesis in a, refer to in a summary statement. Of Articles In Essays? So it’s better to highlight their soft and transferable skills, and their passion for the job. Why You Need a Great Resume Summary Statement. At first glance, writing a resume summary statement looks easy. Thesis In A Paper? But there’s a huge difference between an average resume summary, and a top of the pile, interviewed-the-same-day resume summary. In this tutorial, I break down the process and names of articles, give you examples so you can follow-along.

Before we dive deeper into the step-by-step details of this tutorial, have a look at Mono, one of our professional resume template from Envato Market, which you can readily add your resume summary statement to, and stand out from letter for a application other applicants. Mono - pro names of articles in essays, resume template, available in Photoshop, Illustrator, InDesign, and Word formats. How to common app essay suggestions, Write a Resume Summary: The Ultimate Guide. 1. Make it Concise, Without Long Blocks of Text. Remember the bullet list summary statement above? That could’ve been written as a paragraph, but doing so means adding extra words (articles, conjunctions) to turn the bullets into complete sentences. It wouldn’t be concise. A popular study says recruiters spend an in essays average of six seconds reading a resume. Based on web assign ncsu average reading speeds, that converts to a measly 20 to 30 words. Of Articles? Would you waste your precious allotted time with words like “the” “a” or “and”? And because recruiters aren’t reading resumes word for word, it’s safe to web assign ncsu, say they just scan it.

When a reader scans, their eyes gloss over some parts of the text. So if your resume summary is a big block of names text, it will be extra hard for recruiters to find if there’s anything worth noticing in it. 2. List and writing a cover for a scholarship application, Highlight Your Notable Accomplishments. If you’ve been working more than two years, don’t skip this step. List down all the accomplishments you remember—the ones that earned you accolades at names, the office. Plaques, appreciations, certificates, promotions, exceeding annual targets, and monetary awards are good bets. Kudos from your boss or client, hitting a monthly quota, and attendance incentives are too commonplace. Think noteworthy milestone achievements.

Remember, these accomplishments don’t have to be from the last two or three years. If you’ve been in the same industry for a while now, accomplishments in your last position—even if it’s junior to web assign ncsu, your title now—still count. Of Articles? It shows consistency and growth. After creating your list, highlight the three most attention grabbing and relevant to your target position. For example, managers and a psychology, executives are prized for their leadership and subject-matter knowledge. Young professionals, however, are more valued for names in essays, their on-field performance. 3. Find the Transferable and Soft Skills that Make You Stand Out. Employees aren’t hired purely due to their technical skills and accomplishments.

If that were the case companies would just hire robots. Your transferable and soft skills are what distinguish you from for a candidates who have a similar degree and level of experience. Even if those skills aren’t in the job ad, or remotely related to your industry, don’t assume the hiring company doesn’t need them. List of names of articles in essays transferable and soft skill examples: Problem solving and research skills Fluent in French (or any other language) Mastered the art of selling, without being sleazy Excellent time and organizing dissertation, stress management skills.

Now you have a rough master list of names of articles everything you can put into your resume summary statement. Web Assign Ncsu? Set it aside for now. Names Of Articles? It’s time to research the employer’s side of the equation. 4. Scrutinize the Job Post and Look for Key Details. Examine the want to become force essay job post you're planning to apply to in great detail. Don’t just read it and rely on names in essays the keywords that immediately grab your attention. Identify the skills, educational requirements, keywords, and related achievements listed on the ad. If you’re not sure how to want to become an air officer essay, find these details, or think you missed something, ask yourself the following questions: What personality or character traits are they looking for? What are the skills and in essays, educational requirements listed?

What unspoken needs or challenges does this ad allude to? For example, is there anything in the job ad that suggests you’d have to writing application, do a bit of networking and customer service, even if it’s a non-sales position? Let’s analyze this job ad for a Graphic Designer: I’ve highlighted hints that suggest the names of articles in essays skills and keywords they’re looking for, but are either not mentioned directly or could be articulated better when you’re writing a resume summary. Graphic designer job ad example. Front line of a psychology paper our workflow: Possibly a client-facing job. Requires good communication skills and understanding of trends and of articles, what clients want in the sports entertainment industry. New brand identities: Keywords for this include conceptualizing, brand development, following the why i to become an air officer client brief, and launching new brands. Knowledge of social media platforms: Familiarity with size and other graphic requirements, such as text constraints. Knowledge of what works well per platform is names of articles in essays, a plus.

Pitch concepts: They’re looking for a persuasive and articulate designer that knows how to sell. Writing? Attending design workshop: Love for learning and continuous improvement. This is how you decode a job ad, and subtly include keywords and skills employers are looking for, without looking like you copied the ad onto your resume. Of Articles In Essays? Find a way to include the skills and keywords you decoded onto your master list. Do the same analysis earlier, but on resumes and LinkedIn profiles of people already working in your profession. Ask yourself: What technical and soft skills often pop up for professionals in your industry? What awards and accomplishments are displayed on their profile? What does their educational and writing a cover, professional history suggest about career progression?

What skills do they acquire as they get promoted? If you have any of those frequently mentioned skills or awards, include it on your master list. 6. Convert Your Master List into a Recruiter’s Wish List ( This is the Elimination Round ) You’re now at the most challenging step: combining your master list with what the job ad and industry demands. It might hurt to of articles, think that not all of your skills and achievements are worth including in the summary. What was all that writing and brainstorming for? Whatever you don’t include in why i want officer your resume summary statement, can be listed in your resume’s work history or skills section. For now, imagine you’re a strict editor, religiously pruning unnecessary words and information to improve a novel’s plot. Which of my accomplishments are relevant to names, the skills listed in the job ad?

Which of my transferable and soft skills are required (even subtly) in the job ad? Which might be useful in articles the industry? How can I solve the employer’s problems and names of articles, add value to the company? How can I differentiate myself from other professionals in this field? In the graphic designer job example above, there’s nothing listed that suggests extraordinary skills in common suggestions Flash Video, or any type of video editing might be needed. So if you have that skill in your master list, better relocate it further down your resume—in the skills section. That way, it’s still there if the Applicant Tracking System (ATS) looks for it. But it won’t chip at the recruiter’s limited attention when reading your resume summary statement.

7. Find Your Fit: Choose What Goes into Your Resume Statement. Drawing from your newly refined master list (see previous step): What are your top three selling points as a candidate? This includes job-specific skills, soft and transferable skills, and names of articles in essays, character traits Based on the job ad, which problems or goals, are you the best person to solve? That’s it for web assign ncsu, the tutorial. Of Articles? It’s time to paper, learn how to write a resume summary through examples:

Here’s a Rough Template You can Use. This template combines a one or two sentence short intro, with a list of of articles bullet points so you have the best of both worlds: Delivers top notch (tangible result) related to (skill) (Notable certifications if any) Excellent (soft skills) that help with (employer problem or issue) Known for providing the best (transferable or job related skill) in common (job task) IT Manager with 8 years of of articles in essays experience in web development and operations management. You’ll get the combined expertise of an employee-centered leader and common, analytical problem solver that retains and develops top talent, while running multiple profit-generating projects. * Expertise in web and software structuring, and security that lead to less client problems and troubleshooting pains later. * MCSE and MCSD Certification, with in-depth knowledge of SQL, Python, and Java. * Well-known for providing the best translation of names geek speak into writing a cover letter for a scholarship application client-friendly language. Research-driven and names of articles in essays, versatile Freelance Writer that combines journalism and data analysis with copywriting experience to deliver content that generates a buzz. * Writes articles and press releases that drive up pageviews and sales conversion.

* Professional yet persuasive communication skills used for helping clients build relations with influencers and the press. * Known for writing revenue-driving landing pages for startups and authors. None of the examples in writing a psychology paper this piece have an names in essays “ I ” or “ me ” to avoid the first person, self-centered tone sometimes found in resumes. Since a resume summary statement is read by a recruiter, it should be written for their benefit. Changing a sentence’s structure so it’s focused on “ you ” (the employer) reinforces the message of the value you bring to why i want to become officer essay, the table. A professional summary for your resume should be detailed. Of Articles? So much so that potential employers can see a vivid image of the ROI you can deliver—and how you’re going to do it. Try adding numbers, percentages or any other quantifiable metric when writing a resume summary.

Here’s an example of a resume executive summary for writing a cover for a scholarship, a Sales Director: * 17 years of combined field and management experience in names of articles in essays sales. * Increased sales in the southwest region by 25% via creative loyalty programs and sales incentives. * Hired and mentored two award-winning sales teams that ended up generating profits above 7% the national average. Have famous clients, customers, or vendors? What about an thesis paper Ivy-league degree or industry recognized certification? Include it when writing a resume summary to boost your resume’s social proof. When name dropping clients or vendors, just make sure you’re not bound by in essays any confidentiality clauses. Final Reminder: Don’t Include Tasks and Achievements You Don’t Care for? Good in Excel but hate typing formulas and analyzing numbers?

Don’t include it. Same goes for every other skill you have but don’t enjoy. Doing so will pull you into common suggestions a job that you might not like. After you've applied the tips above to make your resume summary statement stand out professionally, turn your attention to of articles in essays, other critical components that will add the polish your resume deserves. If you need more assistance with writing a killer resume, work through these Envato Tuts+ tutorials ( or browse through our resume tutorial category ):

Also, there are a number of common app essay professional resume templates on Envato Market, with creative examples features in this article curated by our Envato Tuts+ staff: Crafting a resume that lands you the job you're aiming for takes a deft hand with: applying the right strategy, writing approach, and attention to detail. Good luck applying! Envato Tuts+ tutorials are translated into other languages by of articles our community membersyou can be involved too!