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Multicultural Writers and the Quest for Identity. American literature written by authors from different backgrounds than the standard white majority often revolves around the difficult struggle to solidify and define identity. Writers such as Amy Tan, Anna Raya, and Langston Hughes continually explore how complex the search for identity was while they were young and faced with two cultures; that of phrases ethic tradition and that of the dominant white American youth culture that they were exposed to. There is a definite sense of isolation and asked to discuss in an essay, loneliness in essay, Langston Hughes’ “Theme for English B which is both directly stated and implicit. He mentions “I am the only colored student in my class which immediately isolates him but there are also other suggestions of loneliness such as when he follow the when to discuss in an essay above statement with the details of a solitary trip back to his room where he writes. Phrases. One does not get the impression that anyone else is present either at when asked to discuss, his lodgings or with him on his trip and by the time the next stanza begins, “It is not easy to know what is phrases, true for you or me the payment sense of irish essay seclusion in solidified in the obscurity of a line about thinking how many people do not know one another. When Langston Hughes states in his poem “Theme for English B that “I guess being colored doesn’t make me NOT like / the same things other folks like who are other races. / So will my page be colored that I write? he hits on an important point that is carried through in all of the works mentioned above: that there is the phrases sense that there is some great divide between people of the swimmer non-White or non-American that cannot be crossed, that somehow these differences might cause one to question if the phrases author likes different things just because of an when to discuss, ethnic difference or even more importantly, that their difference “taints everything. When Hughes suggests that his paper might “be colored he is making this difference seem even more pronounced. For the other authors in this discussion, the same theme is continued. Anna Lisa Raya feels as though everything she does, simply because of irish ethnicity might have to smack of “Latin-ness just as Amy Tan in her essay wishes to erase all pf her cultural markers to hide the “taint of her culture that she perceives at the Christmas dinner.

The fact remains that these are all young people looking to strike a balance between the cost control truths of irish essay phrases their identity against the powerful forces of the dominant white American culture. Since all of these pieces are written in retrospect from childhoods in which the struggle between this cultural and ethnic “truth was constantly battling with notions of what they should be to conform to American society, there is a subtler theme of isolation. None of the authors make reference to thinking other people they interact with meaningfully outside of their own culture and this suggests that part of the irish essay trouble of seeking an identity is based in this feeling of loneliness. Isolation because of a difference in cultural identity is also a theme expressed in “It’s Hard Enough Being Me. Socrates. The very title alone indicates that for anyone—even they are white and American is difficult enough and when she claims that “it’s hard enough to be her, she is stating that throwing the difference in culture into irish essay phrases, the mix only makes the quest for identity even more difficult. Like the speaker in Hughes’ poem (whom the reader can fairly assume is Hughes himself) Raya is isolated and struggling to mediate her cultural differences, or at least what she perceives they should be, and her attempts to fit into the upper-crust, mostly white and and critical, American social structure away from her home and family.

For Anna Lisa Raya, her struggle in irish essay, searching for an identity became more complex when she moved away from her native Los Angeles and came to essay New York to attend the prestigious Columbia University. As she began searching for identity it became clear to her that even though she had been labeled a “Latina she couldn’t write or speak Spanish, did not know how to salsa dance, nor did she even know anything about Mexican history. While in the end she is phrases, able to reconcile her identity crisis by remembering that it is important not to let other’s perceptions of who she should be not get in thesis, her way, she went through a difficult time and felt as though she was a “sell out to her culture. Raya’s essay reveals the phrases pressures put on young people to conform to a cultural ideal and term paper cost control, although she is able to figure out in the end that its important for her to please herself and be happy with being a woman of an interesting heritage and not feeling as though it was necessary for her to take on all the trappings of what society feels is the irish essay phrases proper way to be “Latina. In order to emphasize her point about the way Americans view Latinos, she makes a point of using the derogatory term “spic to socrates and critical thinking indicate that she has, just by proxy of being surrounded by white American culture, picked up on some of the more negative associations of being Latino. Breaking the unapologetic tone of Hughes’ poem and irish, deviating from the confusion and veiled anger in asked to discuss in an essay, Raya’s, Amy Tan’s essay “Fish Cheeks takes on the language and phrases, tone of a young frustrated teenager who is mortified at her own culture. She relates the story of a Christmas in which they had a white minister over to socrates and critical thinking their house with their blond son whom Amy Tan had a crush on. The awkwardness of her teenage years are made even worse by essay the “embarrassing behavior of her family which makes her want to “disappear which is a significant statement because she not only systems, wants to disappear from existence at that moment, she wishes for her whole culture to disappear and irish essay, meld into that of the white dinner guests. “When I found out that my parents had invited the minister’s family over for Christmas dinner, I cried. What would Robert think of our shabby Chinese Christmas? she laments. The fact that she uses the word “shabby indicates how she views her own culture’s celebrations and the swimmer thesis, when she says they’ll be having “Chinese food it is with distaste and embarrassment. Unlike Hughes, she is not at all proud to state her place and rather wishes to become white herself so she can be more American and essay phrases, not have Robert look at asked to discuss, her as though she were so different, so alien.

At the beginning of the essay, she claims in one of the important quotes from “Fish Cheeks”, “For Christmas I prayed for this blond-haired boy, Robert, and a slim new American nose which shows that none of her desires for identity were based in her Chinese culture. She is embarrassed when her father burps to show her enjoyed his meal and cringes as her family eats a whole fish, even with the eyes bulging out, and she notices with horror that her blond guest has a perpetual look of disgust on his face. One feels the narrator’s pain as she is humiliated and phrases, even the message at the end is socrates thinking, positive—that her mother cooked all foods that she liked and tried to irish teach her a lesson—loses its power because this is a merely an observation in hindsight. Essay Systems. Through the pain and easy embarrassment of youth it is irish essay phrases, difficult for essays her to see the message and in many ways, this essay is more about the problems of identity multicultural children face rather than about a happy and wise message at the end. It is clear that all of these authors are isolated by their culture in one way or another. Anna Lisa Raya is isolated within her culture because she feels there are invisible boundaries set up to confine and irish phrases, define her as “Latina, Langston Hughes is isolated because of his culture, because he feels that the expectations from him are supposed to be different to the rest of his white class and teacher, and Tan is isolated by her dreams of cost shedding these cultural bounds and integrating completely into the dominant culture. While all of these works have a somewhat hopeful message at the end—in short, that the authors should not care what anyone thinks and just express themselves unhindered—the fact remains that these is a lasting pain suffered by these writers. American culture, especially in recent decades, has made great efforts to “reach out to what they term, in politically-correct fashion, “minorities yet even still, one can imagine that the irish essay phrases problems associated with identity Tan, Hughes, and Raya faced are still common among children today.

In a culture like America’s—one dominated by images and messages attempting to define people, particularly on television, it is always going to be difficult for these young people. Through stories and essay, poems like those mentioned it can only be hoped that we begin to realize that identity is a tough thing to come by for irish phrases any young person, and is made even more complex by the difference in ethnicity or culture.

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India In 2020 Essay Essays and Research Papers. IST(9/5/2007) Last Updated: 03:48 IST(9/5/2007) India 2020 The Indian economy is on the path of rapid progress. Irish Essay Phrases? In July 1991 . the country’s economy was so shattered that India was on the brink of bankruptcy. The Congress won in the general elections of the swimmer thesis June 1991 and Narasimha Rao became Prime Minister. He took a wise step and made Manmohan Singh the Finance Minister who, in turn, opened up the economy to the private sector. The quantum of irish essay progress that India has made from 1991 to 2007 has not been achieved. Aditya Birla Group , Agriculture , Economics 1628 Words | 2 Pages. India Becomes Super Power in 2020.

Skip to Navigation Skip to Content OPPapers.comResearch Papers and Essays for All Join Login Writing Service Help Contact Us Question? Email . Us Join Search Get Better Grades Today By Joining OPPapers.com and mba entry Accessing Over 325,000 Articles and Essays ! get better grades Will India Become A Superpower? Home Page» Biographies» Science and Technology Will India Become A Superpower? Sixty years ago, in the summer of 1948, our nation, then newly born, was struggling for its very survival. India , Indian Army , Indian National Congress 663 Words | 3 Pages.

ndia Vision 2020 is a Master Plan to essay, transform India into a developed country by 2020 . And Critical? This idea was the brainchild . of former President of irish essay phrases India A.P.J. Abdul Kalam. Socrates? By the year 2020 , if things go according to the script, India would have become a force to reckon with. Essay? Of course, the economic meltdown has been something of essay payment systems a dampener but experts feel that the world would have emerged from irish essay phrases, its worst effects within two years. Besides, India has not been affected as severely as the US.

Entrepreneurship. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam , India , Pratibha Patil 1019 Words | 3 Pages. India by and large is endowed with untapped abundant resources, with its strategic locations straddling the continent of Asia and the growing . Essay? prominence of the Middle East. A nation with unique multicultural and religious denomination, I can only say that this sub-continent country can become a Superpower economy by 2020 . First, we set our sights to phrases, the Energy sector specifically India's biofuel industry. The Swimmer Thesis? It is an irish essay phrases established fact that the mba entry essays, country is the world's seventh largest energy producer. Alternative energy , Energy development , Nuclear power 969 Words | 3 Pages. statement has to operate several levels of generality and specificity.

My plain vision statement of INDIA 2020 - shall be “A . fearless, strong, self reliant all rounder India ”. I do compare India with a cricket player having all skills of the game to irish, remain a match winner. WHERE THE MIND WOULD BE WITHOUT FEAR The following poem by the great poet Rabindranath Tagore adumbrates my insight of INDIA in 2020 . Where the mind is without fear and the head is held high. Where the knowledge is thinking, free Where the. Constitution of India , Government , India 1898 Words | 6 Pages. INDIA – THE YEAR 2020 In the year 2020 , everything will and must change. From the rule of government to the . way we live our everyday lives; all things will face some type of major or minor change. Food amp; Nutritional security: * India will have a vibrant, highly productive commercial farm sector that can ensure food amp; nutritional security, generate employment opportunities, stimulate industrialization, and produce renewable energy from irish, biomass and fuel crops. * India will have. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam , Caste , Discrimination 742 Words | 3 Pages.

India with her varied incarnations is an old civilization and an extremely complex society. Her glorious past, natural beauty, resources, vast . size and above all her unique geographical location has always given her the pride of place in the world. With the ups and essay downs of history it has retained its vibrancy. My mission of India 2020AD is essay, a visionary’s agenda full of hopes and resolves to work towards it. As understanding of the term paper, historical traditions is very important in order to form a concrete. Caste , Civilization , Discrimination 1032 Words | 3 Pages. India the irish phrases, Youngest Nation by 2020. cuts spending on dependants, spurring economic growth.

India is set to have one of the youngest populations in the world by 2020 , . as well as a growing aspirational and lower middle class which is supposed to important contributor in growth and essays the demand factor. While most of the countries of developed western world as well as many of the irish phrases, developing countries like China are likely to face shortage of essay inflation and deflation working population in coming decades, India will have the youngest population, thanks to the failure. Demographic economics , Demographics , Demography 883 Words | 3 Pages. India Vision 2020 was initially a document prepared by the Technology Information, Forecasting and irish essay Assessment Council (TIFAC) of . India's Department of Science and systems Technology under the chairmanship of Kalam and irish a team of 500 experts.[1] The plan is mba entry, further detailed in the book India 2020 : A Vision for the New Millennium, which Kalam co authored with Dr. Y.S.

Rajan. Kalam described the plan as follows:[2] Transforming the nation into a developed country, five areas in combination have been identified. Agricultural economics , Agriculture , Crop rotation 843 Words | 3 Pages. India In a country with 1.18 billion people and counting it is hard to keep track of all the small things going on without a strong and . organized government. Throughout India you can see various issues that may be keeping it from becoming an irish essay phrases MDC. Major problems such as language differences, extreme poverty, health problems, migration issues; can all lead to one conclusion; Corruption. Power tends to corrupt, and to discuss essay absolute power corrupts absolutely. It’s not easy to define corruption. But in.

Bribery , Corruption , Corruption in India 855 Words | 3 Pages. considerable challenge to the development of transport infrastructure. Nevertheless, the state has made significant progress in road connectivity in the last . Phrases? few decades. Himachal at present has the highest road density among all the hill states of India . Although Himachal also has three airports and two narrow gauge rail tracks, roads remain the main mode of transport in Himachal. [edit]Roads [pic] [pic] Himachal Road Transport Corporationbus outside of Manali Eight national highways (NH). Himachal Pradesh , Kullu , Kullu district 996 Words | 4 Pages. religious population, India has seen many arguments, debates, and parliaments questioning originality of the religions, the origins, . Cost Control? traditions, similarities and most of irish all the thinking, differences of South Asian people. In his essay , “Three Hundred Ramayanas”, AK Ramanujan explores the vast range of Ramayana tradition in South Asia. He argues that there is phrases, not one Ramayana, but a myriad throughout South Asia.

Despite counterarguments by other scholars, Ramanujan’s essay reveals how diverse India is in its traditions. Buddhism , Hinduism , India 2618 Words | 7 Pages. Essay on Cultural Heritage of India. Essay on cultural heritage of India A nation without a cultural heritage is like an orphan who has nothing to feed upon said . Emerson. The individual being, or race, or nation must necessarily have certain roots somewhere. Thinking? They are not of much value unless they have certain roots in the past which is after all the accumulation of experience of generations. Countries achieve greatness not because of their material prosperity but because they follow traditions. Every country's culture is peculiar. Culture , History of India , India 807 Words | 3 Pages. India and Belgium Imperialism Essay. contact with the home country.

With any nation allowing to claim any part of Africa, the lack of unity among Africans caused European weapons to be the far . greater power than any African power. The British were more justified in their invasion of irish essay India , than the Belgians were to their invasion of the Congo, because they eventually took into account the culture of the native people where as the Belgians did not. One of the socrates and critical thinking, worst cases of imperialistic invasion was the Belgians invasion in irish essay, the Congo. Africa , British Empire , Colonialism 1245 Words | 4 Pages. objectives, a vision statement has to operate at several levels of paper control generality and specificity.

India in 2020 - A Vision It has . Phrases? always been the dream of the swimmer thesis every citizen of an economically backward and poor country, to see that the country developed with no negative systems or ideas or beliefs. It is phrases, my dream also to see India as one of the most developed nations. 2020 is a good deadline for seeing a developed India . One always feels sad when we see someone begging on the streets or when we see dirty, broken. Country classifications , Cyprus , Developed country 487 Words | 2 Pages. SHORT ESSAY ON HISTORY OF INDIA India has frequently been subjected to horrors of famine. From 1858 to the end . of the 19th century, more than twenty famines occurred in inflation and deflation, India . A major characteristic of British rule in phrases, India , and the net result of British economic policies, was the prevalence of extreme poverty among its people. While historian disagree on the question whether India was getting poorer or not under British rule, there is no disagreement on the fact that throughout the period. 19th century , British Raj , Deccan Plateau 1551 Words | 5 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- BSP2005 Research Essay - Stage 5 ------------------------------------------------- . Corruption in India - Causes, Impact and the Fight Against Corruption Despite the the swimmer, cohabitation of corruption and phrases exceptional economic growth in India , researchers argue that that there is when in an, potential for further growth that is held back by the institutions of administration and linked corruption (Heston amp; Kumar, 2008). The roots of corruption can be.

1922 , Economics , India 1240 Words | 4 Pages. Slogans On India Of My Dreams Essays. Bottom of Form Slogans on India Of My Dreams Essays and Term Papers Top of Form Bottom of Form Top of Form Bottom of Form My . India My Dream the essay, dream of every citizen of a country, to to discuss essay, see that the essay, country develops with no negative systems or ideas or beliefs. It is my dream and my vision that India would be the thinking, most powerful and developed nation in irish essay phrases, the world in near future. India will be a golden bird of the essay inflation, coming years. In my dreams more. Vision of My Dream India International Day against. Artificial intelligence , Carl Jung , Cricket 1194 Words | 4 Pages. in these 65 years is a rhetorical question for which answers can be affirmative and negative. No doubt that India is a safer country, a country . where the living cost is irish phrases, cheaper. Mba Entry? This is the phrases, place where you can have the speech freedom complaining the system without providing any suggestions or alternative.

India is fast developing and all Indians dream of becoming a developed nation by mba entry 2020 , it’s high time for we Indians to think whether we can achieve this target within a short span of about eight. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam , Developed country , Developing country 1409 Words | 4 Pages. Essay on irish essay Cultural Heritage of India. Cultural Heritage of the swimmer thesis India – Essay India has a rich cultural tradition. Essay? There is a harmonious blend of art, . religion and philosophy in the Indian culture. They are so beautifully interwoven in the fabric of Indian way of essay systems life and irish essay phrases thought that they are inseparable. Indian culture is actually an essay payment systems outcome of continuous synthesis and irish has absorbed many external influences in asked in an essay, the course of long jurney of history.

The first stirring of civilisation occurred amongst the people of India some 4,000 years before. Carnatic music , Culture , Hindu 1156 Words | 3 Pages. JSB Market Research : Coal Mining in India to 2020. ?JSB Market Research : Coal Mining in India to 2020 Released On 20th June 2014 Synopsis Coal Mining in . India to 2020 provides historical and forecast data on coal production by grade and by type, reserves, consumption by type and trade by type to 2020 . The trade section provides information on export as well as import volume. Irish Essay Phrases? The report also includes drivers and restraints affecting the industry, profiles of major coal mining companies, information on the major active, exploration.

Bituminous coal , Coal , Coal assay 1326 Words | 6 Pages. Essay on the Constitution of India. Atlee, who was sympathetic towards the Indians, became the Prime Minister of essay inflation and deflation England. He sent the Cabinet Mission to India to solve the . Irish? political problem (whether to divide the country or to leave it united) and to and critical thinking, devise means of granting her independence. It recommended that there should be a Constituent Assembly to frame the irish, Constitution of India . The Constituent Assembly of India met under the temporary chairmanship of Sachidananda Sinha, as he was then the eldest member of the Assembly, and elected. Democracy , Discrimination , Equality of essay outcome 2631 Words | 7 Pages.

Sample Essay 2 Harvard, Current affairs/family illness: Medicine The Key to Medical Advancement Throughout the twentieth century, virtually . every aspect of modern medicine has reaped the rewards of technological advancements. Society will be forever indebted to those pioneers who conceived the vast array of preventions, treatments, and cures that are readily available to mankind today. Apparently, the imaginations of these pioneers know no boundaries, for every day we are informed of progress in. Growth hormone , Hypothalamus , India 2020 3550 Words | 10 Pages. Essay on the Craze of irish Cricket in India by thesis Subha Sarkar Craze, courage, fear, fantasy, win… and the list goes on and on, of . words that have found entry in essay phrases, the cricket lexicon. What do these words signify in their association with the world of cricket? Craze to essays, grab the accessories of the favorite cricketers, courage to postpone the important activities when one knows the load of work pending can prove fatal if not done in time, fear of losing the match when six runs are required on essay phrases the last ball. Cricket , Cricket World Cup , Dismissal 1901 Words | 5 Pages. 2020 India Coal Mining Industry Forecast. Coal Mining in India to 2020 : Order report by thesis calling marketreportsstore.com at +1 888 391 5441 OR send an email on . sales@marketreportsstore.com with Coal Mining in India to 2020 in irish essay phrases, subject line and your contact details. Synopsis Coal Mining in India to thesis, 2020 provides historical and forecast data on coal production by grade and by type, reserves, consumption by type and trade by type to 2020 . The trade section provides information on irish essay phrases export as well as import volume.

The report also includes. Chhattisgarh , Coal , Madhya Pradesh 629 Words | 3 Pages. India , “The land of Lords” is the world’s ancient civilization. India is also the when asked in an essay, land of various cultural diversities, where you . will find a beautiful contrast of customary and contemporary ingredients. It is a place where you experience spirituality and irish phrases solitude together. India is the swimmer, a land with legendary sagas, rich rituals, distinct cultures, various festivals and essay ceremonies. Also a land of historical monuments, architectural miracles and rich historical past. Let us know more about India 5,000. Hinduism , History of socrates India , India 845 Words | 3 Pages. “ INDIA IN 2020 ” Unless and until there is essay, rather a global war or a great, devastating natural calamity during the coming . six-seven years, I am confident of witnessing a number of great changes in our over-all set-up.

On the population front, we are sure to be the first in the world, leaving even China far behind. There would be far less room for each of us to and critical, live on, the availability of water, medical-care and essay jobs would be another comparatively much reduced. However, the only ray of hope amidst. Rural area , Space exploration , The Power 603 Words | 2 Pages. Government Official country name:? India Government System:? Constitutional Federal (federation) Republic Head of State:? . Pranab Mukherjee Official Languages:? Hindi, English Region:? Asia Allies/blocs:? Russia, Singapore, South Korea People Population:? 1,220,800,358 Growth Rate:? 1.51% Major religions/cultures:? Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism Standard of living:? Overall life expectancy rate: 65 infant mortality rate:? 72 per 1,00 live births literacy rate:?.

Child mortality , India , Millennium Development Goals 933 Words | 3 Pages. A Passage To India portrays the stance of the mba entry essays, British people in India , wherein the Englishman is viewed as a racist, . self-righteous and rude set who deny to relate to irish phrases, the Indians on the swimmer thesis an individual level or rather see Indians as a person. A Passage to India is irish essay, divided into payment systems, three sections: Mosque, Cave and Temple, each part portraying a symbolic meaning. Chandrapore an unusual city situated beside the river Ganges, though being grime when compared to the structures of the British colonials, Chandrapore’s. British Isles , British people , England 1616 Words | 5 Pages.

Country INDIA . The “I” in irish phrases, India is essays, ‘Me’. ‘I’ am ‘ India ’ and ‘ India ’ is in ‘me’. Thus, if . Phrases? India , my Country, is not doing well in some spheres and is still amongst the and critical, Developing Countries of the World is spite of its man power then we need to ask ourselves as to who is responsible for it? Dr. Abdul kalam had once asked a little Girl, what was her dream for essay phrases India ? She replied “I dream of a developed India ”.this impressed him and to be honest this is also ‘My Dream’. I dream of an India where every. A. Inflation And Deflation? P. J. Abdul Kalam , History of India , India 878 Words | 3 Pages. Essay on Higher Education in India. overall structure of myriad controls with a rigid bureaucracy has stifled its development. Essay Phrases? However, on the science and technology side, India . has built up the largest stock of scientists, engineers and term cost control technicians. Since 1950-51, when there were only 2,63,000 students in all disciplines in essay phrases, 750 colleges affiliated to 30 universities, the growth of higher education in India has been phenomenal.

Today, there are more than 11 million students in thesis, 17,000 colleges affiliated to 230 universities and non-affiliated. College , Community college , Further education 1219 Words | 4 Pages. Agriculture in India has a significant history. Today, India ranks second worldwide in farm output. Agriculture and allied . sectors like forestry andfisheries accounted for 16.6% of the GDP in 2009, about 50% of the total workforce.[1] The economic contribution of agriculture to India's GDP is steadily declining with the country's broad-based economic growth. Still, agriculture is demographically the broadest economic sector and plays a significant role in the overall socio-economic fabric of essay phrases India . ------------------------------------------------- . Agricultural economics , Agricultural policy , Agriculture 1895 Words | 6 Pages. want India to thesis, become a respectable super power in the world. India ha a rich past. it was because of irish its riches, that it was . Thesis? invaded innumerable times and its wealth was plundered.

The British rulers exploited the phrases, country. At the time of independence, the country was in turmoil, its economy had been shuttered and there was unrest all around. In sixty years since independence, the country has made tremendous progress. However, it is still for behind the developed counties of the world. India of my.

Better , Economics , Economy 1073 Words | 4 Pages. 2020 Orthopedic Prosthetics Industry India- Market Analysis Opportunities. The report “ India Orthopedic Prosthetics Market Outlook to 2020 ? by GlobalData is now available at RnRMarketResearch.com. Contact . sales@rnrmarketresearch.com with India Orthopedic Prosthetics Market Outlook to 2020 in subject line and your contact details to purchase this report or get your questions answered. This new report, “ India Orthopedic Prosthetics Market Outlook to 2020 ?, provides key market data on the India Orthopedic Prosthetics market. The report provides value, in millions of US dollars. Abbas Kiarostami , Average , Data 725 Words | 3 Pages.

? INDIA IN 2050 India is the Country of diversity. It is . the beauty if diversity that makes india a very unique country in every aspect be it technical, scientific, social, or environmental. Every Indian is worth of accomplishing every task that can flourishes the socrates and critical, economy of the irish, nation. Even history has proved that Indians are worth gems for world in the form of the vivekanand, mahatma Gandhi, mother Teresa, satuyajit ray, sam. Asia , Demography , Developed country 1208 Words | 4 Pages. A Passage to India In this excerpt from the novel A Passage to mba entry essays, India , the author explores several themes through the use of irish essay . figurative language, linguistic features, and literary devices. Essay Inflation? One theme is the triviality and evanescence of mankind’s order and plans when juxtaposed with the splendor and immutability of the universe. This comparison draws attention to itself when the narrator begins his description of the sky: “Some kites hovered overhead, impartial, …and with an impartiality exceeding.

British Empire , British overseas territories , Colonialism 964 Words | 3 Pages. India’s Trade in 2020 : A Mapping of essay Relevant Factors Nagesh Kumar A paper prepared for paper cost control the Committee on Vision . 2020 for India , Planning Commission, Government of India Revised Version: 22 May 2001 Research and Information System for the Non-aligned and Other Developing Countries, Zone 4B, India Habitat Centre, Lodi Road, New Delhi-110003. Tel.: 468 2175, Fax: 468 2174; Email: nagesh@ndf.vsnl.net.in An earlier version of the essay phrases, paper was. Developed country , Export , Free trade 9141 Words | 31 Pages. driven.

They have been confined to the hearth and home. The orthodox male-oriented society in India has still not been able to payment systems, adjust itself to . the fresh wave of women's liberation. But today the times have changed, the Indian woman has cast off her age-old shakles of serfdom and irish male domination. Term Cost? She has come to her own and started scaling the ladders of social advance with proud dignity. In Vedic India , woman enjoyed an enviable status She was considered to be a goddess, something like the Greek. History of India , India , Indian National Congress 914 Words | 3 Pages. Essay on essay phrases Technical Education in India. The All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) is the statutory body and a national-level council for technical education, under . Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development.[2] Established in November 1945 first as an advisory body and the swimmer thesis later on in 1987 given statutory status by an Act of irish phrases Parliament, AICTE is responsible for payment systems proper planning and coordinated development of the technical education and management education system in India . Phrases? The AICTE accredits postgraduate. Academia , Academic degree , Education 498 Words | 3 Pages.

Essay on India—an Emerging Power in the World. Essay on India —an Emerging Power in the World Rare are the moments in history when a nation suddenly captures the imagination of . the thesis, world. Irish Phrases? For India , those rare moments have arrived. When Asked Essay? The country is achieving a high economic growth of over 8 per cent of its GDP annually, on a consistent basis. In fact, India’s economic growth rate is second highest in the world-next only to China. Irish? The developed world has been left behind. Paper? The two Asian giants- India and China have today turned the leaders of growth. Capital accumulation , Economic development , Economic growth 1212 Words | 3 Pages. Essay on essay Reservation System in India. Reservation System in India The concept of reservation was enshrined in the Constitution to allow the so-called deprived classes to come at . par with the so-called privileged ones.

The Constitution of India allows this kind of positive discrimination in order to bring about equality of opportunity and status in the society. Essay Payment Systems? The founding fathers had never intended Reservation to be a temporary phenomenon. Reservations to the underprivileged were to be extended until they were uplifted socially and. Affirmative action , Caste , Discrimination 1193 Words | 3 Pages. essay on education system in india. the responsibility of the State since India is phrases, a welfare State. It is an integral part of the social sector of the economy. It adds to the . efficiency and productivity of human resources leading to sustainable economic growth.

Its direct and the swimmer thesis indirect effects can be observed on the performance of essay phrases economic sector and social sector of the country. Essay? The role of phrases State is important in education sector for its vertical and horizontal growth. Education system in India is similar to that of the swimmer thesis various other South. Curriculum , Education , Higher education 1224 Words | 4 Pages. North India South India Comparison Essay. North India and South India both had many similarities and differences. Regional kingdoms contained alike and dislike economies, . Essay? political views, and religions. Over time, both areas developed in different ways.

These ways shaped the form of India today. Essay? North and South India flourished because of irish phrases its similar and different qualities. Many factors impacted the similar economies of essay systems North and South India . Monsoons affected both regions and caused long rainfalls in the summer and dry winds in the. Hinduism , India , Indian Ocean 875 Words | 3 Pages. Part A - Essays on Political Economic issues 1. “Education for irish essay All” Campaign in India : Myth or Reality. Systems? (2006) 2. How far has . democracy in essay, India delivered the goods? (2003) 3. Judicial Activism and Indian Democracy. (2004) 4. Water Resources Should Be Under the paper, Control of the Central Government. (2004) 5. What is real education? (2005) 6. How should a civil servant conduct himself? (2003) 7. Irish? Women’s Reservation Bill Would Usher in Empowerment for Women in India . (2006) 8. Globalization. Economy of India , Education in India , Hindu 1441 Words | 6 Pages.

Section C Travelling has always been something I wanted to do. Cost? Every time I visit a new area, I feel a new sense of understanding is created. Irish? One such . understanding was learned during one of my vacations. Socrates Thinking? In December of 2011, my family and I went to India . Irish Essay Phrases? We visited a city by the swimmer the Ganges River called Haridwar. We took part in a ceremony which involved prayer to irish phrases, the Hindu gods and goddesses. After the ceremony, while walking back, there was this massive crowd that was all exiting the area. Thinking? Walking down. Gang , Islam , Islam in India 1051 Words | 4 Pages. The Rise of Technology in India Essay.

INTRODUCTION The rise of technology in India has brought into force many types of equipment that aim at more customer satisfaction. ATM is . one such machine which made money transactions easy for customers to irish essay, bank. The other side of socrates and critical this improvement is the essay phrases, enhancement of the inflation, culprit’s probability to essay phrases, get his ‘unauthentic’ share. Traditionally, security is handled by mba entry requiring the essay, combination of and deflation a physical access card and a PIN or other password in order to access a customer’s account. This model. Advanced Encryption Standard , Automated teller machine , Customer 2216 Words | 7 Pages. Indiatimes|The Times of India |The Economic Times| More ET 500 Companies Top of Form NewsStock Quote Bottom of irish essay Form Top of Form | | Bottom . of Form | | Home News Markets IPO Personal Finance Tech Jobs Opinion Features Blogs Slideshows Budget 2013 ET NOW You are here: ET Home » ET 500 » ET 500 List 2012 India's Top Companies Figures in Rs Crores Rank2012 | 2011 | Company | Revenue | %CHG | PAT | %CHG | MCAP | %CHG | ASSETS | INDUSTRY | ACTION | 1 | 1 | Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. Banks of India , BSE Sensex , Companies based in Mumbai 4941 Words | 12 Pages.

Jessica Shaw December 3, 2011 Individual Project Ale and Lager Beer in India Beer first appeared in India in the . mid-1700’s, during the early years of the British Empire. The demand of when in an essay beer came from the British troops and other British officials who were suffering in the blistering heat of the Indian climate. The demand for beer was at such a high rate that a British distributor, George Hogson, developed a special type of beer in his brewery in irish essay phrases, London, England. Asked To Discuss Essay? The beer was dubbed Indian. Ale , Beer , Beer style 1313 Words | 4 Pages. 9/5/13 Poverty and India - College Essay - Sayakganguly Log In Essays Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator . More Search 1 400 000 E Essays » Business Economy Poverty and India Report | By sayakganguly, March 2011 | 2 Pages (453 Words) | 2636 Views| 2 rating(s) Sign Up to access full essay This is a Premium essay Poverty is one of the irish essay, main issues, attracting the attention of the when to discuss essay, economists. It indicates a condition in which a person fails to maintain a living standard. India , Overpopulation , Poverty 680 Words | 4 Pages. Happy Country - Essay written by Vaibhav - My Son When every Indian is happy then India is happy, when no one sleeps hungry then . India is happy, when we respect each other then India is irish essay, happy. Term Paper Cost Control? Every time we think that what we have got from our country, we never think what we have given to essay phrases, the country or what is asked in an, our contribution for essay the development of the country. Let us sit and brood for a while, if J.R.D.

Tata had also thought the same way of thinking getting something from the country, how could we have. Caste , Developed country , Developing country 907 Words | 3 Pages. India and China are the emerging economies. Both form an important part of essay phrases BRICS. At present, China is the payment systems, world’ second largest economy and . India the Fourth (as per PPP). Both India and China have been said to be the global leaders in the coming 20 years. But what is it that will differentiate both the economies in 2020 ?? There is irish essay phrases, a whole range of differences between the Chinese and the Indian economy. Let us begin by the swimmer analysing the demographics.

The Chinese economy is at present having the advantage. BRIC , Economics , Foreign exchange reserves 510 Words | 2 Pages. ? Poverty in irish phrases, India 963 million people around the world are living in hunger, 923 million people are malnourished, about 5.6 million children . die each year from malnutrition and one-third of the essay and deflation, world’s poverty is just in India . India has one of the fastest growing economies in the world, that’s why so many wonder why their poverty rate isn’t decreasing faster. The majority of Indians are living off of an average of 2 dollars per day, most living in villages and farm lands live off of less. I will. Amartya Sen , Caste , India 2231 Words | 6 Pages. ?Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the irish, first Prime Minister of independent India was born at Allahabad on 14 November 1889. He was the only son of . Mba Entry? Motilal Nehru and Swarup Rani. From the age of 15 to essay, 23 Jawaharlal studied in term paper, England at essay phrases, Harrow, Cambridge and the Inner Temple returning to India in 1912. Jawaharlal Nehru remained the Prime Minister of India for 17 long years and can rightly be called the architect of modern India . He set India on the swimmer the path of essay phrases democracy and nurtured its institution - Parliament.

Allahabad , India , Indian independence movement 1072 Words | 3 Pages. Title of the paper India 2020 – A SWOT Analysis Submitted By, Sunil B. Lalchandani Lecturer, Management Studies . Department (BMS) Address : College Address : Residence Smt. CHM College, 404, Jeevandeep Tower, P.Box. Inflation? No. Essay Phrases? 17, Opp. Railway Station, Near Post Office, O.T.Sec; Ulhasnagar – 421003 Ulhasnagar – 421001.

Dist. Thane, (MS). Dist. Thane, (MS) Tel No. 0251 – 2552940 Tel No. 0251 – 2540486 Fax No. 0251 – 2552869 Mob No. 0 9850531313 . Economic growth , Economics , Economy of India 5162 Words | 15 Pages. ?Open main menu Last edited 1 day ago by Kautilya3 Watch this page India This article is about the Republic of thesis India . . For other uses, see India (disambiguation). Republic of India Bharat Ga?arajya Horizontal tricolor flag bearing, from top to irish phrases, bottom, deep saffron, white, and green horizontal bands.

In the mba entry essays, center of the irish essay phrases, white band is a navy-blue wheel with 24 spokes. Thesis? Three lions facing left, right, and toward viewer, atop a frieze containing a galloping horse, a 24-spoke wheel, and. Bay of Bengal , East India Company , India 844 Words | 4 Pages. This article is about the Republic of India . For other uses, see India (disambiguation). Essay Phrases? Republic of when essay India Bharat . Ganrajya Horizontal tricolour flag bearing, from top to bottom, deep saffron, white, and irish essay green horizontal bands. In the centre of the white band is a navy-blue wheel with 24 spokes.

Three lions facing left, right, and thesis toward viewer, atop a frieze containing a galloping horse, a 24-spoke wheel, and an elephant. Underneath is a motto: ??????? ????. Flag Emblem Motto: Satyameva Jayate. Bay of Bengal , India , Jana Gana Mana 735 Words | 4 Pages. The leaders of our freedom movement, under the stewardship of Mahatma Gandhi, had dreamt of an independent and prosperous India . On this day in essay, . 1947, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru took the first step towards the realization of that dream by hoisting the Tricolour at the Red Fort. The journey we began on 15 August, 1947 is now 65 years old.

We have achieved much in these 65 years. Today is certainly a day to celebrate the success of our democracy. However, on this occasion we should also introspect about. Democracy , India , Indian independence movement 1199 Words | 3 Pages. DOING BUSINESS WITH INDIA REALITIES, MYTHS PERCEPTIONS ANMOL SOOD JALTEK GROUP 18TH MARCH 2010 DOING BUSINESS WITH INDIA . The Swimmer? INTRODUCTION Talk will focus on doing business in India keeping in mind 4 perspectives: 1. Irish? INVESTOR 2. TRADE ACQUIRER 3. TRADE DIVESTMENT 4. TRADING RELATIONSHIP I will show a slightly different perspective to TCS!

Controversial – POI perspective! No IST (Indian Standard Time!) – will keep to the swimmer, strict timings (hopefully!) www.jaltek-group.com JALTEK GROUP INTRODUCTION . Economics , Financial market , India 915 Words | 5 Pages. Bankers Adda How to write Essay in SBI PO Exam? Dear readers, as you know that SBI PO 2014 Paper will also contain a Descriptive Test of irish essay . 50 marks (1 hour duration), which will consist of English Language Comprehension, Short Precis, Letter Writing Essay ). So, here we are presenting you How to write Essay ? and thesis few points to remember while writing an essay phrases essay in the swimmer thesis, the exam, which will be important for upcoming SBI PO exam. How to write an essay ? 1. Analyze the prompt. Note exactly what. Essay , Jawaharlal Nehru , Linguistics 812 Words | 4 Pages.

1. In India 828 million people, or 75.6amp;#37; of the population, live on less than $2 a day, compared to 72.2% in Sub-Saharan Africa.[ The . World Bank further estimates that fully one third (33%) of the world's poor reside in irish essay, India . Mba Entry Essays? According to essay, the latest (as of December 2008) World Bank estimates on poverty, based on 2005 data, 256 million Indians, or 41.6% of the asked to discuss in an essay, country's population, survive below the updated international poverty line of $1.25 (PPP) per day 2. Irish Phrases? Although Indian economy has.

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Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA) The GMAT Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA) consists of two, 30 minute components. One asks you to essay phrases analyze an argument, and the other asks you to analyze an issue. These 2 essays can appear in either order when you take the GMAT. A Warning About Studying the Downloadable GMAT Essay Questions. The test writers at the GMAC have published two complete lists of essay inflation, current Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA) questions. You can download the analysis of an argument questions here and the analysis of an issue questions here. A note of irish phrases, warning: Please understand that you do not want to spend the time it would take to practice responding to every one of these questions. It is, however, a good and efficient preparation technique to review the list and to think about how you would respond to essay and deflation a few selected questions. Your essays will most likely be graded by a teaching assistant or graduate student from a university English department.

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You will only use approximately 20 of the allotted 30 minutes to actually write each essay. You will probably only be able to write about 350 words, which translates into 5 or 6 paragraphs. Since this must include an introduction and conclusion, you will have only essay 3 or 4 paragraphs in thinking, which to express 3 or 4 ideas. This is the formula for essay a winning essay: express a few ideas (the top ones you identified during your initial brainstorming session) in a few interesting sentences. Systems? Keep the essay structure simple. Remember, you only irish phrases have a short amount of essay systems, time to phrases write the essay, and payment the graders have an even shorter amount of time to essay evaluate it. You certainly don't want to confuse the graders by using unduly complex structures or language.

You are best served by using an introductory paragraph that clearly explains what you are going to say in the essay. You then want to develop your 3 or 4 ideas, each in its own separate paragraph. The Swimmer Thesis? Make sure your opinions are clearly stated. (Leaving out opinion or reasoning is probably the most common mistake people make on the writing portion of the GMAT exam. Do not worry about offending a grader with your opinions or analysis. AWA topics are not that controversial.) Finally, in your conclusion, you want to summarize your main points, and tie the essay phrases, conclusion back to the introduction.

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Be specific. One of the key criteria graders look for is your ability to present ideas and arguments clearly and persuasively. Many writers grow vague when pressed for time. Do not let this happen to irish you. However, do not let yourself slip into dogmatism, either. Essay Systems? It is essay phrases appropriate, even helpful, to acknowledge the limitations of your arguments and to concede the validity of opposing points of view. Our society in general, and the graders in particular, look highly upon the judicious individual. Essay? Because AWA essays are so short, however, such acknowledgements should be given only irish essay phrases once or twice, and only in the body of the essay. Do not use big words just for the sake of using them. Despite a popular myth to the contrary, the AWA is not designed to judge your vocabulary.

Your grader will get a first impression which is the only impression he or she will be able to form in term cost, 2 minutes that you used big words to mask weaknesses in your analysis. Grammar is important. The grammar you use to express your ideas influences the way that people receive them. If your essay is grammatically incorrect, most people graders included will conclude that the essay's logic, structure, etc., are also incorrect. Do not allow this natural bias to harm your essay grade.

Vary the length of irish, your sentences. This will make your essay easier for the grader to read. It also signals that you are a smart and effective writer. Asked To Discuss? The Analysis of an Argument Essay. You will be given a one-paragraph argument to critique. You are not asked to present or discuss your own opinion on the subject. Instead, you are supposed to find fault with the argument's reasoning.

Use your 5 minute brainstorming session to think of some thoughtful and perceptive analyses of what you just read. These analyses should be geared towards providing a better remedy towards the stated problem. A specific and sufficiently-detailed example should be used with each argument you develop. As stated above, you should have 3 to 4 paragraphs in irish, the body of the the swimmer, essay. Each of these paragraphs should contain one point that you wish to make about the argument. Graders like to see you use specifics in your essay. For example, find the generalizations included in the one-paragraph argument. Essay? (We guarantee this will not be difficult to essay do.) You will be given a one-paragraph text discussing the pros and cons of some issue. You will be asked to select the position with which you agree. The graders will have no preference towards which position you decide to support. During your initial 5 minutes of irish phrases, brainstorming, try to come up with points that support each side of the argument. That way, you are more likely to select the position that you can defend well in your essay (even if it's not the position you would take if you had more time or space to explain yourself).

As you do in your analysis of an argument, be sure to include a specific example supporting or illustrating each point you make in the body of this essay. And Critical Thinking? It's a good idea to acknowledge the complexity of the issue in your introduction. Irish Essay Phrases? It is also a good practice to socrates and critical thinking concede 1 or 2 points supporting the other position in the body of the essay. Do not worry that this might make you appear indecisive to the graders. Recall what we stated above, about graders looking fondly on evidence of irish, a judicious individual. Be careful with your choice of language and tone on this essay.

You are being asked to write an issues analysis, not a campaign ad. Many test takers make the mistake of adopting language that calls on essay the reader to take action. The test grader will react far more favorably to a persuasive argument that lays out the essay phrases, reasons to support a position but does not call on paper control him or her to irish essay phrases take any immediate action. GMAT TM and essays GMAT CAT TM are registered trademarks of the Graduate Management Admission Council TM . The GMAC does not endorse, nor is it affiliated in any way with the owner or any content of this web site.

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essay on steelpan The Creation of a People’s Music. William R. Aho, Ph.D. Re - published with the expressed permission from author William R. Essay Phrases! Aho. Published in Latin American Music Review, Vol. The Swimmer Thesis! 8, No.1, 1987, 26-58.

Contents or portions of this video cannot be rebroadcast, changed or manipulated in any way without the expressed permission of the author. The focus of this paper is the class, color, and race components in the struggle to irish essay, create a people’s music — a music originally and to discuss in an essay, essentially of the economically disadvantaged and essay, less formally educated citizens of Trinidad and Tobago, primarily those of African descent. It is based on interviews with former and present panmen and pan women in the swimmer thesis Trinidad and irish phrases, Tobago and also draws on government documents, newspapers, and personal observations during some sixteen months of fieldwork in Trinidad between 1972 and 1985. Music as a social phenomenon has been of interest to scholars for some time and cost control, has given rise to numerous books and scholarly articles and to several scholarly journals (for example, The Sociology of Music, Ethnomusicology and essay, The Black Perspective in and critical thinking Music). Max Weber has noted that some of the forces shaping music have social origins and that musical instruments themselves are socially ranked (Martindale etal., 1958:111). Da Silva has referred to irish essay, music as subjective, shared mental conduct by a collectivity that sometimes defines a community’s boundaries. He has also called attention to the conflict inherent in the social organization of music (1984:34). Shepherd has observed that an elite musical establishment of intellectuals persuades society that popular music is an and critical thinking inferior and less desirable art form and that music’s value is not a socially shaped reality but an ultimate one with objective criteria for judging its quality. In music, as in much else, writes Shepherd, the ruler’s ideas dominate (1977:1-2). Such social ranking, community boundary definition, conflict, and essay phrases, elitism in the musical realm have all found expression in essay Trinidad’s steelband movement. Trinidad and Tobago is a two-island independent republic in the southeastern Caribbean, seven miles off the coast of Venezuela.

A British Colony for 165 years and a Spanish one for 300 years before that, it has been independent since 1962. English is the official language (both a dialect and irish essay, “Standard” English are spoken), and the literacy rate is about 95 percent. Thesis! Some Hindi and some French patois are spoken. Historically, there has been considerable social and irish essay phrases, cultural influence from to discuss in an French, Portuguese, Indian (from India, called East Indians in irish Trinidad), Chinese, Lebanese, Venezuelan, other Caribbean, and North American people, institutions, and ideas. Over one-half of Trinidad and when in an, Tobago’s citizens are Christian, about one-third of the total population Catholic, and one-fourth are Hindu. About the same percentages of Trinidadians (41) are East Indian and Negro (the official term used there), about sixteen percent are of mixed ethnic/racial heritage, and irish essay phrases, about one percent is white. Mixed and white people are generally believed to have a disproportionate share of the wealth, power, and social status, although there are many high-ranking civil servants, professionals, elected and appointed government officials who are East Indian or Afro-Trinidadian. The late Dr. Eric Williams, Trinidad’s popular prime minister for 25 years and a historian of considerable reputation, was Afro- Trinidadian, as are most of the members and supporters of the political party he led (the People’s National Movement). Steeldrums are called steel pans or just “pans” in Trinidad and Tobago. Beginning in the 1930s, they were created and refined in the poorer sections of Trinidad’s capital, Port of Spain, by young men of African heritage with little formal education or musical training.

At first the drums were simple biscuit tins, pitch-oil tins, dustbins or their covers, without tuned pitches. Gradually, through experimentation and essays, refinement, pitches were added by pounding in and out on the top surface of the drums, and drums of varying depths were created to produce different ranges. Today steeldrums are quite amazing and versatile musical instruments. The small tenor pans may have up to 32 different pitches. Pans are played with rubber-tipped sticks and irish, are tuned either by ear, with a tuning fork, or with an electronic tuning device. The small number of skilled tuners and panmakers command considerable respect and earn high incomes. Making and tuning steeldrums requires considerable knowledge, experience, patience, and when essay, a good ear. The proper raw material must be carefully chosen, the top hammered down to a precise depth, notes carefully marked in, sometimes with calipers, the drum cut down to phrases, the correct size and tuned, and the metal tempered by essay payment systems throwing water or oil over the drum while it is in a fire. According to a 1952 government report on the steelband movement, “The magician behind this wizardry of sound is the ‘tuner’ who, with his uncanny sense of essay, ear, tempers and pounds the metal until its notes respond to the tonal pattern deep in the recesses of his soul.” (Farquhar, 1952:1) The tuning of steeldrums is not standardized, so it is usually not possible for two or more steelbands to when, play well together unless their drums have been tuned by the same person.

The number and essay, position of the notes on the drums vary from tuner to tuner, and the pitches on some of the and deflation, drums are not arranged in chromatic order, which facilitates striking the notes with the rubber-tipped sticks. Unlike the piano or guitar, steeldrums are tuned from high to low pitches. There is wide variation in the types and combinations of essay phrases, steeldrums used in a given ensemble, depending on the occasion and the personal preferences of the band leaders and arrangers. Following are the basic types of drums and their voice parts: (a) The tenor pan, also known as the melody pan or the the swimmer, ping-pong, approximates the soprano voice and plays the melody. Essay! It has from 28 to 32 pitches and is about six inches in depth. (b) The double tenor is a set of two tenor drums, which play harmony and counterpoint and are about one-half inch longer than the single tenor. (c) The second pan is in the alto voice range and about eight inches in depth. (d) Double seconds play harmony, in essays a set of two drums, providing the upper register of chords. (e) The guitar pan plays rhythm and irish, has about sixteen pitches. It is about fourteen to sixteen inches in depth and is played in pairs.

(f) The cello pan is in the tenor voice range, about twenty-one inches in depth, and played in sets of three, with eight, eight, and five pitches, respectively. (g) The tenor bass plays rhythm, in sets of four, with two or three pitches on each drum. To Discuss! It is about five inches shorter than the phrases, full bass pan. (h) The bass pan is the full size of the oil drum and plays rhythm in sets of six or nine. Arranged on stands either horizontally or vertically, the bass pans have two, three, or four notes. A steelband might also include a set of trap drums, some congas, bongos, maracas, and thinking, a piece of irish essay, steel or heavy iron (sometimes an automobile brake drum), played as a percussion instrument with a piece of steel or an iron bar. (Keer, 1981:1-2; Mahabir, 1986:33; Seeger, 1961:22) Because pan music is almost always played by ear, band members, who today include more women, East Indians, mixed and white people than at the start of the movement, must attend long and frequent rehearsals to the swimmer thesis, memorize their parts for the repertoire. The repertoire includes classical music, popular, Latin, rock, jazz, and the Jamaican-born reggae, along with the traditional Trinidadian calypso and the more recent Soca (soul calypso) music. Color, Race, and Class in essay Colonial Trinidad.

Class, color, and race conflict over musical styles, preferences, instruments, and life-styles emerged as early as the 1800s in colonial Trinidad and continues in a milder form today. Although some see the conflict as a socioeconomic rather than a color or race issue, color and race have also played an important role. In British colonial Trinidad in the 1800s there was considerable prejudice and discrimination against people of African heritage, whether slave or free, colored or black. Brereton observed that under Governor Picton in 1802: “The coloured militia officers…were stripped of their rank, the troops were racially segregated with…exofficers put under a white sergeant. They had to get police permission to paper control, hold a ball and (had to) pay a discriminatory tax… A curfew at 9:30 P.M. was imposed on them, and when on the streets after dark they were obliged to carry a lighted torch.

They could be arrested if found carrying a stick on irish essay phrases the streets. Free coloureds, even respectable land owners, were forced to serve as constables, performing the humiliating duty of guard service at officials’ houses. The free coloureds were subjected to thesis, a whole battery of discriminatory’ laws designed to humiliate them and cow them into submission.” (1981:49) Errol Hill has observed that for centuries in Trinidad, Europeans have been afraid of any sort of diversions that might “incite the essay phrases, passions” of black people. Dancing and drumming were seen as agan or immoral and as potentially dangerous as a rallying point for mba entry slave revolts. Drumming was outlawed in Jamaica in 1792 and in Tobago in 1798. A 1797 law in phrases Trinidad required police permission for mba entry the “ coloured classes” to have dances or entertainment after 8 P.M., and slaves could not even apply for such permission (1972:33). Irish! Even after Emancipation in term control 1834, white and irish essay, coloured leaders held African cultural practices, particularly drum music, in contempt. They felt it their duty to rid the country of what they considered “barbaric customs” (Brereton, 1979:152-153). Drumming, important in social and the swimmer thesis, religious ceremonies, especially at wakes, was noisy, and the elites considered noise of that kind to be primitive. Drumming was important also to Trinidad’s East Indians, so this was an instance of cultural as well as class and racial repression.

The government-introduced Music Bill of 1883, although it was later withdrawn, reflected the attitude of many government officials. It would have banned drumming after 10 P.M., but allowed the irish essay, playing of European instruments by license. Between 6 and 10 P.M. drumming would have required a police license, but European instruments would not (Brereton, 1979:161). An 1883 ordinance outlawed “singing, dancing, drumming and other music-making by …rogues and vagabonds or incorrigible rogues” and thesis, called for the punishment of the owners of dwellings or yards that allowed it (10 July 1883 Amendment to essay phrases, Ordinance No. Mba Entry Essays! 6 of 1868). So vital is the drumming tradition that measures to restrict it have always been fiercely resisted in Trinidad. Between 1881 and essay phrases, 1891, there were several violent clashes between the and critical, police and the people, both East Indians and those of African heritage, over irish essay, the use of drums in religious and the swimmer thesis, social observances. In one of these, twelve persons were killed and over 100 injured (ibid., l84). Because skin drums could not be used freely, other instruments were improvised. In the irish, early 1900s, the term paper, “tamboo bamboo (bamboo drum) band was developed.

Hollowed- out bamboo sticks of various lengths and diameters were struck against each other, with sticks, or against the ground to produce sounds of varying pitch. Irish Phrases! Bottles and spoons were used for higher-pitched sounds. The discovery and refinement of the steel drum followed the tamboo-bamboo bands. The Development of the Steeldrum. Trinidadian artist Patrick Chu-Foon recalls the early tamboo-bamboo sounds and the beginnings of the steeldrums: “Long before even steelband came out, I remember seeing the bandsmen thumping bamboos on the raw pitch, the thesis, asphalt on essay the street. I used to stand at the top of my father’s shop front and thesis, look down into the street and see all the goings on of early carnival… I remember the sounds. Maybe this is where the African influence comes in, because it was a thumping, a thumping of the drums… They also had some skin drums. Irish Essay Phrases! This was also the early beginnings of steelbands.” (1983:1) The Roaring Lion - 1979. Rafael DeLeon, known professionally as The Roaring Lion, is essay and deflation, a calypso singer of irish, international reputation and a historian of Trinidad’s folk music. When I interviewed him in 1983 when he was age 76, he recalled that people in Trinidad had been beating on metal and socrates thinking, tin for some years before the steel drum itself was created: “Long ago and to some extent up to now, children used to get together on Good Friday and make an irish essay effigy of Judas.

The children would collect all the old cooking utensils—empty milk tins, pieces of iron, pitch-oil tins, and garbage pans or dust bins would be “ borrowed “ for mba entry the occasion. They would march back and forth through the district beating their pans while they sang …and the rhythm of that pan was identical with what is now known as the steelband, even up to the middle 1940s, before they started to essay phrases, discover notes and produce bits and pieces of melody.” (1983:1-2) He further reports that around 1930 the members of a tamboo bamboo band led by David Leach, from George Street in Port of essays, Spain, “would pick up garbage pan covers, pieces of steel from the ‘smith shop in George Street, and any cooking utensil they could find and proceed to beat it in time with the rhythm of the tamboo-bamboo” (ibid. :3). There are several versions about when, who, or even what event or refinement constitutes the invention of the essay, steeldrum. Essay Systems! Oscar Pile, pioneer steelbandsman and the organizer and leader for many years of the Casablanca steelband, claims that: “ …way back in 1935 they had the tamboo-bamboo and playing on the road, by an accident, one of the leading men, which was Forde, was playing one of the bamboos. Phrases! That bamboo happened to break, and in the excitement and the heat of it he wanted something to beat. He then run across the road and take up a dustbin cover, and by beating the dustbin cover they found out really the and critical, dustbin cover had a more stinging and more rhythm sound than the bamboo just knocking on the ground and from then on that particular band from irish essay phrases Newtown, Alexander’s Ragtime Band, they then went back and they start looking for pans …old paint pans and so on socrates thinking and getting a more genuine sound than the bamboo.

Whilst they was at that, Gonzalez (a district in Port of Spain) went and start making pans and getting pans, old disregarded bins, biscuit drums, gasoline tanks, and so on, and this was the birth of the steelbands.” (1983:6) The crucial point in the transition from irish bamboo to essay payment systems, steel is irish essay phrases, probably when different pitches were added to the metal drums and melodies could be played on them. There is a consensus that the first pan with notes was created in the mid-1930s, evidently by accident, and that one of the mba entry essays, first, if not the first, to add notes and play recognizable songs was the late Winston “Spree Simon, who is accepted by many Trinidadians as the “father” of phrases, steelband music. Asked Essay! Here is his version of how notes were added to the crude pans: “I had lent this drum and on coming back to retrieve my drum, the face of the drum was beaten in so badly that it had taken on a concave appearance. Now I just took the drum and went on the side of the road and tried to get back the face of the drum to its normal surface. By pounding on the inside with a stone and a stick, in and out, I discovered that I was able to get four distinct notes, which enabled me to play something of essay phrases, a bugle call—and therefore I played at that moment (a short bugle call).” (Martin, 1981)

Steelband music—the discovery and evolution of the instrument itself, the bands that played it, and the entire social organization of the band, its followers and supporters, and, in many cases, virtually the entire community where the band was based—was a product of the term control, underprivileged areas, primarily in Port of Spain, inhabited almost entirely by people of African heritage. Young people in these areas did not have much opportunity for recognition, success, or self-fulfillment in the customary areas of essay phrases, achievement— education, job, or career—so they channeled their energies and talents into whatever areas were available to them, in spite of, in some cases, precisely because of, resistance by the ruling colonial government and elites. In the case of steelband music, they were using their own distinctive culture, instruments and music of their own creation, to express themselves and to define an acceptable and comfortable social location for themselves in their own eyes, in the eyes of their peers, and in the eyes of the communities in which their bands were based. George Yeates, leader of the Desperadoes steelband during the 1940s and 1950s, elaborated in an interview on the economic and social conditions of the early band members: “Those were the colonial days and …the boys didn’t have much education …they just reached of age for primary school and they left and were all unemployed, without a skill… The steelband was the only pursuit at the time a young man could have involved himself in socrates thinking and sort of essay, gave a status to a village youth so that when you come from Desperadoes or the Laventille Hill and you go to another district if your band is a powerful band, you will be respected.” (1983:3) At the time that the steel drum was being refined, in term cost control the mid-1930s, there was considerable political and labor unrest in Trinidad. There was high inflation, much unemployment, underemployment, and low wages, particularly for the black and East Indian sugar estate and irish, oil field workers. There were strikes, hunger marches, and, in 1937, a labor riot. The workers and unemployed complained of prejudice and discrimination in hiring, pay, and promotions.

There was an awakened race consciousness and heightened feelings of exploitation by British and other foreign investors in Trinidad’s oil companies, sugar estates, and other enterprises. The Italian invasion of Ethiopia in 1935, unopposed by the Western nations, served as a stimulus throughout the West Indies to black nationalism and inflation and deflation, support for Ethiopia (Brereton, 1981:174). During the mid-1930s in Trinidad, a group of phrases, writers and when to discuss, intellectuals started a literary and artistic movement that encouraged and supported Afro-Trinidadian culture and the poor and repressed in general. This entire political, social, artistic, and essay, intellectual milieu very likely stimulated or, at the least, was very consistent with the development of the essays, newly-emerging steel drum as an innovative musical creation of poor Afro- Trinidadians. The Social Importance of the irish essay phrases, Steelband. The importance pan players attached to their activity, and the role it played in term paper cost control their self-image, is reflected in an anecdote told by Trinidadian writer, patron of the arts, and politician, the late Albert Gomes. Irish! As a high-ranking government official in the early 1950s, he was asked by the girl friend of a young pan player condemned to mba entry essays, hang for murder to intervene on his behalf. Gomes saw the youth and learned that he had killed another young man in a rage because the irish essay, man had told him that he didn’t know anything about steelband or how to beat pan (among other insults). The prisoner was hanged (1974:96). Panmen have been celebrated in to discuss essay poetry as well as prose in Trinidad, as these excerpts from Sugar George, by irish Paul Keens-Douglas, show:

Ah was dey when dey bury Sugar George. When he get de fus’ piece ah property he ever own, Six foot of mba entry essays, hard, dry Trinidad soil . Irish Essay! . . De pans was playin’ When George dead dat nite, Beatin’ de dark wit’ notes so sweet. Ah fittin’ death for Sugar George, For he was ah man, ah real man, An’ more dan dat ah steelban’ man. An’ now Sugar dead an’ gone. An’ ah see him lyin’ dey on de bed, De greatest Tenorman in Trinidad,

As poor as de day he born, Yet richer than any millionaire in de land, More respected than any politician, For Sugar was ah something, ah somebody, He was part of essay, ah plan. Dat we eh even begin to understand … Before he dead he say ‘beat pan.’ So dey beat when he sick, An’ dey beat when he dyin’

An’ dey beat when he dead, And when dey finally put Sugar away, Every band in Trinidad play. An’ ah swear to Jesus ah could hear Sugar tenor playin’ softly, softly, An’ Sugar laughin’ …’’ (Keens-Douglas, 1979:34-35, 37) Celebration of the lives of steelbandsmen at their deaths is not confined to poetic representations but is a fact of real life in Trinidad. When Rudolph Charles, the leader of the Desperadoes steelband, died in 1985, his funeral was rivaled only by that of the late prime minister, Dr. Eric Williams. The media mourned him as a national hero, and his body was drawn through the irish, streets of Port of Spain in a casket fashioned from two large steeldrums.

Thousands jammed the downtown square and the cathedral where his funeral was held. The Swimmer! It was attended by the country’s leaders and by the people he had loved and served as bandleader, friend, community leader, and role model for young people. His ashes were scattered by helicopter over Laventille Hill, home base of the essay phrases, Desperadoes. Chu-Foon Pan Sculpture. Steelband has also been honored in essay and deflation the other arts. Patrick Chu-Foon’s sculpture Tribute to irish phrases, the Steelband in Port of Spain, Errol Hill’s drama The Ping-Pong, and the well-known oil painting Steelband Boys in White by Boscoe Holder are just three of the better-known examples. An example of the essay inflation, enduring pride former steelbandsmen often have in irish phrases their bands was revealed to me at a professional meeting by a Trinidadian university professor employed in Canada. He showed me his band’s symbolic tattoo on essay his arm and seemed as proud of that as of his Ph.D. degree. The Interim Report of the Committee to irish phrases, Consider the essays, Role of the Steelband in essay phrases the National Life reported that the steelband movement brought not only a knowledge of music to its adherents: “It contributed the term paper cost, discipline of band organization and essay, of steady practice to persons who might never have had such opportunities to the swimmer thesis, acquire skills and disciplines fundamental to proper adjustment to a progressive role in society. Many villages have a steelband (some more than one) and in many cases the leader of the phrases, steelband is a member of the Village Council.

There appears also to be great willingness on the part of the Village Council to paper cost, cooperate in such things as the putting on of concerts involving the irish phrases, steelband and the loan of the Community Centre for practice sessions by the steelbands… Most rural bands also make it quite clear that they were established for musical enjoyment. The urban bands have become quite commercialized and specialized and as a result do not form as integral a part of community life as do the Village bands (with the exception of Desperadoes and Casablanca).”(1965:9,11) These findings point out an thesis important factor—that at least some of the urban bands, and irish, many, perhaps most, of the rural ones, play an important role in the community. It is important to paper control, realize that the two or three large bands are from poor communities with little else to enhance their images. The community band is a source of pride to irish essay, the community, which supports it with tremendous enthusiasm and devotes time and energy to making it successful. Followers and supporters identify with the band much as some Americans identify with hometown athletic teams. It is an important social organization in the community, which may have a practice yard (panyard) or an enclosed practice area or hall that furthermore serves as an important focus of social activity. When To Discuss In An! Furthermore, the leader of a community band may well be an irish important community leader, as well as act as an intermediary with government officials and the police and civil servants. Bandleaders often provide vital assistance in obtaining jobs for community residents, get them out of trouble with the police, or cut through government red tape. One such leader was the late Rudolph Charles of Desperadoes.

Journalist Peter Blood has observed that: “The panyard of Desperadoes stands precariously nestled atop the lofty heights of essay payment systems, Laventille Hill, overlooking the city of Port of Spain. Like chromed sentinels, its pans, some of traditional design and others of futuristic form, loom defiantly, fringing the contours of the hill’s peak. Pan is phrases, a way of life on the Laventille Hill and Desperadoes provide the lifeblood for this vibrant and creative community… Beside being the to discuss in an essay, band’s captain, [Rudolph] Charles also tunes the band’s low pans, and is regarded, amongst other things, the irish essay phrases, godfather and the sole lawmaker of the hill.” (Blood, 1983:62) Schoolteacher Rudy Piggott, at Rudolph Charles’s funeral, claimed that, “Rudy was the Moses of the people of Laventille. We do not even need the term cost control, police there. Rudolph was a leader and he controlled us all.” (Piggott, 1985:3). Another mourner, Dalton Narine, referred to Charles as “the beacon on Laventille Hill …a lighthouse signal to the forces of innovation that contributed to an uncommon respect from his peers.” (Narine, 1985:3) Journalist Meryl James Bryan referred to Charles as “a fallen leader—appointed African style by a council of elders” and as “the General of one of urban Trinidad’s most African populations.

His life symbolized unity and continuity to irish phrases, the people of Laventille, and his death a new life, expanded vision, and renewed commitment to the steelband movement.” (Bryan, 1985:38-39) And a Trinidad Express editorial of April 5, 1985, referred to Rudolph Charles as a welfare officer and community leader. And Critical Thinking! In a 1985 interview with a prominent business executive very closely connected to Rudolph Charles’ Desperadoes band, it was observed that: “Charles was an exceptional leader. Dynamic, with personal magnetism and irish essay, good managerial talents. It was hard to refuse him what he asked for his band. He was a genius in steelband, an innovator. He built discipline in the band, although some of essay, this was achieved through brute force. The Laventille area, home base of the band, is a state within a state, and he was its undisputed leader.

He dispensed money and aid on the Hill like a politician.” (Anonymous 1, 1985:1) Another very close Rudolph Charles confidant, who also asked to remain anonymous, said that he was a very determined person, had an inventive brain, and that though he used physical strength at times to enforce discipline, he was accepted and respected. “He would intervene in court and at irish essay phrases police stations to help his followers. When Essay! The doors of irish essay phrases, government ministries were open to him. He was a skillful manager and a born leader. The Swimmer Thesis! He even ruled Laventille while he was away, living for most of the last several years in Los Angeles. He worked with the village elders, outside the legitimate county council.” (Anonymous 2, 1985:1).

Not all of the people in the poor sections approved of steelband activity. Some had adopted the attitudes and values of the ruling elite toward noise, drumming, and irish, the entertainments of the poor African masses. Others, often parents of young people, didn’t want their children hanging out with the rough crowd that frequented the mba entry, panyards in the early years. Many of the men there engaged in phrases gambling, drinking, carousing, and physical fighting and were generally thought to be a bad element—”badjohns” in Trinidad parlance— who were often in trouble with the the swimmer thesis, law. Irish Phrases! Bertie Marshall, pan player, tuner, and steel drum innovator, recalled that, “I didn’t have to the swimmer, ask my mother’s permission to play pan. I knew her well enough to irish, know that I would be able to hang around pan and panmen only over systems, her dead body” (Marshall, 1972, Vol. Essay! 2, No. 1:8). He recalled also that teachers would warn students about hanging around the panmen, but the socrates and critical thinking, panyard was on the path he took to and from school and he could hear the sounds of the panyard from his schoolroom. “So, in spite of everything we hung around and I came to know Spree (Simon) …and others.” (ibid., No.

2:3) The opinions and observations cited above seem to represent the dominant middle-class view of steelbands today in Trinidad. Phrases! At present, they are seen as a unique and creative cultural achievement in which all Trinidadians can take pride. Payment Systems! This view evolved due to several factors to be discussed later. Unlike an irish earlier period, today strong criticism of, or negative attitudes toward, steelband music and essays, musicians is minimal. Rather, there is a general feeling of respect and pride for those involved in Trinidadian or West Indian cultural forms. Violence in the Steelband Movement. During the heyday of the steelband era, from essay phrases roughly 1945 to 1965, there was considerable violence in the movement. When Asked To Discuss! There was violence between bands and between bands and the police. It is generally accepted that the police-steelbands conflict was related to the noise the irish essay, bands made, parading on the streets without a permit, stealing dustbins and other items to use as instruments, and the steeldrum’s lack of acceptance by the government, ruling classes, and police as a legitimate musical instrument. Some also believe the paper cost control, police simply harassed people living in the poorer districts. Inter-band rivalry was related to territoriality, arguments over irish essay phrases, girl friends, accusations of theft of each others’ tunes, over-enthusiastic followers and supporters, or even accident, when, for instance, a bottle was thrown by inflation someone unrelated to either band.

The 1952 report of the government steelbands committee, known as the essay phrases, Canon Farquhar Committee, is mba entry, instructive in this regard: “The steelband is essentially a creation of the masses with their poor housing, overcrowding, unemployment, large families and general lack of opportunity for irish essay recreation and cultural expression. It was as if in unconscious protest of these delimiting circumstances that underprivileged youth evolved a medium of self-expression which seems destined to make a distinctive contribution to the cultural life of the West Indies. The typical steelband population is essay and deflation, predominantly negroid with a fair sprinkling of East Indians. To them the steelband is not merely another local institution: it is a way of life. Its devotees have their peculiar mode of dress, manner of speech, style of walking and dancing and, though yet in rudimentary form, group codes and irish phrases, norms of their own. Unfortunately, however, this unique form of music-making was characterized by feuds between rival bands. Socrates Thinking! These clashes were invariably instigated by and centered around the young women of irish essay, ill repute who followed the bands. There was, too, that element of what might be described as professional jealousy. These clashes became more frequent; public apprehension was aroused, and in the swimmer the interest of society police intervention became necessary. A state of tension existed, often rendered more acute by sensational headlines in the local press, and the steelband community, despite its internecine conflicts, developed the characteristics of an outlawed minority group. Irish Essay! The movement became a menace; clashes developed into pitched battles in which weapons ranging from sticks, stones and bottles to scribers, knives and cutlasses were brought to bear with an alarming disregard for human life and property.

There were two fatal woundings. Public apprehension gave way to fear. Paper Cost! Police action became more decisive, though at times positively unimaginative, and whole bands and even individual members were restricted to 11 rigidly proscribed areas.” (Farquhar, 1952:2-3) According to phrases, Albert Gomes, instruments were seized, players roughed up, slums invaded, and players frog-marched to prison cells (1974:99). Similar repressive treatment had been accorded to other African-based cultural forms in essay systems the past—the Shouters religion, the irish phrases, calypso singers, and essay payment systems, the annual Carnival celebration after it was taken over by irish the poor and the blacks. Earl Lovelace nicely captured the spirit of this era when he wrote that: “…those were the days when every district around Port of Spain was its own island, and the steelband within its boundaries was its army, providing warriors to uphold it sovereignty. Those were the war days, when every street corner was a garrison; and to be safe, if you came from Belmont, you didn’t let night catch you in St.

James; if your home was Gonzalez Place, you didn’t go up Laventille; and if you lived in Morvant, you passed San Juan straight.” (1979:54) The Trinidadian calypso singer The Mighty Sparrow sang a calypso entitled Outcast about how the steelbandsmen were treated: For a long time to the swimmer thesis, associate yourself wid dem. Was a big crime. If you’ sister talk to a steelband man.

De family want to break she hand. Lick every teet’ out she mout’ Pass, you a outcast. Other sections of irish essay, Paul Keens-Douglas’ previously-quoted Sugar George illustrate the cost, defensive side of steelband clashes and the concern of panmen for their instruments: An’ in those years when pan meant fight, Sugar learn to fight. There was no one to irish, pull ah blade. As fast as Sugar George; He cut an’ he get cut too. But people respect Sugar,

For he only fight when he had to. An’ only and critical, because he had to. But Sugar never forget he pan, Dey say when fight start an’ band clash, Sugar take care of he pan first. Like ah baby he used to wrap it up an’ hide it, Sometimes in ah canal, sometimes in de bush; An’ woe to de man who touch. De pan of essay, Sugar George. Errol Hill recalls the incessant noisy practicing, often at when to discuss in an essay times when people wanted peace and irish phrases, quiet.

The noise carried a considerable distance, so people did not want pan beating in towns, but up in the hills somewhere. Thus, the police restricted the essay inflation, beating to specific hours (1983:3). Further, recalls Hill: “We always jumped up behind these bands on Carnival Day …and I have been in several …where a rival band is coming and they’re actually in a no-man’s land and you can feel the tension in the band as they came closer and closer and closer but no one would leave. On one occasion the irish, bands actually crossed each other on the same street, and you could just feel them going and everybody’s looking and the eyes come out all over your head, looking around to see what’s gonna happen. Occasionally at that time someone would throw a bottle and that was the last thing you’d want to essay and deflation, happen because it would immediately be felt that it’s coming from irish one of the enemy and all hell would break loose.” (ibid.) The roots of some of the steelband territorial rivalry may well go back to earlier times. According to Ralph Araujo: “In those days, the days of the Great Depression, youth in Belmont was generally touched with poverty but not unhappy, full of rivalry but not of factional bitterness. Belmont was the center of paper cost control, our lives. Irish Essay Phrases! Woodbrook was a place where we had to change tramcars. it lay in a direction in socrates thinking which our elder brothers sometimes sallied forth on their bicycles in pursuit of new girlfriends—and it is interesting how many marriages resulted in cross-breeding of the Woodbrook and Belmont strains.

It was a standing joke…that Belmont boys never married Belmont girls—as we told the girls, they were too “own way.” This Montague/Capulet arrangement seems to have created a certain amount of friendly rivalry between Woodbrook and Newtown boys on the one hand and Belmont boys on the other, a rivalry which sometimes surfaces now amonsgt those who grew up in that era.”(1984:5) George Goddard, old-time panman and early president of the Trinidad Steelband Association, also claims that “turf clashes preceded the development of steelbands and underprivileged youths would have fought among themselves or with the police in any event.” (1983:7). In the eulogy delivered for Wilfred “Speaker” Harrison, early leader of the Desperadoes steelband, he was remembered as having: “insisted that the early Despers all have tatoos on irish phrases their backs, chests or forearms, which was to mba entry, indicate Life Membership, and be given code names. He was referred to as The Dresden, and on the battlefield as Sergeant Rollock and sometimes Inspector Fugot, becoming General in charge of Central Intelligence, Despers. He organized battle practice sessions…for all the essay phrases, men he would select to operate with him in launching attacks on essays the enemy.” At the height of the violent steelband era, it was not only the essay phrases, government, police, and elites in Trinidad who feared or were against the steelband clashes. A calypso of the time advised the government to “ …give the hooligans the old time cat-o-nine and they bound to change their mind. With licks like fire send them Carrera (a prison island) and they bound to essay payment, surrender.” (DeLeon,1983:5).ld-time panman Carleton Constantine, popularly known as Zigili, recalls that: “So much different things used to cause them.

A woman from one band, she have a man from one bnd and probably see a next guy from essay phrases a next band. That is one of the factors. Then…sometimes …like tunes bands playing—this band playing this tune say the next one take their tune. In a dance where drinks is concerned— anything, anything at all, because that was a era that violence was very high. Mba Entry Essays! So anything could start a fight.” (1983:4)

Concerning the weapons used in clashes, Tony Slater states that, “bottles (were used), one or two people may have a gun …a lot of people get damaged, a lot of instruments get damaged; ‘67 was the worst, it was a total wreck. All amplification, everything mash up. It was a form of jealousy.” (1983:8) Curtis Pierre offers a chilling account of his personal experience in a 1953 steelband clash: “There was a certain amount of turf rivalry, which there is in any type of group activity. For no other reason than, you know, you just want to be King of the essay phrases, Rock and guys said, ‘You’re from asked to discuss in an Belmont and you should not be walking in Woodbrook.’ It had nothing to do with the essay phrases, quality of your music, it had nothing to do with whether you had their girl, people have advanced all kinds of reasons, that, you know, this girl was seen walking with a guy from Invaders so that the boy from Desperadoes got annoyed. My experience in 1953 when steelbands were asked to socrates, come on the road for the coronation of essay phrases, Elizabeth when she was crowned; we had a clash with a band called Ebonites. It was not anything that they knew who we were or we knew who they were. Some little incident sparked it off and it got real messy.

You know, guys were swinging baseball bats. I got hit with a baseball bat. Lucky nobody was holding it at the time, somebody just flung it across. One guy next to me got his cheek cut open with a razor. That was the scariest part, you just saw the flesh part and you saw the teeth and a couple minutes after, the blood. One guy came charging at me with what looked like a piece of a kitchen fork, a large kitchen fork, and all I could do was raise the tenor pan I had and hit him across the bridge of his nose and socrates, that I remember also seeing the bone just go white and the guy’s eyes closed and he flaked out and I disappeared. But it was not a pitched, prolonged battle. Irish Essay! Within minutes there were sirens and everybody scattered.

Nor were there any sort of vindictive feelings in payment systems that particular battle.” (1983:5) World War II saw several U.S military bases in Trinidad, and many movies with violent war, gangster, and Western themes. The steelbands took on some of the films’ names, individual steelbandsmen took actors’ names for their nicknames and emulated actors’ behavior. There are still steelbands bearing some of these movie-inspired names. Irish Essay Phrases! Pat Chu-Foon recalls that: “ …those were the days when we used to essay and deflation, see a lot of these films with Back to Bataan and Robert Taylor and Audie Murphy. It inspire the moviegoer and these poor fellas, some of them just lived in the cinema in those days. Most of phrases, them didn’t work, other than playing pan, tuning pan, lazing around playing a game of wappie (a card game), they just scrunt for some money to essays, go to the next matinee and after seeing a good war picture they want to essay phrases, do the same thing, and this is what caused a lot of thing, with the steelband clashing those periods.

It was like a game. You would see fellas go up and essay, say, ‘Look, we going up to beat Casablanca tonight. Invaders, we going and beat the Invaders.’ You hear how the names are, all war names. Essay Phrases! Invaders from Woodbrook coming up to clash with so and thesis, so and they meet on essay phrases this corner. Thesis! Men used to walk with razors in their waist.” (1983:4-5) The steelband badjohn role was an important one, a source of irish, identity for many young Trinidadian males that had to be maintained, even if only as a front. Bertie Marshall reports, “I cultivated my badjohn image.

But my badjohnism was a pose really. Mba Entry Essays! Still, it was necessary to cultivate the image. And I managed to do this yet at the same time keeping my hands clean—except for a couple of gambling cases which were no big thing, really. But the image was an important thing in those days.” (Marshall, 1972: Vol. 2, No. 5:9) Positive Influences of the Steelband Movement. Not all of the essay, experiences of the steelband movement were negative. Thesis! There are success stories on all levels. As Carleton Constantine (Zigili) said in 1983: “I have to irish phrases, be very grateful to steelband.

Because I left this country in the swimmer 1956 . and lived in the UK and up to irish, this day I am making a living from steelband. It was good to me because I have seen the world, I have traveled through the whole of Europe, the Middle East, Far East, and still playing.” (1983:5) Steelband music provided many young Trinidadian males with opportunities for personal growth and the development of leadership skills that they found useful in other areas of their lives. Curtis Pierre, in response to an open-ended query about steelband, said that: “A lot of the distance I’ve covered in my life both in terms of a businessman, as a father, as an organizer, I can safely say that the experience I’ve gained, I owe it completely to my exposure in and deflation the steelband world. I’ve learned how to deal with people, I’ve learned how to handle people, I’ve learned how to take insults, I’ve learned how to give. You know, it is really a forge for straightening out irish essay your whole approach to life.” (1983:10) George Yeates reports on a perhaps unforeseen outcome of the police-band violence of the control, early steelband era: “I had been able to command a great respect among steelbandsmen, and I had that disturbance (a steelband clash) quelled. I did as much work or perhaps even more work than the irish essay phrases, police, because most of the time the police would come and call me and ask me to go with them whenever they had any steelband clashes.

Superintendent Barnes would always come and call me to go speak to essay, both sides because when it came to Despers, and I held the reins of Despers, I would try to keep them out of any further clashes and let them know that those who want to fight cannot be in the band that I run because I am thinking in preparing the band for the music festival and improving the arts, improving the phrases, instrument, and these steelband clashes is interfering with my works.”(1983:5-6) Social Change and Acceptance of Steelbands. A precise ordering of the factors that influenced the gradual acceptance of steelband music is systems, not possible, since they overlapped and since there is no consensus even among persons on the scene, concerning the irish phrases, chronology of events and their importance. Growing acceptance due to one factor brought about acceptance in another area. The factors contributing to steelbands’ greater acceptance include the following: 1. Acceptance by essays several influential citizens, including writers, intellectuals, lawyers, musicians, and politicians. 2. Government concern, expressed in committee reports and the formation of a steelband association. 3. Commercial sponsorship. 4. Irish Phrases! Successful exportation to and enthusiastic reception of the swimmer, steel bands in foreign countries.

5. Open support from the People’s National Movement political party. 6. Involvement in irish essay phrases the bands of white, light-skinned, and better-educated middle-class persons, including more middle-class women. 7. Refinements in the instruments. 8. In An! The playing of semi-classical and classical music. 9. Involvement of steelbands in music festivals, in churches, at funerals, and at middle-and upper-class social gatherings.

10. Irish Essay Phrases! A resurgence of inflation, Black Power and pride in irish essay phrases the early 1970s. Support of Influential Citizens. Starting in about 1946, the Trinidad Youth Council and its members, including attorney and musician Lenox Pierre, Canon Farquhar, Kelvin Scoon, and Errol Hill, made consistent efforts to when, gain social acceptance of steelband music, instruments, players, and supporters. Albert Gomes was another outspoken supporter who fought the tide of popular and official opinion of steelbands long before the government committees were appointed. He was “frequently at the office of the Commissioner of phrases, Police, more often than not accompanied by the steelband boys themselves, lodging complaints against provocative acts by the police.

But the police were no more than instruments of the prevailing prejudice… The root cause of it all was intense class feeling.” (Gomes, 1974:99). At a 1945 meeting of the Legislative Council, to which he had just been elected, Gomes said, “Some people feel that some others should never enjoy themselves …and that the essay systems, music should belong to one particular class… Personally, while I sit and enjoy Beethoven, it does not blind me to the fact that we have got to live among a people …of divers races and creeds, and that we cannot fit these in a particular design.” (ibid.) Other respected members of society became outspoken advocates of the steelband movement. Beryl McBurnie, dancer, choreographer, and founder of the Little Carib Theatre, brought the Invaders steelband into her theater for essay phrases a performance in 1948 and essay, also got a number of middle-class young men and irish essay, women involved in steelband. Government Concern, Recommendations, and when asked to discuss in an essay, Action. The 1952 Farquhar Committee report noted that: “ …the government appointed a committee in November of 1949 to investigate the implications of the (steelband) problem and in April of 1950 the irish essay, steelbands themselves organized a representative body known as the Trinidad and Tobago Steel Bands Association… With the setting up of the swimmer thesis, machinery for negotiating with the Steel Bands public reaction became more sympathetic, and a new psychological approach to irish, the problem gradually became evident. The steel percussion orchestra, as the steelband is socrates and critical thinking, now known, is no longer regarded as an outlawed nuisance. Phrases! These orchestras perform at term paper cost social clubs, hotels, concerts and dances and, in many instances, have almost replaced the traditional orchestra.

It is hopefully significant too, to observe the formation of steel orchestras among middle-class youth of both sexes.” (Farquhar, 1952:5). A major concern of the committee was expressed in its findings: “The cohesion and unity inherent in the steelband movement constitute a great social force which should be exploited and directed into constructive channels. The steelband movement is phrases, a people’s movement. Payment! It has captured the imagination and energies of the youth of phrases, our masses, and provides a ready-made entity around which a whole system of educational activities and recreational interests can be advantageously organized. The steelband movement and the problems which stem from it must he viewed as an integral part of the general pattern of social and term, economic life peculiar to the masses of the colony. In this context one underlying conclusion emerges: there is imperative need for an awakening of essay phrases, a national sense of community responsibility.” (ibid.: n.p.)

Although the 1965 interim report of another government-appointed steelband committee found some fault with the Steelband Association’s leadership and the swimmer thesis, cooperation, it could observe that: “ …the Steelbandsmen feel that they have improved the irish essay, social situation in respect of gang warfare and that the the swimmer thesis, Association (which was formed partly for that purpose) and essay, the National Steelband have improved the cost control, situation in respect of inter-band relationships. The Police are also satisfied that the steelbands as such pose no problem to the peace and order of society” (Interim Report, 1965:9) The same report recommended “continuing most vigorously the phrases, struggle for social acceptance of the Steelband Movement at home and acceptance and recognition of the movement abroad.” Commercial sponsorship of the bands was another, to essay payment, some a dubious, advantage, carrying with it some control over the bands and less independence than they had previously enjoyed. Irish Essay Phrases! Nevertheless, the bands needed the legitimacy, status, funding, and perhaps organization that sponsorship could provide. Oil companies, banks, airlines, and similar large enterprises sponsored steel bands starting in the 1950s. They supplied uniforms emblazoned with their names, as were the drums themselves, and the sponsors enjoyed good publicity and to discuss in an, public relations benefits. They sometimes sent the bands to other islands or to Europe, Canada, or the United States. Recalling his early association with the West Indian Tobacco Company as the sponsor of essay phrases, his Desperadoes steelband, George Yeates said that, “From then onwards, this is where I can say that Despers has been the thesis, trendsetters…for good behavior in the steelband movement, because they no longer had cause to fight…they were thinking that they would lose their sponsorship, so that sort of held them.” (1983:7)

Other panmen expressed their views on the role of sponsorship in the steelband movement. Phrases! Curtis Pierre thought: “It was a good thing because even though we all know it came from the paper, underprivileged, when this thing started to evolve and the costs started to go up, the bands who had a sponsor …you found that those bands were better. Irish Essay Phrases! And then the sponsorship thing got very, very big and the government got onto it and decided, ‘Okay, well this would be a nice vote-catching gimmick if we can tell the steelbandsmen that we are giving instructions to socrates and critical, the business community to sponsor their bands.’ So from a devious motive came a very good end result. It went out of control in the last couple years where sponsors were being called upon to pay some thing like twenty or thirty thousand dollars a year for a band.” (I983:4) “Sponsorships play a good part (in easing the tension). To me it give and it takes. Because some people say you lost your name, but you get money. And a lot of bands need money because preparing a band for Panorama (a Carnival steelband competition) is expensive.

Sponsors have done a lot. Essay Phrases! They needed money to progress and sponsorship assisted a lot of bands to mba entry, progress. Some bands don’t need sponsors, they get along somehow. But the irish phrases, bands with sponsors, those are the progressive bands today.” (1963:8). Pat Chu-Foon’s opinion of sponsorship throws a new light on the issue: “Well, long after when they settle down properly and they were like gentlemen of pan, and pan started to make history in Europe, then and only then certain top companies started to assist to thesis, choose sponsorships here and there.” (1983:12). Sponsorship did not blossom, in fact, until after the successful 1951 European tour of the Trinidad All Steel Percussion Orchestra, discussed in more detail below. The Steelband Abroad. Another important factor in the increasing acceptance of steelband music was its exportation to other countries.

In 1951, under the irish phrases, sponsorship of the Trinidad Youth Council, an all-star steelband, called the when to discuss in an, Trinidad All-Steel Percussion Orchestra (TASPO) was sent to England to play at the Festival of Britain, and to France. The 1952 Farquhar Report stated that the band “convincingly demonstrated the possibilities of the steel orchestras as a distinct and irish phrases, original contribution to the field of music.” (1952:n.p.). Errol Hill has observed that: “They were very successful, and once the pan became recognized as a new kind of musical form in England, then the local population had to accept it. Once people outside said, ‘this is socrates and critical thinking, great, there’s something here that needs development.’ “(1983:5) Led by police lieutenant Joseph Griffith, the essay phrases, band amazed the European audiences. A London correspondent wrote: “People smiled indulgently as the rusty pans were rolled off the cart and set up. It seemed impossible that music could come out of such unlikely instruments. But jaws dropped and eyes widened as the first sweet notes were struck and the band swung into Mambojambo. Feet were soon tapping to the rhythm of the music.” (Hill, 1972:51) The music critic of the Manchester Guardian found the band’s playing of Toselli’s Serenade “equal to socrates and critical thinking, anything that a first-class band could offer. The playing is wonderfully skilled.” (ibid. :51) Today there are steelbands in many countries outside Trinidad. There is a U.S.

Navy steelband organized with the help of Trinidadian Ellie Mannette and essay phrases, steelbands in Boston, New York, Washington-Baltimore, Montreal, Toronto, and in high schools, colleges, and universities throughout the United States, thanks largely to Mannette, now living in the United States, and other Trinidadian promoters. Control! This spread is at once the result of, and evidence for, acceptance and creates even more legitimacy. Support by the People’s National Movement Party (PNM) Errol Hill reports that: US Navy Steelband. “After 1956, with the coming to power of Williams’ People’s National Movement, we saw a change in the whole psychology of the people. They had at last got in a government of their own that purported to represent the people. They were moving toward self-government.

It was necessary to establish an indigenous culture, and there was a great surge forward to find those elements of our culture that could be identified as belonging to Trinidad and Tobago. The calypso was one, the steelband was another. Phrases! And I think as a result of mba entry, this that the steelband began to come into its own.” (1983:8-9) J. Irish Essay! D. Elder supports this view: “The sickening picture has undergone radical transformation. The most obvious change in the carnival calypso- steelband movement is the mba entry essays, demonstration, at State level, of the admission that Trinidad popular music and musical festivals are elements of irish essay, a high order in socrates thinking the national culture and that government has responsibility to so recognize it and give tangible demonstration of this attitude. This move is vitalizing; it has been effective in raising to a high status not only the traditional music…but it has also elevated the total folk cultural complex to a status never known in the past. Folklore in irish essay all its forms has suddenly attained an attractive status. This new awakening in the whole society to the fact that the folk and their art and craft are important, must be put down squarely to the new attitude of government.”(1968:25-26). Susan Craig has observed that, “the PNM had an appeal for the urban unemployed, especially those who had created the steelbands. Steel bandsmen became the unofficial ‘army’ of the PNM in control 1956.” (1982:391). George Yeates, in essay phrases a 1983 interview, said that if Despers were to simply move in and play in essay an area in support of a political candidate, that could almost assure election.

They could do this even without a police permit to play. The police would be afraid of them because of their reputation and, in essay any event, would not want to shoot their own people (1983:12). Others have contended that whoever controls the the swimmer, Desperadoes controls the whole Laventille area. And the band has always supported the PNM. Bands in the PNM areas prospered after they came to power, but then so did many others, because of the cultural resurgence. Selwyn Mohamed has stated that the PNM does get Despers and other bands to help it. The bands, says Mohamed, disrupt meetings of other political parties and they take people to the polls. A political party split in one band caused bloodshed before the irish essay, election, and for some PNM functions, only Casablanca would play. (1985:2) In 1956 Bertie Marshall formed a small band he named the PNM Band, because they played at everything the essay inflation and deflation, PNM had in irish phrases Laventille. Essay Inflation And Deflation! The PNM office was near their practice yard, and irish, although the PNM officials always praised the band and promised to help them, “I have never gotten any of the things promised me by members of term, government over the last fifteen or sixteen years. Still, we played as the PNM Band.” (Marshall, Vol.

2, No. 4:4). Although the essay phrases, evidence is essay inflation, mixed concerning the precise role the government, ruling party, and bands play with respect to each other, Curtis Pierre points out that, clearly, the irish, steelbandsmen constitute a potentially valuable voting bloc: “You would look at the number of bands and they are made up of fifty guys each, and each one of those guys has a spin-off factor of 4.3 or something like that in his family. If you get hold of some of and critical thinking, those bands and you multiply by forty and then multiply by irish phrases five, you have a sizable voting population.” (1983:4-5) Personal Involvement of the Middle Class. The acceptance of the swimmer thesis, steelbands grew when middle-class, lighter-skinned, and white young people started getting involved, often over the strenuous objections of their parents, teachers, friends, and relatives. Irish Essay! Curtis Pierre became involved in 1949: “I took the instrument home and I got enough flak from my parents, ‘What the hell you doing with this thing here? I don’t care who plays that. This is the underprivileged.’” (1983:1).

The grouping in mba entry my band would be considered a little above middle class, which was anathema, that kind of thing was just not done by people in that class” (ibid. :2). Pierre attributes to his group the irish phrases, change in the degree to essay and deflation, which steelbandsmen and women are accepted in society: “We have been told it’s because of our group…that …’ You fellas made a breakthrough. Phrases! You guys don’t realize what you did. Essays! You fought society and you said, We’re going to make this thing great’”(1983:3). Concerning the racial makeup of his band, Dixieland, he says that, “it could be considered what the people here would call fair-skinned boys. And there was not a predominance of Negroes in irish it at term paper control all, mainly because that was what middle class meant in those days. And that’s true, middle class had a certain color. It no longer applies today… These boys from the best schools,…you found they were all fair-skinned.” (ibid. :6).

Teacher, pan player, and arranger Ray Holman recalls that: The change came about when people like myself, who might have the benefit of irish, a secondary school education, began to come into the bands. So people began to control, look, the public at large began to look at it a little differently.” (1983:3). The principal of my college, Queen’s Royal College, was an English Army Officer; he was a pretty stern fellow. He couldn’t really understand how I could get involved in that (steelbands). It was like a social outcast at the time.” (ibid.:6). The band he joined at irish essay phrases age thirteen, the term control, Oval Invaders, accepted him easily: “They were very glad to have us.

It was like we injected something new so we were very welcome and we had a privileged place in the band. If you are mixing with people, sometimes you would have to follow the crowd. Irish Essay! But following the crowd for me didn’t mean getting involved in violence. It just meant playing pan…having a good time within the when asked, limits of certain standards. I saw my role should have been to try to essay phrases, uplift them, rather than my coming down. Inflation! This is how I saw it.” (ibid.:7-8).

George Goddard believes that only when middle-class youth began being brought up on charges before the police magistrates did public concern over irish essay phrases, steelband grow and paper, efforts begin to “reform” the movement and work with it. This concern speeded up the changes, even if they might have come eventually without middle-class involvement (1983:2). The 1965 Interim Report of the phrases, Committee on the Role of Steelband in National Life reported that much of the struggle for social acceptance has been fought by essays persons outside of the groups from which the original steelbands sprang: “The efforts…of Dixieland (a group of the St. Irish Essay Phrases! Mary’s pupils which contained many persons of largely European descent) which persisted in the early 1950s despite some disapproval by some persons closely connected to its members, and Girl Pat (an all female steelband of teachers, civil servants, etc.) of the term cost control, early 1950s. Now we find that there is an irish essay appreciable number of ex-Secondary School pupils in the swimmer the Steelband Movement and the movement has enjoyed such confidence of the Community that it has been upwardly socially mobile to the extent that it embraces many persons who would be classified in irish essay our society as middle class.

Racial integration has perhaps been the most resounding sociological achievement of the steelband movement. Born in circumstances rather confined to term paper cost control, one ethnic group—the Negro—it has spread to every ethnic group in phrases society…We have come across no bands whose rules relating to recruitment would restrict admission of any sector of the population…The steelband movement has made a most significant contribution to the integration of the races.” (1965:10) Changes in the Repertoire and when to discuss in an, Instruments. Steelbands were more accepted when the essay, instruments became more refined and inflation and deflation, melodious, when bands started playing more difficult classical and semi-classical music, and as they performed at local and foreign music festivals and competitions, in churches, at weddings, and at middle and upper class social gatherings. Irish Phrases! Curtis Pierre believes that the the swimmer thesis, music sounds better today because money and sponsors have led to improvements in irish the instruments.

“The instruments can be tuned better and you can afford a better class of arrangers, musically, and essay, they’re not afraid to tackle any type of phrases, music. When that kind of music is essay and deflation, played, it will naturally attract a more curious and probably a better style of individual to play.” (1983:8-9). Kelvin Scoon, Trinidadian businessman, steelband supporter, calypso judge, and former Secretary of the Youth Council, contends that panmen themselves wanted to learn to play the classics in order to use more notes, to challenge and stretch the range of their instruments and their own abilities, not to please others or to be more accepted by them. They first broadened their repertoires to include Latin and popular music. (1985:2) Musician, conductor, and arranger Pat Bishop points out irish essay that at first the playing of socrates thinking, classical music, religious music, hymns, or Christmas carols was met with revulsion by the upper classes. They were shocked that such “lofty” music would be attempted with the crude instruments and felt the steel drum unworthy of the effort. But the pan players persisted and irish essay phrases, gradually their music was accepted. (1985:2). Socrates Thinking! According to Scoon, compared to the early days of the steeldrum, the sound of today’s instruments is irish phrases, far more refined, mellower in tone, and there is a much wider range of pitches utilized. Forty years ago there were not as many types of drum, and the repertoire consisted primarily of calypsoes and Latin music. Popular and classical pieces were added, and a variety of arrangements used.

Considerable talent and ingenuity in tuning and designing the instruments has evolved, and more is known about working the metal and tempering it. The drumsticks are now rubber-tipped, creating a mellower tone. Thesis! Influences from jazz and fusion and irish phrases, constantly evolving experimental arrangements characterize the to discuss in an, present repertoire. (1985:1) Although there is no empirical evidence to verify the observation, it seems quite likely that as the steelbands began to engage in sponsored musical competitions with audiences including middle-class people, they sought to irish essay phrases, maintain and the swimmer thesis, increase the latter’s interest and support by striving for a smoother, more refined sound, a wider range of notes, and a broader repertoire. They were also motivated by their own inner desire to phrases, stretch their talents and the potential of their instruments by taking on more challenging musical scores and showing themselves, their fellow countrymen, and the world what could be achieved with talent, hard work, and an instrument of the swimmer thesis, humble origins. Irish! The attention received from respected musical personages, both local and foreign, at first informally and then more formally at competitions, carnival time and steelband festivals, encouraged those involved in mba entry steelband music to expand and excel. The middle-class social contexts in which they were asked to play also had an impact on the kinds of music they found appropriate. Participation in Music Competitions. In 1952 steelbands were invited to participate in phrases the prestigious biennial music festival in Trinidad and foreign music adjudicators judged their performances. One of these, Dr. Sydney Northcote from term paper cost control England, at first quite skeptical about steel bands, eventually came to hail the music as “truly astonishing.” In 1956 he commented that “their performance was orchestral in every way.

The melodic line was beautifully smooth, almost like the playing of a string orchestra The technical skill of it all proved that there are possibilities of acquiring with the steelband an orchestral precision.” (Hill, 1972:52). Irish Essay! The enthusiastic reception of and deflation, steelbands by the U.S. Essay! armed forces stationed in Trinidad also enhanced their image, as did their inclusion in the carnival celebrations. Today it is thesis, not unusual in Trinidad to hear and see live steelband music in church services, at funerals, at wedding ceremonies or receptions, diplomatic affairs, or middle-and upper-class parties. Irish Essay! There has been some decline in recent years, however, due to the high costs of steel bands, competition from U.S. music styles, and the bands’ more limited repertoire (they have largely become “one-tune bands” for the annual carnival steelband competition). Mba Entry Essays! Today there are all women steelbands, bands sponsored by companies for their employees, and children’s steel bands. Summary and Analysis of essay phrases, Factors of Social Change. The gradual acceptance of steelband music seems to have started with a few outspoken persons who, motivated by social conscience, egalitarian ideology, nationalistic pride, and favorable attitudes toward Afro-Trinidadian culture, pressured the government for asked to discuss acceptance, tolerance, change, and involvement.

Government concern led to the formation of essay, a steelband association of concerned citizens and, along with commercial sponsorship, inroads were made with the general citizenry. The Swimmer! After foreign acceptance of the irish essay phrases, music and asked to discuss in an, the instruments, even more local middle-class people supported the development of steel bands. When it was seen in essay phrases the early 1960s that local middle-class, white, educated youth were taking steeldrum music seriously, and the swimmer, even excelling at it, involvement in it became popular (Pierre, 1983:3). Politically and historically the mid-1950s were suitable for the development of a Trinidadian and irish essay phrases, West Indian identity and mba entry, pride. Great Britain was granting independence to its colonies. Local political leaders needed and wanted the support of the masses and would not have been wise to oppose a form of musical and cultural expression that was so vital to their identity. As the instruments developed a more refined and mellow tone, and as they were used to play semi-classical and classical pieces, the middle classes slowly began to accept them.

Because their social and personal identities had been so closely linked to steelband music, some panmen may have suffered from the greater involvement of government and the middle class. Essay! Generally though, because of greater involvement in formal education and in the labor market, Trinidadians were upwardly mobile during the mba entry, era of the rise of the steel bands, and they developed alternate and supplemental social roles and identities (Scoon, 1985:1). Most bands seem to have benefited from the involvement of the middle classes because sponsorship and support allowed them to hire expensive arrangers and tuners, as well as to purchase quality instruments and irish essay, uniforms, and at socrates and critical thinking times to travel abroad. This is a question on irish which opinions differ, however. Steelbands have undergone considerable change. The Swimmer! Their role in the annual carnival celebration, at first a progressive step, has diminished considerably. The large carnival masquerade groups, some numbering three thousand, cannot hear the irish essay phrases, steel bands playing while they are parading.

The steelbands do not want to use amplification, and their method of moving on term paper cost the streets, with somewhat clumsy racks or stands, seems to hinder their effectiveness at carnival. Irish Essay Phrases! They are being replaced with brass bands using amplification or by disc jockeys. Panorama, the steelband competition at carnival, has caused bands to thesis, focus on irish phrases one tune they can perform very well, so they reduce their repertoire for ftes and other social events. Thesis! The Panorama, many observers believe, is now seen by steel bandsmen as the whole carnival and not just one part of it. Some bandsmen will move from a band unsuccessful in the preliminary rounds of the competition to play for bands making it to the semifinals or finals, evidence that the essay phrases, legendary loyalty to thinking, a particular band has decreased. Arrangers are Trinidadians living abroad and command very high salaries for preparing music for the annual Panorama competition. Sponsors may pay up to $250,000 a year to support a band and phrases, $100,000 is not uncommon. The players do not earn much money, the bulk going to the captains and arrangers. In 1985 the Black Power-oriented National Joint Action Committee issued a national appeal to fte promoters to hire steelbands rather than disc jockeys to essays, support their national heritage throughout the year (Obika, 1985:1). It is hard to keep bands together throughout the year. Some feel that drug use is part of this problem; others point out that there is also competition from jobs (more panplayers are employed than before), education (more are in school), and television.

More people play alternate roles in society and find the pan player role merely subsidiary. Irish Phrases! Some bands have established working relationships with schools whereby they recruit a pool of players from the thesis, schools and in irish essay return provide pan instruction in mba entry essays their panyards. Pan seems to reflect less cultural and national pride today. More panmen need and want pay. Curtis Pierre contends that today’s steelbands are too large to be hired for social events such as weddings or ftes. He feels they should number about fifteen players and use amplifiers to cut the costs and increase bookings (1983:8).

Socioeconomic class, color, and race have affected the creation and evolution of steelband music in Trinidad and Tobago. African customs, including skin drumming, were suppressed by the British colonial government and later by many elite or status-seeking black and colored persons who wished to essay, disassociate themselves from the music, instruments, and life-styles of Trinidad’s poor urban masses of African heritage. Socrates! Because the instrument and the social organization of the steel bands came to symbolize important, even vital, forms of cultural and racial expression, the poor, urban Afro-Trinidadian steel bandsmen and women persisted in their efforts, refining the instrument and sharpening their own musical talents and essay, skills, expanding their musical repertoire, and eventually winning the and deflation, support, encouragement, and active assistance of a few key people in Trinidad and abroad. The organization of the bands provided needed social roles for irish essay players and opportunities for bandleaders to develop and demonstrate leadership skills and thus fill leadership roles otherwise unavailable to them in the society. Not all of this leadership was channeled into violent conflicts with other bands or the asked in an essay, police, and many steelbandsmen have credited their experiences with steelband music with developing skills they have used in work or life in general. Their self-image, as well as that of the players, was enhanced by their roles in the steelband. As the irish essay phrases, steelbands gained favor both at the swimmer home and abroad, they were viewed as symbols of individual, racial, community, and national pride and as a unique creative accomplishment. Irish Essay Phrases! As recognition from abroad grew so too did support at home from higher-status persons. The several factors that contributed to mba entry, the gradually increased acceptance of the irish essay phrases, bands, the players, their instruments, and music indicate that this acceptance was achieved at the expense of the bands’ independence and payment systems, that it came about only after the musical repertoire had changed, business had exercised some control over the bands’ behavior (lighter-skinned, white, and higher-status people had joined the movement and the government openly supported it.) In short, it was not accepted on its own merits, but was changed by those who could confer legitimacy and essay phrases, higher status on it. Paget Henry, writing on decolonization and neocolonialism, has observed that there is a locally rooted demand for foreign culture, persisting even after decolonization. As a result of colonial domination, the colonized ceased to have an essay payment easy, creative, and self-reflexive relationship with their cultural environment.

Elements of it had now been systematically imposed from without. (Henry and irish, Stone, 1983:115) Colonial domination further inhibited the demand for the words, songs, ideas, and other products of the local cultural system. There was a greater demand for foreign cultural products. Decolonization only partially uprooted the the swimmer, set of social and psychological processes that generated the irish essay phrases, demand for imported culture. The demand for when asked in an essay foreign culture shows no signs of abating, writes Henry (ibid.: 1l6), and the major dynamic in the foreign sector of the irish essay phrases, cultural system is the institutionalization of a growing American presence (ibid.:117). This helps explain why many Trinidadian intellectuals, artists, and musicians blame the lack of what they consider sufficient local support for the steelband on the influx of American music and lifestyle in general, which they feel many Trinidadians are adopting too readily, trying to “live like Yankees” at the expense of their own culture’s contributions. When Asked! Although steelband music has become much more accepted in Trinidad and essay phrases, Tobago and abroad, it still faces competition from foreign musical tastes and difficulties caused by technology, costs, and essay systems, a lingering and deeply-rooted self-denigration on the part of many Trinidadians. I am deeply grateful for the invaluable assistance of Anthony and irish essay, Avril Bryan, Mackie Burnette, Deborah Cabral, Rhode Island College Dean of Arts and systems, Sciences David Greene, Professor Errol Hill of Dartmouth College, Yvonne James of Providence, RI , and Arima, Trinidad and Tobago, Cynthia Mahabir of Suffolk University, Boston, Ancil McLean, Judith Philip, Everald Philip, Charles Price, Kelvin Scoon, Daniel Segal, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Rhode Island College Faculty Research Committee and the talented and dedicated steelbandsmen and women of Trinidad and Tobago. 1. Anonymous 1, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 2. Anonymous 2, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and irish, Tobago.

3. Araujo, Ralph, 1984, Memoirs of a Belmont Boy, Port of Spain, Trinidad and mba entry essays, Tobago: Imprint Caribbean Ltd. 4. Bishop, Patricia, 1985, personal interview, Port of irish phrases, Spain, Trinidad and mba entry, Tobago. 5. Blood, Peter, 1983, People in Carnival , Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Imprint Caribbean Ltd. 6. Brereton, Bridget, 1979, Race Relations in Colonial Trinidad, 1870-1900, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 7. Brereton, Bridget, 1981, A History of Modern Trinidad, 1783-1962, Kingston, Jamaica: Heinemann University Press. 8. Cho-Foon, Patrick, 1983, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 9. Constantine, Carleton, 1983, personal interview, Port of essay, Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 10.

Craig, Susan, 1982, Contemporary Caribbean: A Sociological Reader. Vol. 2., Maracas, Trinidad and Tobago, College Press 11. Da Silva, Fabio B., 1984, The Sociology of Music, Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press. 12. DeLeon, Rafael, 1983, personal interview, Mt.

Lambert, Trinidad and Tobago. 13. Elder, J. D., 1968, Social Development of the Traditional Calypso of essays, Trinidad and essay phrases, Tobago, Mimeographed, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago: University of the West Indies. 14. Farquhar, M. E., 1952, Report of the Government Steel Bands Committee, Port of socrates thinking, Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 15. Goddard, George, 1983, personal interview, Diego Martin, Trinidad and Tobago.

16. Gomes, Albert, 1974, Through a Maze of Colour, Port of Spain, Trinidad and essay, Tobago: Key Caribbean Publications. 17. Henry, Paget, and Carl Stone, editors, 1983, The Newer Caribbean: Decolonization, Democracy, and Development, Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Issues. 18. When Asked To Discuss! Hill, Errol, 1972, The Trinidad Carnival, Austin: University of Texas Press. 19. Hill, Errol, 1983 , personal interview, Hanover, N.H. 20. Holman, Raymond, 1983, personal interview, Woodbrook, Trinidad and Tobago. 21.

Interim Report of the Committee Appointed to Consider the irish essay, Role of the Steelband in the National Life, 1965, Port of essay payment systems, Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 22. Irish! Keens-Douglas, Paul, 1979, When Moon Shine, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, College Press. 23. Keer, D. Mba Entry Essays! F., 1981, Music of the Pans, Information Bulletin Series F, 91, No. Irish Phrases! 4., Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Trinidad and Tobago Tourist Board. 24. Lovelace, Earl, 1979, The Dragon Can’t Dance, Essex, England: Longman Group. 25.

Mahabir, Cynthia, 1986, “Steeldrums,” Faces: The Magazine about People (Sept.):33-35. 26. Marshall, Bertie, 1972, “The Bertie Marshall Story,” Tapia, Vols. 1, 2, 4, 5. 27. Payment Systems! Martin, Von, 1981, Audio tape on the Trinidad steelband movement, Washington, D.C. 28. Mohamed, Selwyn, 1985, personal interview, Port of irish essay, Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.

29. Obika, Nyahuma, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 30. Pierre, Curtis, 1983, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 31. Pierre, Curtis, n.d., “History of the socrates and critical, Drum” Script for slide/tape program, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 32. Irish Essay Phrases! Pile, Oscar, 1983, personal interview, Barataria, Trinidad and Tobago. 33. Scoon, Kelvin, 1985, personal interview, Bay Shore, Trinidad and Tobago. 34.

Seeger, Peter, 1961, The Steeldrums of Kim Loy Wong, New York: Oak Publications. 35. Shepherd, John C., 1979, “Music and Social Control: An Essay on the Sociology of Musical Knowledge,” Catalyst, 13:1-54. 36. Slater, Tony, 1983, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 37. Warner, Keith Q., 1982, Kaiso!

The Trinidad Calypso, Washington, D.C.: Three Continents Press. 38. Weber, Max, 1958, The Rational and essay inflation, Social Foundations of Music, edited and translated by Don Martindale, Johannes Reidel, and Gertrude Neuwirth, Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. 39. Yeates, George, 1983, personal interview, Belmont, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.